**4** Publications

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Annu Rev Fluid Mech 2018 Jan;50:535-561

Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305.

Large-eddy simulation (LES) has proven to be a computationally tractable approach to simulate unsteady turbulent flows. However, prohibitive resolution requirements induced by near-wall eddies in high-Reynolds number boundary layers necessitate the use of wall models or approximate wall boundary conditions. We review recent investigations in wall-modeled LES, including the development of novel approximate boundary conditions and the application of wall models to complex flows (e.g., boundary-layer separation, shock/boundary-layer interactions, transition). We also assess the validity of underlying assumptions in wall-model derivations to elucidate the accuracy of these investigations, and offer suggestions for future studies.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-fluid-122316-045241 | DOI Listing |

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800697 | PMC |

January 2018

AIAA J 2017 Nov;55(11)

Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305.

The performance of two wall models based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes is compared in large-eddy simulation of a high Reynolds number separating and reattaching flow over the NASA wall-mounted hump. Wall modeling significantly improves flow prediction on a coarse grid where the large-eddy simulation with the no-slip wall boundary condition fails. Low-order statistics from the wall-modeled large-eddy simulation are in good agreement with the experiment. Wall-pressure fluctuations from the resolved-scale solution are in good agreement with the experiment, whereas wall shear-stress fluctuations modeled entirely through the wall models appear to be significantly underpredicted. Although the two wall models produce comparable results in the upstream attached flow region, the nonequilibrium wall model outperforms the equilibrium wall model in the separation bubble and recovery region where the key assumptions in the equilibrium model are shown to be invalid.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2514/1.J055745 | DOI Listing |

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800694 | PMC |

November 2017

Phys Rev Fluids 2017 Oct;2(10)

Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4035, USA.

Log-layer mismatch refers to a chronic problem found in wall-modeled large-eddy simulation (WMLES) or detached-eddy simulation, where the modeled wall-shear stress deviates from the true one by approximately 15%. Many efforts have been made to resolve this mismatch. The often-usedfixes, which are generally , include modifying subgridscale stress models, adding a stochastic forcing, and moving the LES-wall-model matching location away from the wall. An analysis motivated by the integral wall-model formalism suggests that log-layer mismatch is resolved by the built-in physics-based temporal filtering. In this work we investigate in detail the effects of local filtering on log-layer mismatch. We show that both local temporal filtering and local wall-parallel filtering resolve log-layer mismatch without moving the LES-wall-model matching location away from the wall. Additionally, we look into the momentum balance in the near-wall region to provide an alternative explanation of how LLM occurs, which does not necessarily rely on the numerical-error argument. While filtering resolves log-layer mismatch, the quality of the wall-shear stress fluctuations predicted by WMLES does not improve with our remedy. The wall-shear stress fluctuations are highly underpredicted due to the implied use of LES filtering. However, good agreement can be found when the WMLES data are compared to the direct numerical simulation data filtered at the corresponding WMLES resolutions.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevFluids.2.104601 | DOI Listing |

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800687 | PMC |

October 2017

Phys Rev Fluids 2016 Jun;1(2)

Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, 488 Escondido Mall, Stanford, California 94305-4035, USA.

We report the space-time characteristics of the wall-pressure fluctuations and wall shear-stress fluctuations from wall-modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) of a turbulent channel flow at Re = 2000. Two standard zonal wall models (equilibrium stress model and nonequilibrium model based on unsteady RANS) are employed, and it is shown that they yield similar results in predicting these quantities. The wall-pressure and wall shear-stress fields from WMLES are analyzed in terms of their r.m.s. fluctuations, spectra, two-point correlations, and convection velocities. It is demonstrated that the resolution requirement for predicting the wall-pressure fluctuations is more stringent than that for predicting the velocity. At least Δ > 20 and Δ > 30 are required to marginally resolve the integral length scales of the pressure-producing eddies near the wall. Otherwise, the pressure field is potentially aliased. Spurious high wave number modes dominate in the streamwise direction, and they contaminate the pressure spectra leading to significant overprediction of the second-order pressure statistics. When these conditions are met, the pressure statistics and spectra at low wave number or low frequency agree well with the DNS and experimental data. On the contrary, the wall shear-stress fluctuations, modeled entirely through the RANS-based wall models, are largely underpredicted and relatively insensitive to the grid resolution. The short-time, small-scale near-wall eddies, which are neither resolved nor modeled adequately in the wall models, seem to be important for accurate prediction of the wall shear-stress fluctuations.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.024404 | DOI Listing |

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800696 | PMC |

June 2016

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