Publications by authors named "George L Foley"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nonproliferative and proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse female reproductive system.

J Toxicol Pathol 2014 ;27(3-4 Suppl):1S-107S

National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the female reproductive tract of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of some lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. There is also a section on normal cyclical changes observed in the ovary, uterus, cervix and vagina to compare normal physiological changes with pathological lesions. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for female reproductive tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1293/tox.27.1SDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253081PMC
December 2014

Microscopic background changes in brains of cynomolgus monkeys.

Toxicol Pathol 2015 Jun 16;43(4):513-8. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Global Preclinical Safety, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Brain sections from control cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in toxicology studies were evaluated retrospectively in order to better understand spontaneous background changes in this species. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides from 76 animals (38 males and 38 females) of 9 studies were examined. Eleven animals (9 males and 2 females) were each observed to have 1 to 3 findings within the brain sections examined, for a total of 19 findings. No findings were noted in the spinal cord. The most common finding was focal to multifocal perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells, affecting the parenchyma, the meninges, or the choroid plexus. Additionally, focal gliosis was observed in 6 animals and a single focus of hemosiderin deposition (coincident with focal gliosis and mononuclear cell infiltrate) was noted in 1 animal. Most of the glial foci were composed of cells consistent with microglial cells, with or without admixed lymphocytes. All findings were of slight or minimal severity, lacked an apparent cause, and were considered incidental and of negligible biologic significance. An awareness of the spontaneous incidence of these background findings may facilitate the discernment of toxicologically relevant effects when these findings are observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623314537723DOI Listing
June 2015

Interpreting stress responses during routine toxicity studies: a review of the biology, impact, and assessment.

Toxicol Pathol 2013 7;41(4):560-614. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Amgen Inc., Seattle, Washington 98119, USA.

Stress often occurs during toxicity studies. The perception of sensory stimuli as stressful primarily results in catecholamine release and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to increase serum glucocorticoid concentrations. Downstream effects of these neuroendocrine signals may include decreased total body weights or body weight gain; food consumption and activity; altered organ weights (e.g., thymus, spleen, adrenal); lymphocyte depletion in thymus and spleen; altered circulating leukocyte counts (e.g., increased neutrophils with decreased lymphocytes and eosinophils); and altered reproductive functions. Typically, only some of these findings occur in a given study. Stress responses should be interpreted as secondary (indirect) rather than primary (direct) test article-related findings. Determining whether effects are the result of stress requires a weight-of-evidence approach. The evaluation and interpretation of routinely collected data (standard in-life, clinical pathology, and anatomic pathology endpoints) are appropriate and generally sufficient to assess whether or not changes are secondary to stress. The impact of possible stress-induced effects on data interpretation can partially be mitigated by toxicity study designs that use appropriate control groups (e.g., cohorts treated with vehicle and subjected to the same procedures as those dosed with test article), housing that minimizes isolation and offers environmental enrichment, and experimental procedures that minimize stress and sampling and analytical bias. This article is a comprehensive overview of the biological aspects of the stress response, beginning with a Summary (Section 1) and an Introduction (Section 2) that describes the historical and conventional methods used to characterize acute and chronic stress responses. These sections are followed by reviews of the primary systems and parameters that regulate and/or are influenced by stress, with an emphasis on parameters evaluated in toxicity studies: In-life Procedures (Section 3), Nervous System (Section 4), Endocrine System (Section 5), Reproductive System (Section 6), Clinical Pathology (Section 7), and Immune System (Section 8). The paper concludes (Section 9) with a brief discussion on Minimizing Stress-Related Effects (9.1.), and a final section explaining why Parameters routinely measured are appropriate for assessing the role of stress in toxicology studies (9.2.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623312466452DOI Listing
October 2013

Sponsor-CRO practices that facilitate the creation of a high-quality pathology report: a pharmaceutical sponsor's perspective.

Toxicol Pathol 2011 Oct;39(6):1013-6

Department of Pathology, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46225, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623311419525DOI Listing
October 2011

Light microscopic sciatic nerve changes in control beagle dogs from toxicity studies.

Toxicol Pathol 2011 Aug 6;39(5):835-40. Epub 2011 Jul 6.

Global Preclinical Safety, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA.

Although the dog is a common choice among nonrodent species in evaluation of compound safety for regulatory submission, information regarding the incidence of spontaneous or incidental microscopic changes in canine peripheral nerve is limited. A retrospective examination was performed of routine histologic preparations of sciatic nerve from eighty-one control dogs in toxicity studies ranging from ten days to three months in duration. Spontaneous background changes included digestion chambers, foci of vacuolation, nerve fibers circumscribed by proliferating Schwann cells (bands of B├╝ngner), and small foci of myelin aggregation. The latter accounted for 91% of the microscopic changes and were noted in all sections examined. These changes were quantified, and the number per square millimeter of evaluable nerve tissue was determined for each slide. Densities of foci varied among the slides examined; no age- or sex-related trends were apparent. In addition, anatomic features of peripheral nerves including nodes of Ranvier, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, Renaut bodies, and effects resulting from sectioning plane were noted. By demonstrating the range of effects observed within control animals, these observations provide a basis for recognition of possible compound-related effects in routine nerve preparations from dogs included in toxicity studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623311413786DOI Listing
August 2011

Long-term treatment of lasofoxifene preserves bone mass and bone strength and does not adversely affect the uterus in ovariectomized rats.

Endocrinology 2004 Apr 15;145(4):1996-2005. Epub 2004 Jan 15.

Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton Laboratories, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of lasofoxifene, a new selective estrogen receptor modulator, on bone mass, bone strength, and reproductive tissues in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sprague Dawley female rats at 3.5 months of age were OVX and treated orally with lasofoxifene (60, 150, or 300 microg/kg x d) for 52 wk. The urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio was significantly lower in all lasofoxifene-treated OVX rats compared with OVX controls at wk 26. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography analysis of proximal tibial metaphysis showed that the significant loss in trabecular content and density induced by OVX was significantly prevented by lasofoxifene treatment. Proximal tibial and lumber vertebral trabecular bone histomorphometric analysis showed that all doses of lasofoxifene significantly reduced OVX-induced bone loss by decreasing bone resorption and bone turnover. The ultimate strength, energy, and toughness of the fourth lumbar vertebral body in OVX rats treated with all doses of lasofoxifene were significantly higher compared with those in OVX controls, and did not differ significantly from those in sham controls. Uterine weight in OVX rats treated with lasofoxifene was slightly, but significantly, higher when compared with that in OVX controls, but was still much less than that in sham controls. No abnormal finding associated with lasofoxifene was observed with uterine histology examination. In summary, long-term treatment with lasofoxifene preserves bone mass and bone strength and does not adversely affect the uterus in OVX rats. These data suggest that lasofoxifene is an effective antiosteoporosis agent, and its efficacy and safety can be maintained over an extended period of time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2003-1481DOI Listing
April 2004
-->