Publications by authors named "Georg Gosheger"

190 Publications

Temporary Proximal Tibial Epiphysiodesis for Correction of Leg Length Discrepancy in Children-Should Proximal Fibular Epiphysiodesis Be Performed Concomitantly?

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 17;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Pediatric Orthopedics, Deformity Reconstruction and Foot Surgery, University Hospital Muenster, 48149 Muenster, Germany.

The need for concomitant proximal fibular epiphysiodesis (PFE) when correcting leg length discrepancy (LLD) with temporary proximal tibial epiphysiodesis (PTE) in children is controversially discussed. This single center, retrospective cohort study analyzes proximal fibular growth in patients treated by PTE with and without concomitant PFE. Radiographic measurements were conducted before implantation and at implant removal. The position of the fibular head in relation to the tibia was assessed with recently established radiographic reference values. All patients ( = 58, 19 females) received PTE to treat LLD at a mean age of 12.2 years (range 7 to 15). In 27/58 (47%) concomitant PFE was performed. Mean follow-up was 36.2 months (range 14.2 to 78.0). The position of the proximal fibula at implant removal was within physiological range in 21/26 patients (81%) with PFE and in 21/30 patients (70%) without PFE. Proximal fibular overgrowth newly developed in 2/26 patients (8%) treated with PFE and in 5/30 patients (17%) treated without PFE ( = 0.431). Peroneal nerve injury or discomfort due to proximal fibular overlength was not reported. The position of the proximal fibula should be critically assessed preoperatively under consideration of reference values before PTE. In consequence of this study, the authors do not routinely perform PFE concomitantly with PTE for correction of moderate LLD in children if the proximal fibula is localized within physiological radiographic margins determined by the established reference values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002647PMC
March 2021

The change in plasma D-dimer does not help to guide the timing of reimplantation in two stage exchange for periprosthetic joint infection.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 1;11(1):7323. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

D-dimer has been included in the criteria by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society in 2018 as a novel parameter to diagnose prosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, it is unclear how D-dimer levels change in between stages of a two-stage exchange. We prospectively investigated 30 patients who underwent a two-stage exchange using a spacer for PJI. D-Dimer, CRP and IL-6 were collected before first and second stage surgery and the difference (Δ) in between stages was calculated. The levels of plasma D-Dimer did not change from first to second stage surgery (2770 ng/ml (IQR, 1600-3770 ng/ml) versus 2340 ng/ml (IQR, 1270-4100 ng/ml); p = 0.8) while CRP (4.0 mg/dl (IQR, 1.7-5.5 mg/dl) versus 0.6 mg/dl (IQR, 0.5-0.8 mg/dl); p < 0.001) and IL-6 (21 pg/ml (IQR, 10-29 pg/ml) versus 6 pg/ml (4-9 pg/ml); p < 0.001) decreased. The ΔD-dimer between both stages was 300 ng/ml (range: - 2820 to 4280 ng/ml), the median ΔCRP was - 3.4 mg/dl (IQR, - 1.2 to - 4.8 mg/dl) and ΔIL-6 was - 13 pg/ml (IQR, - 4 to - 20 pg/ml). In 15 of 30 cases (50%) the D-dimer level increased between both stages, whereas the level of CRP (93%; 28/30) and IL-6 (96%; 28/29) decreased in most patients. As the level of serum D-dimers varies greatly, lacks a uniform decrease and does not identify persisting infection, surgeons should be cautious when using it at the timing of reimplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86890-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016946PMC
April 2021

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the foot: A series of 10 cases.

Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumororthopedics, University Hospital Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149 Muenster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign, locally aggressive tumor that occurs in childhood and early adulthood. It usually affects the metaphysis of long bones but can also occur in the foot.

Methods: This single-center study is a retrospective review of ten patients with primary ABCs of the foot which underwent an intralesional curettage or a polidocanol instillation.

Results: After intralesional curettage a local recurrence was observed in 3/5 cases. The instillation of polidocanol showed a significant reduction of the initial cyst volume (p=0.0267). In the instillation subgroup a primary complete healing was achieved in three cases. Due to a persisting disease two cases were converted to intralesional curettage without local recurrence in the follow-up.

Conclusions: Percutaneous instillation of polidocanol is a minimally invasive treatment option for ABCs of the foot and especially for small bones. Nevertheless, several sequential instillations and a conversion to intralesional curettage can be necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2021.03.002DOI Listing
March 2021

Everyday Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior After Total Joint Arthroplasty: Do Patients and Partners Develop an Active Lifestyle?

Clin Interv Aging 2021 4;16:403-413. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, Muenster, 48149, Germany.

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a frequent cause of pain and disability, affecting half of the world's population aged 65 years or older. Due to experienced pain and limitations, OA patients generally spend most of their waking hours sedentary and fail to adhere to physical activity (PA) recommendations. As a result of living together with OA patients, their partners might adopt a sedentary lifestyle. This study investigates the change in habitual PA and sedentary behavior (SB) in patients and their partners one year after the patients' total joint replacement (arthroplasty) and inpatient rehabilitation.

Methods: This is a follow-up of a prospective cohort study including 24 older couples (69.3±7.8 years, gender ratio 11:13) consisting of OA patients (17 hip OA, 7 knee OA) and their partners. The participants' habitual PA and SB were assessed by means of synchronous accelerometry (16h per day, 4-7 days) and additional self-report.

Results: Although the partners (~6300 steps per day) were significantly more active than the patients (~4800 steps per day) before arthroplasty, their lifestyle was still classified "low active". Irrespective of the method used, the PA and SB parameters of patients and partners were significantly correlated before arthroplasty (accelerometry: r≥0.333, p≤0.001; self-report: r≥0.569, p≤0.004). Following the patients' arthroplasty, no improvement in PA or SB was observed either in the patients or their partners. A detailed evaluation of accelerometric data on hourly basis revealed no change in behavior for both groups. Furthermore, their everyday activities remained correlated (accelerometry: r≥0.418, p≤0.001; questionnaire: r≥0.554, p≤0.005).

Conclusion: One year post-arthroplasty and inpatient rehabilitation neither the OA patients nor their partners had changed their PA or SB. Their everyday physical activity was still strongly intertwined. Further research is needed to determine why behavior change does not occur even though the prerequisites are in place.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S295160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939488PMC
March 2021

What Is the Implant Survivorship and Functional Outcome After Total Humeral Replacement in Patients with Primary Bone Tumors?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

K. N. Schneider, J. N. Bröking, G. Gosheger, T. Lübben, J. Hardes, D. Schorn, C. Theil, D. Andreou, Department of Orthopaedics and Tumor Orthopaedics, Muenster University Hospital, Muenster, Germany.

Background: Total humeral replacement is an option to reconstruct massive bone defects after resection of locally advanced bone tumors of the humerus. However, implant survivorship, potential risk factors for implant revision surgery, and functional results of total humeral replacement are poorly elucidated because of the rarity of the procedure.

Questions/purposes: We asked: (1) What is the revision-free implant and overall limb survivorship after total humerus replacement? (2) What factors are associated with implant revision surgery? (3) What is the functional outcome of the procedure as determined by the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score?

Methods: Between August 1999 and December 2018, 666 patients underwent megaprosthetic reconstruction after resection of a primary malignant or locally aggressive/rarely metastasizing tumor of the long bones at our department. In all, 23% (154) of these patients had a primary tumor located in the humerus. During the study, we performed total humeral replacement in all patients with a locally advanced sarcoma, in patients with pathological fractures, in patients with skip metastases, or in patients with previous intralesional contaminating surgery, who would have no sufficient bone stock for a stable implant fixation for a single joint megaprosthetic replacement of the proximal or distal humerus. We performed no biological reconstructions or reconstructions with allograft-prosthetic composites. As a result, 5% (33 of 666) of patients underwent total humerus replacement. Six percent (2 of 33) of patients were excluded because they received a custom-made, three-dimensionally (3-D) printed hemiprosthesis, leaving 5% (31) of the initial 666 patients for inclusion in our retrospective analysis. Of these, 6% (2 of 31) had surgery more than 5 years ago, but they had not been seen in the last 5 years. Median (interquartile range) age at the time of surgery was 15 years (14 to 25 years), and indications for total humeral replacement were primary malignant bone tumors (n = 30) and a recurring, rarely metastasizing bone tumor (n = 1). All megaprosthetic reconstructions were performed with a single modular system. The implanted prostheses were silver-coated beginning in 2006, and beginning in 2010, a reverse proximal humerus component was used when appropriate. We analyzed endoprosthetic complications descriptively and assessed the functional outcome of all surviving patients who did not undergo secondary amputation using the 1993 MSTS score and the ASES score. The median (IQR) follow-up in all survivors was 75 months (50 to 122 months), with a minimum follow-up period of 25 months. We evaluated the following factors for possible association with implant revision surgery: age, BMI, reconstruction length, duration of surgery, extraarticular resection, pathological fracture, previous intralesional surgery, (neo-)adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy, and metastatic disease.

Results: The revision-free implant survivorship at 1 year was 77% (95% confidence interval 58% to 89%) and 74% (95% CI 55% to 86%) at 5 years. The overall limb survivorship was 93% (95% CI 75% to 98%) after 1 and after 5 years. We found revision-free survivorship to be lower in patients with extraarticular shoulder resection compared with intraarticular resections (50% [95% CI 21% to 74%] versus 89% [95% CI 64% to 97%]) after 5 years (subhazard ratios for extraarticular resections 4.4 [95% CI 1.2 to 16.5]; p = 0.03). With the number of patients available for our analysis, we could not detect a difference in revision-free survivorship at 5 years between patients who underwent postoperative radiotherapy (40% [95% CI 5% to 75%]) and patients who did not (81% [95% CI 60% to 92%]; p = 0.09). The median (IQR) MSTS score in 9 of 13 surviving patients after a median follow-up of 75 months (51 to 148 months) was 87% (67% to 92%), and the median ASES score was 83 (63 to 89) of 100 points, with higher scores representing better function.

Conclusion: Total humeral replacement after resection of locally advanced bone tumors appears to be associated with a good functional outcome in patients who do not die of their tumors, which in our study was approximately one- third of those who were treated with a resection and total humerus prosthesis. However, the probability of early prosthetic revision surgery is high, especially in patients undergoing extraarticular resections, who should be counseled accordingly. Still, our results suggest that if the prosthesis survives the first year, further risk for revision appears to be low. Future studies should reexamine the effect of postoperative radiotherapy on implant survival in a larger cohort and evaluate whether the use of soft tissue coverage with plastic reconstructive surgery might decrease the risk of early revisions, especially in patients undergoing extraarticular resections.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001677DOI Listing
February 2021

Revision TKA with a distal femoral replacement is at high risk of reinfection after two-stage exchange for periprosthetic knee joint infection.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of General Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

Purpose: Megaprosthetic distal femoral reconstruction (DFR) is a limb-salvage procedure to address bone loss following two-stage revision for periprosthetic knee joint infection (PJI). The purpose of this study was to analyze the survival of DFR compared to hinged total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It was hypothesized that DFR was associated with a poorer survival.

Methods: In this retrospective single-center study, 97 subjects who underwent two-stage revision of chronic knee PJI were included. Among these, 41 were DFR. The diagnosis of PJI was established using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria. Implant survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test as well as multivariate Cox regression at a minimum follow-up period of 24 months.

Results: The median follow-up period was 59 (interquartile range (IQR) 45-78) months. Overall, 24% (23/97) of patients required revision surgery for infection. The infection-free survival of rotating hinge revision TKA was 93% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 86-100%) at five years compared to 50% (95% CI 34-66%) for DFR. In multivariate analysis, the risk factors for reinfection were DFR reconstruction (HR 4.7 (95% CI 1-22), p = 0.048), length of megaprosthesis (HR 1.006 (95% CI 1.001-1.012), p = 0.032) and higher BMI (HR 1.066, 95% CI 1.018-1.116), p = 0.007). 10% (4/41) of patients undergoing DFR underwent amputation to treat recurrent infection.

Conclusion: Megaprosthetic DFR as part of a two-stage exchange for PJI is a salvage treatment that has a high risk for reinfection compared to non-megaprosthetic TKA. Patients must therefore be counseled accordingly.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective observational study, Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-021-06474-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Invasive diagnostic and therapeutic measures are unnecessary in patients with symptomatic van Neck-Odelberg disease (ischiopubic synchondrosis): a retrospective single-center study of 21 patients with median follow-up of 5 years.

Acta Orthop 2021 Feb 4:1-5. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics; University Hospital of Münster, Münster.

Background and purpose - Van Neck-Odelberg disease (VND) is a self-limiting skeletal phenomenon characterized by a symptomatic or asymptomatic uni- or bilateral overgrowth of the pre-pubescent ischiopubic synchondrosis. It is frequently misinterpreted as a neoplastic, traumatic, or infectious process, often resulting in excessive diagnostic and therapeutic measures. This study assessed the demographic, clinical, and radiographic features of the condition and analyzed diagnostic and therapeutic pathways in a large single-center cohort. Patients and methods - We retrospectively analyzed 21 consecutive patients (13 male) with a median age of 10 years (IQR 8-13) and a median follow-up of 5 years (IQR 42-94 months), who were diagnosed at our department between 1995 and 2019. Results - VND was unilateral in 17 cases and bilateral in 4 cases. Initial referral diagnoses included suspected primary bone tumor (n = 9), fracture (n = 3), osteomyelitis (n = 2), and metastasis (n = 1). The referral diagnosis was more likely to be VND in asymptomatic than symptomatic patients (4/6 vs. 2/15). More MRI scans were performed in unilateral than bilateral VND (median 2 vs. 0). All 15 symptomatic patients underwent nonoperative treatment and reported a resolution of symptoms and return to physical activity after a median time of 5 months (IQR 0-6). Interpretation - By understanding the physiological course of VND during skeletal maturation, unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic measures can be avoided and uncertainty and anxiety amongst affected patients, their families, and treating physicians can be minimized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453674.2021.1882237DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison of histomorphometric and radiographic effects of growth guidance with tension-band devices (eight-Plate and FlexTack) in a pig model.

Acta Orthop 2021 Jan 19:1-7. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Deformity Reconstruction and Foot Surgery, University Hospital Muenster , Germany.

Background and purpose - Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis for growth modulation in skeletally immature patients is a long-known technique. Recently the use of tension-band devices has become popular. This study compares 2 tension-band implants (eight-Plate and FlexTack) regarding their effects on the growth plate. Animals and methods - 12 pigs in 2 equally sized groups (A and B) were investigated. The right proximal medial tibia was treated with either eight-Plate or FlexTack. The left tibia of the same pig was treated with the opposite implant. After 9 weeks all implants were removed. Animals in group B were then hosted for another 5 weeks. Histomorphometric analysis of the growth plate was carried out after 9 and 14 weeks, respectively. Radiographs were taken at implantation, removal, and after 14 weeks. Results - Both tension-band devices achieved a statistically significant and clinically relevant growth inhibition, whereas the effect appeared to be more distinct after the use of FlexTack. Implant-related complications or physeal damage was not observed. After implant removal, rebound phenomenon was radiologically observed in all cases. The growth plates treated with eight-Plate showed a paradox reversal of the zonal distributions, with an increase of the proliferative zones at the previously arrested medial aspect of the physis and a decrease laterally. Interpretation - Both eight-Plate and FlexTack proved to be appropriate devices for growth-guiding treatment. The radiographic evaluation showed a change in angular axes after treatment with each implant, while the correction appeared to be faster with FlexTack. The paradox cartilaginous reaction observed after removal of the eight-Plate might be a histopathological correlate for rebound phenomenon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453674.2021.1873603DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical Outcome of Two-Stage Revision after Periprosthetic Shoulder Infection.

J Clin Med 2021 Jan 9;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Orthopaedics and Tumororthopaedics, University Hospital Muenster, 48149 Münster, Germany.

Background: Periprosthetic shoulder infections are devastating complications after shoulder arthroplasty. A potential treatment concept is a two-stage prosthesis exchange. Data are sparse in terms of clinical outcome, including infection-free survival and patient satisfaction after this procedure. In the present study, we investigated recurrence of infection, revision-free survivorship and clinical outcome following two-stage revision due to periprosthetic shoulder infection. Furthermore, reasons for poor outcome were analyzed.

Methods: Sixteen patients undergoing two-stage revision after shoulder joint infection were retrospectively identified. Recurrence of infection was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Clinical outcome was quantified with subjective shoulder value (SSV), "quick" Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (qDASH) and Rowe score. Range of motion (ROM) was measured pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative scores and ROM were compared in a subgroup analysis according to different reimplanted prosthesis types.

Results: The reinfection-free implant survival was 81% after one year and at final follow-up (FU; mean of 33.2 months). The overall revision-free survival amounted to 56% after one year and at final FU. Patients who received reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) as part of reimplantation had less disability and long-term complications. This group demonstrated better subjective stability and function compared to patients revised to megaprostheses or large-head hemiarthroplasties.

Conclusions: Two-stage revision following periprosthetic joint infection of the shoulder allows appropriate infection control in the majority of patients. However, the overall complications and revision rates due to mechanical failure or reinfection are high. Reimplantation of RSA seem superior to alternative prosthesis models in terms of function and patient satisfaction. Therefore, bone-saving surgery and reconstruction of the glenoid may increase the likelihood of reimplantation of RSA and potentially improve outcome in the case of infection-related two-stage revision of the shoulder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826686PMC
January 2021

Hip transposition procedure due to osteosarcoma metastasis of the ilium in a patient with preexisting rotationplasty leads to satisfactory functional result: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 19;77:739-742. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of General Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Introduction: The hip transposition is a limb salvage procedure for periacetabular malignancies. Here we present the case of a patient that already had a preexisting ipsilateral rotationplasty.

Presentation Of Case: A 16 year old male patient with an Osteosarcoma of the left distal femur was treated with wide surgical resection of the tumor and rotationplasty (Salzer/Winkelmann type A1). Despite adjuvant chemotherapy (EURAMOS protocol) he was diagnosed with metachronous metastases in the lung and in the left ilium affecting the acetabulum. As a limb salvage procedure the patient received an internal hemipelvectomy Enneking PI-II and an attachment of the femoral head with a Trevira tube to the sacrum using suture anchors. After six weeks a prosthesis was fitted and gradually full weight bearing was allowed. The patient achieved a good functional result as he was able to walk freely for three more years before he passed away.

Discussion: The hip transposition procedure does not require the implantation of a large tumor prosthesis and thus avoids the problem of an increased risk of infection. Even with preexisting ipsilateral rotationplasty a good functional outcome that allowed the patient full weight bearing could be achieved.

Conclusion: If there are already existing deformities, such as rotationplasty on the same leg, the hip transposition procedure can be considered for periacetabular malignancies, as it can achieve satisfactory results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.11.072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718121PMC
November 2020

Reconstructive Approaches in Surgical Management of Congenital Pseudarthrosis of the Tibia.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 21;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Pediatric Orthopedics, Deformity Reconstruction and Foot Surgery, University Hospital Muenster, 48149 Muenster, Germany.

Treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia remains a major challenge in pediatric orthopedics. Ideal timing and preference of surgical procedures are discussed controversially. A variety of reconstructive treatment strategies have been described in literature, but so far none has proven its superiority. The aim of treatment is to obtain long-term bone union, to prevent refracture, and to correct angular deformities and leg length discrepancies. This study retrospectively evaluates the outcome of different reconstructive strategies. Sixty-nine patients were identified who presented to our outpatient department between 1997 and 2019. Twenty-six of these patients underwent reconstructive surgical treatment and were included in this study. The study cohort was divided into three groups. Excision of the pseudarthrosis was performed in all patients in Group A and B, and in two patients of Group C. Group A (six/26 patients) received subsequent bone transport through external fixation maintaining original length. In Group B (15/26 patients), patients underwent either previous, simultaneous, or subsequent extrafocal lengthening through external fixation to reconstitute length. In Group C (five/26 patients), internal fixation with intramedullary nails was applied. Radiological and clinical evaluation was performed to assess bone union and complication rates. Results varied considerably between the study groups. Overall, the primary bone fusion rate was 69.2%. There were four refractures, all occurring in Group B. The long-term bone union rate without refracture was 53.8%. The overall complication rate was 53.8% and 23.1% showed persistent pseudarthrosis. Two secondary amputations were performed due to failed bone fusion. In conclusion, excision of the pseudarthrosis and extrafocal lengthening achieves a satisfying bone union rate and limb reconstruction, while bone transport does not offer significant advantages but shows higher complication rates. Intramedullary stabilization should be applied to maintain bone union, but shows lower bone union rates when used as a stand-alone treatment regimen. Regardless of the primary bone fusion rates, the probability of long-term bone union remains unpredictable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767548PMC
December 2020

Chondroblastoma: Is intralesional curettage with the use of adjuvants a sufficient way of therapy?

J Bone Oncol 2021 Feb 5;26:100342. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumororthopedics, University Hospital Munster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149 Muenster, Germany.

Background: Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous bone tumor that represents 1-2% of all primary bone tumors. It is characterized by aggressive growth, possible recurrence after surgical treatment and, in rare cases, metastasis. Surgical management is the primary treatment and includes intralesional curettage with or without adjuvants. Local recurrence rates vary between less than 10% up to more than 30%.

Methods: In this retrospective study between 2009 and 2020 we analysed 38 cases of chondroblastoma with a mean follow-up of 27.9 months who underwent a surgical treatment in our institution. Epidemiological data, radiographic and histological examinations, different surgical techniques, complications and local recurrence were evaluated to comment on the question if curettage with or without adjuvants is a sufficient way of therapy.

Results: The study includes 25 male (65.8%) and 13 female (34.2%) patients with a mean age of 17.2 (11-51) years. The most common location of manifestation was the proximal epiphyseal humerus (34.2%), followed by the proximal tibia (26.3%) and the distal femur (15.8%). Joint involvement occurred in 28 patients (73.7%). In all cases intralesional curettage was performed; in 25 cases (65.8%) the resulting cavity was filled with bone substitute, in 7.9% (3 cases) with bone cement and in 10.5% (4 cases) with autogenous bone graft. Adjuvant hydrogen peroxide was used in 64.9% of the cases. The overall recurrence rate was 39.5% (15 cases). The following subgroup analysis showed a recurrence rate of 100% (4/4 cases) after curettage and defect reconstruction with autogenous bone. In the case of intralesional curettage and filling of the cavity with bone substitute but without use of adjuvant the recurrence rate was 50% (4/8 cases). A low recurrence rate of 11.8% (2 cases) was observed in the case of intralesional curettage, using hydrogen peroxide as adjuvant (17 cases) and bone substitute for defect reconstruction.

Conclusions: Chondroblastoma represents a rare pathology. Therapeutically an aggressive intralesional curettage with use of hydrogen peroxide as adjuvant and filling up the defect with bone substitute leads to low recurrence rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbo.2020.100342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750402PMC
February 2021

Complications in TLIF spondylodesis-do they influence the outcome for patients? A prospective two-center study.

Eur Spine J 2020 Dec 22. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Purpose:  Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a widely accepted surgical procedure for degenerative disk disease. While numerous studies have analyzed complication rates and risk factors this study investigates the extent to which complications after TLIF spondylodesis alter the clinical outcome regarding pain and physical function.

Methods:  A prospective clinical two-center study was conducted, including 157 patients undergoing TLIF spondylodesis with 12-month follow-up (FU). Our study classified complications into three subgroups: none (I), minor (IIa), and major complications (IIb). Complications were considered "major" if revision surgery was required or new permanent physical impairment ensued. Clinical outcome was assessed using visual analog scales for back (VAS-B) and leg pain (VAS-L), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

Results:  Thirty-nine of 157 patients (24.8%) had at least one complication during follow-up. At FU, significant improvement was seen for group I (n = 118) in VAS-B (-50%), VAS-L (-54%), and ODI (-48%) and for group IIa (n = 27) in VAS-B (-40%), VAS-L (-64%), and ODI (-47%). In group IIb (n = 12), VAS-B (-22%, P = 0.089) and ODI (-33%, P = 0.056) improved not significantly, while VAS-L dropped significantly less (-32%, P = 0.013) compared to both other groups.

Conclusion:  Our results suggest that major complications with need of revision surgery after TLIF spondylodesis lead to a significantly worse clinical outcome (VAS-B, VAS-L, and ODI) compared to no or minor complications. It is therefore vitally important to raise the surgeon´s awareness of consequences of major complications, and the topic should be given high priority in clinical work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06689-wDOI Listing
December 2020

Postoperative Trends of Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels after Primary Shoulder Arthroplasty-Normal Trajectory and Influencing Factors.

J Clin Med 2020 Nov 30;9(12). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumororthopedics, University Hospital Muenster, 48149 Münster, Germany.

Background-Postoperative serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important diagnostic parameter for systemic inflammation and reflects surgical trauma. While trends and normal trajectories after total knee (TKA) or hip arthroplasty (THA) are established, there is no reference standard for shoulder arthroplasty (SA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to research CRP trends and influencing factors following SA. Methods-This retrospective study analyzed postoperative serum CRP levels and trajectories in 280 patients following SA. Influence of prosthesis design, sex, operating time, BMI, and humeral augmentation with bone cement were analyzed using descriptive statistics and (non-) parametric testing. Results-There is a CRP trend with a peak on day two or three, with a subsequent decrease until day seven. Reverse and stemmed prostheses show a statistically higher CRP peak than stemless prostheses or hemiarthroplasties (HA). There was no influence of gender, body mass index (BMI), operating time, or bone cement. Conclusion-The presented findings may contribute to a better understanding of the postoperative CRP course after SA. The results of this retrospective study should be validated by a prospective study design in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9123893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760886PMC
November 2020

Long-term outcome of arthroscopic debridement of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(11):e0241277. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of General Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Münster University Hospital, Münster, Germany.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcome of low-demand patients with massive rotator cuff tears undergoing arthroscopic debridement in mid- and long-term follow-up, as well as the rate of conversion to reverse shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 19 patients with a mean age at surgery of 68 years (range, 55-80 years) from a previously described consecutive cohort and after a mean follow up of 47 month (FU1) and 145 month (FU2). The functional outcome was evaluated with the VAS score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and the age- and gender-adjusted Constant (aCS) score. The radiographic outcome was classified according to the Hamada classification. Non-parametric analyses were carried out with the Mann-Whitney U for independent samples and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for related samples.

Results: Five patients (26%) developed symptomatic cuff tear arthropathy and underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty after a mean time of 63 months (range, 45-97 months). These patients were excluded from further analyses. The mean VAS score of the remaining 14 patients at FU1 was significantly lower compared to preoperatively (P = .041), while there were no significant differences between the VAS score at FU1 and FU2 (P = 1.0). The ASES score of the affected shoulder at FU1 was significantly higher compared to prior to surgery (P = .028), while there were no significant differences between the scores of the affected shoulder between FU1 and FU2 (P = .878). While the ASES score of the contralateral shoulder at FU1 was significantly higher than the score of the affected shoulder (P = .038), there were no significant differences in the ASES scores of the affected and the healthy shoulder at FU2 (P = .575). The evaluation of the aCS produced similar results. A progression of the Hamada grade was documented in 6 patients.

Conclusions: Arthroscopic debridement is a safe and valid option for low-demand middle-age or elderly patients with symptomatic massive rotator cuff tears, leading to a significant pain relief and significantly improved functional outcome at mid- and long-term follow up. However, about a quarter of the patients in our cohort had to undergo reverse shoulder arthroplasty due to symptomatic cuff tear arthropathy. Furthermore, some of the remaining patients continued to undergo radiographic progression. This might be due to the natural history of their disease and/or the surgical procedure, and the clinical relevance of this finding should be evaluated in further studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241277PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660551PMC
December 2020

Reconstruction of Total Bone Defects following Resection of Malignant Tumors of the Upper Extremity with 3D Printed Prostheses: Presentation of Two Patients with a Follow-Up of Three Years.

Case Rep Orthop 2020 2;2020:8822466. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of General Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, Muenster, Germany.

Wide tumor resection is the local treatment of choice for patients with primary malignant bone tumors and a prerequisite for long-term survival. We present two patients that underwent total bone resection in the upper limb because of primary malignant bone tumors. The defects were then reconstructed by a 3D printed prosthesis, a procedure that, to our knowledge, has not been reported for bone defects of the upper extremity so far. Complete resection of the affected bone was required in a five-year-old girl with a high-grade osteoblastic osteosarcoma of the humerus and a 53-year-old man with a dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma of the radius, due to the tumor's extent. Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, resection of the entire affected humerus including the axillary nerve took place in the first case and the entire affected radius including parts of the radial nerve in the second case. Approximately three years after surgery, both patients are alive and pain-free. Despite a postoperative drop hand that affected the now 56-year-old man, he is able to carry out everyday activities such as brushing his teeth, writing, and eating. The now eight-year-old girl is also able to engage in normal activities with her left arm such as eating and carrying lightweight objects. Both patients are tumor-free to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8822466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7559838PMC
October 2020

Total joint replacement of the hip and knee in patients with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita: a report of six joints.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2020 Oct 10. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Divison of Children's Orthopaedics, Deformity Correction and Foot Surgery, Muenster University Hospital, Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Münster, Germany.

Introduction: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a rare congenital condition that leads to severe joint contractures and deformities. As painful joint dysplasia and degeneration might develop over time, total joint replacement (TJR) can be a potential treatment option for these patients. The aim of this study is to investigate functional results, implant survivorship and potential complications in patients with AMC who undergo hip or knee arthroplasty.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively identified six TJR in three patients at a single centre performed between 2006 and 2019. The median patient age at surgery was 23 years and the median follow-up period was 69 (IQR 55-99) months. We analysed surgical technique, implant survivorship and complications as well as functional outcome determined by pain reported on the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), patient-reported outcome scores [Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Harris Hip score (HHS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS)], range of motion and ambulatory status. Depending on data distribution means with ranges and median with interquartile range were compared with the Wilcoxon signed rank test or Student's t test. The level of significance was defined at < 0.05.

Results: In hips, the mean range of motion in flexion/extension (52° vs. 85°, p = 0.014) and in rotation (28° vs. 68°, p = 0.02) as well as mean pain score on the NRS (8.5 vs. 0, p = 0.001), OHS (9 vs. 26, p = 0.031) and HHS (17 vs. 52, p = 0.007) significantly improved. In knees, mean range of motion (55° vs. 93°, p = 0.403), mean pain score on the NRS (0 vs. 7) and the OKS (2 vs. 21) also improved. While the ambulatory status did not change, the patients who were wheelchair dependent reported less problems with transfers to a bed or chair and the patient who ambulated reported an improved walking distance. One total knee arthroplasty (TKA) underwent revision for an acute, late infection 155 months following the initial surgery.

Conclusions: TJR is a safe procedure in patients with AMC that effectively improves function and reduces pain irrespective of preoperative ambulatory status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-020-03611-3DOI Listing
October 2020

Clinical use of linezolid in periprosthetic joint infections - a systematic review.

J Bone Jt Infect 2020 13;6(1):7-16. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Münster, Germany.

: The most common causative organism in periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) is Gram-positive bacteria that are increasingly drug resistant. In these cases the use of linezolid may be warranted. However, there are conflicting reports regarding its role in antibiotic treatment of PJIs. The aim of this review is to gather and analyze clinical results and treatment details on linezolid in patients with PJIs. : In August 2019, a comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE (Pubmed and Ovid) and Cochrane Library was performed. A total of 504 records were screened, and a total of 16 studies including 372 patients treated with linezolid for a PJI were included in this review based on the PRISMA criteria and after quality analysis using the MINOR score and Newcastle-Ottawa scale, as well as assessing level of evidence. Pooling analysis as well as descriptive analysis was performed. : Based on the results from the studies included, infection control was achieved in 80 % (range 30 %-100 %) of patients after a mean follow-up period of 25 (range 2-66) months. The mean duration of treatment was 58 d intravenous and orally at a median dose of 600 mg bis in die (b.i.d.) (range 400-900 b.i.d.). A combination therapy with rifampicin was used in 53 % of patients. MRSA (methicillin-resistant infections were present in 29 % and resistant CoNS (coagulase-negative ) in 46 %. Adverse effects occurred in 33 % of cases, mostly anemia, thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal complaints leading to treatment discontinuation in 9 %. However, great heterogeneity was found with respect to surgical treatment, diagnosis of infection and indication for linezolid. : Linezolid is an appropriate option for treatment of resistant Gram-positive organisms in PJIs. Most commonly 600 mg b.i.d. is used, and a combination with rifampicin appears feasible although one must consider individual increases in doses in these cases. However, adverse effects are common and there are limited data for long-term use and optimal antibiotic combinations or individual doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/jbji-6-7-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517662PMC
July 2020

Does Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty Have an Effect on the Patients' Functional or Behavioral Outcome and Health-Related Quality of Life of the Affected Partners?

J Arthroplasty 2021 Mar 7;36(3):885-891. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, Muenster, Germany.

Background: Spouses are the primary caregivers of patients living with osteoarthritis (OA). Little is known about how the quality of life (QoL) of OA patients' partners change after total joint replacement surgery (TJR).

Methods: Preoperative health status and 12-month postoperative outcomes were evaluated and compared in 24 couples using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), knee or hip specific Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (OOS) and accelerometry for the assessment of habitual physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Correlations between the changes in the patients' OOS subscales scores, habitual activity, and their partners' SF-36 scores were calculated.

Results: Following TJR the patients' OOS subscale scores showed positive changes (P < .001). The SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) score improved (P < .001), while the mental component summary (MCS) score as well as PA and SB remained unchanged (P ≥ .093). Their partners' PCS, MCS, and SB did not change (P ≥ .286), whereas the PA even decreased (P = .027). Correlation analyses showed positive results for the changes in the patients' OOS subscale pain and the changes in their partners' MCS (r = 0.355, P = .048) as well as the changes in the patients' OOS subscale activities of daily living and the changes in the PCS of their partners (r = 0.406, P = .027). In contrast to the results described above, changes in the patients' PA were negatively correlated with changes in their partners' PCS (r = -0.389, P = .033).

Conclusion: TJR has a positive influence on QoL but not the habitual activity of OA patients. Their partners, on the other hand, show no changes in QoL and even a slight decrease in habitual activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.08.066DOI Listing
March 2021

Good to Excellent Functional Short-Term Outcome and Low Revision Rates Following Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair Using Suture Augmentation.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 23;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Klinik Gut, St. Moritz, 7500 St. Moritz, Switzerland.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair using suture augmentation (SA) in 93 consecutive patients (67 female) with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Patients' outcomes were determined using International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm score (LS) and Tegner score (TS). Knee-laxity was assessed using the KT-1000 arthrometer. Eighty-eight patients (67 female, mean age 42 years ± standard deviation (SD) 13) were available for follow-up after a mean time of 21 months (range 12-39). Three patients (3%) underwent revision surgery and were excluded from functional analysis. The mean IKDC score was 87.4 ± 11, mean LS was 92.6 ± 11, mean pre-traumatic TS was 6 ± 2 and mean postoperative TS was 6 ± 2, with a mean difference (TS) of 1 ± 1. The interval from injury to surgery had no significant impact on the postoperative IKDC ( = 0.228), LS ( = 0.377) and TS ( = 0.572). Patients' age (>40 years), BMI (>30) and coexisting ligament or meniscal injuries did not seem to influence postoperative functional results. Primary ACL repair using SA provides good to excellent functional outcomes with a low probability of revision surgery at a minimum of 12 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598184PMC
September 2020

Sedentary Behavior in Older Patients before and after Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Sep 18;8(3). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, 48149 Muenster, Germany.

To compare the habitual sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) of older hip osteoarthritis patients before and after elective arthroplasty. SB, PA and joint-specific disability of 16 patients (68.9 ± 6.8 years) were assessed by accelerometry and questionnaires before and 9 months after arthroplasty. All patients reported substantial postoperative improvements of their joint-related complaints ( ≤ 0.001). Accelerometry showed changes in neither daily SB (10-60 min sedentary bouts, ≥ 0.569) nor in PA (steps, time in mild-to-vigorous activity and energy expenditure, ≥ 0.255). Correlation analyses revealed that patients with severe preoperative disability showed a decrease in sedentary time, which was the opposite in patients with mild preoperative disability. SB and PA do not necessarily change after arthroplasty in older orthopedic patients. Even longer bouts of uninterrupted sitting, which are detrimental to health, do not decrease. Preoperative patient education is recommended to foster behavioral changes following elective arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551946PMC
September 2020

Comparing the Diagnostic Value of Serum D-Dimer to CRP and IL-6 in the Diagnosis of Chronic Prosthetic Joint Infection.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 10;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of General Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, 48149 Muenster, Germany.

D-dimer is a diagnostic criterion for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) in 2018. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum D-dimer values in comparison to C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) for the diagnosis of PJI. We included 119 patients (50 women, 69 men; 71 knees, 48 hips) undergoing revision arthroplasty with preoperative assessment of CRP, IL-6, and serum D-dimer. Cases were classified as infected or aseptic based on the MSIS criteria of 2018. Receiver operating curves and Youden's index were used to define an ideal cut-off value and sensitivity and specificity for the individual parameters, and respective combinations were calculated using cross-tables. The median D-dimer level (2320 vs. 1105 ng/mL; < 0.001), the median CRP level (4.0 vs. 0.5 mg/dL; < 0.001), and the median IL-6 level (21.0 vs. 5.0 pg/mL; < 0.001) were significantly higher in the group of PJI compared to the group with aseptic failure. The calculated optimal cut-off values were 2750 ng/mL (AUC 0.767) for D-dimer, 1.2 mg/dL (AUC 0.914) for CRP, and 10.0 pg/mL (AUC 0.849) for IL-6. D-dimer showed a sensitivity of 38% and specificity of 94%, whereas the CRP and IL-6 had sensitivities of 88% and 76%, and specificities of 87% and 92%, respectively. In comparison with CRP and IL-6, serum D-dimer showed low sensitivity and specificity in our cohort. While CRP and IL-6 combination had the highest sensitivity, a combination of Il-6 and D-dimer or CRP and IL-6 had the highest specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563505PMC
September 2020

Fungal Periprosthetic Knee Joint Infection in a Patient with Metamizole-Induced Agranulocytosis.

Arthroplast Today 2020 Dec 27;6(4):726-730. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of General Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

We present the case of a 55-year-old female patient with metamizole-induced agranulocytosis after total knee arthroplasty, leading to septic periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Owing to metamizole-induced agranulocytosis, the synovial leukocyte count was negative. Here, we discuss the diagnostic challenges evolving from sepsis and neutropenia in patients with suspected PJIs. We suggest an urgent surgical approach, mainly focusing on the clinical presentation preoperatively. Later, our patient developed candidemia and periprosthetic tissue samples were positive for . For fungal PJIs, long-term follow-up studies are lacking and therapeutic recommendations differ. Here, we present our therapeutic approach, including staged revision and 12 weeks of systemic antifungal therapy, and discuss recent findings regarding the therapy of fungal PJIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2020.07.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475080PMC
December 2020

Acute Renal Failure After the First Stage of a 2-Stage Exchange for Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Feb 18;36(2):717-721. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Muenster University Hospital, Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

Background: Two-stage exchange using antibiotic-loaded spacers is a common approach in treating periprosthetic joint infections. Acute kidney injury (AKIN) can be a systemic complication of this procedure. This study investigates the prevalence of AKIN and identifies potential risk factors.

Methods: This is a single-center retrospective analysis of patients undergoing 2-stage exchange using a spacer in 285 patients treated between 2010 and 2017. Risk factors were evaluated using parametric and nonparametric analyses and a multivariate, binary logistic regression model.

Results: Thirty-three percent of patients (95/285) developed an AKIN postoperatively. Twenty-four percent (23/95) of these patients had an acute on chronic kidney failure with a previously impaired renal function. In multivariate analysis, a higher age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.034; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1-1.068; P = .046) and a higher baseline creatinine level (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.237-3.052; P = .004) were risk factors for AKIN. Treatment with vancomycin in the spacer or systemically was not associated with AKIN while a high vancomycin blood level (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.913-3.992; P = .086) and fungal infections were (HR, 3.482; 95% CI, 0.968-12.521; P = .056). Furthermore, in univariate analysis, a higher median Charlson comorbidity index (4 vs 3, P = .007), a lower preoperative hemoglobin (10.9 vs 11.7 g/dL, P = .008), and a higher number of blood transfusions (1 vs 0, P = .004) were associated with AKIN.

Conclusion: AKIN is common in patients undergoing 2-stage exchange. Associated patient factors, particularly in patients with chronic renal dysfunction, should be optimized. The general use of glycopeptide antibiotics was no risk factor for AKIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.08.028DOI Listing
February 2021

Leg Length Discrepancy- Treatment Indications and Strategies.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2020 06;117(24):405-411

Department of General Orthopedics and Tumor Orthopedics, Münster University Hospital, Münster, Germany; Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Deformity Correction and Foot Surgery, Münster University Hospital, Münster, Germany; Orthopedic Clinic, Olga Hospital/Women´s Clinic, Klinikum Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany; Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Many people have leg-length discrepancies of greater or lesser severity. No evidence-based studies on the need for treatment are currently available.

Methods: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search in the PubMed database, as well as on published recommendations from Germany and abroad and on the authors' own clinical experience.

Results: If the two legs are of different lengths, this is generally because one leg is too short. It is debated whether leg-length discrepancy causes pain or long-term musculoskeletal disturbances. A direct connection to back pain is questionable, but a mildly elevated incidence of knee arthritis seems likely. The evidence base on the indications for treatment of leg-length discrepancy is poor; only informal consensus recommendations are available. There are a wide variety of conservative and surgical treatment options. The final extent of a leg-length discrepancy first noted during the growing years can be estimated with predictive algorithms to within 2 cm. The treatments that can be considered include a shoe insert, a high shoe, or an orthosis, surgically induced slowing of growth by blockade of the epiphyseal plates around the knee joint, or leg lengthening with osteotomy and subsequent distraction of the bone callus with fully implanted or external apparatus. Changes in leg length exert marked mechanical stress on the soft tissues. If the predicted leg-length discrepancy exceeds 5 cm, initial leg-lengthening treatment can already be considered during the patient's growing years.

Conclusion: It must be discussed with each patient individually whether the treatment should be conservative or surgical. The extent of the discrepancy is not the sole determining factor for the mode of treatment. The decision to treat is always elective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2020.0405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477698PMC
June 2020

Femoro-pedal distraction in staged reconstructive treatment of tibial aplasia.

Bone Joint J 2020 Sep;102-B(9):1248-1255

Children's Orthopaedics, Deformity Reconstruction and Foot Surgery, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Aims: The treatment of tibial aplasia is controversial. Amputation represents the gold standard with good functional results, but is frequently refused by the families. In these patients, treatment with reconstructive limb salvage can be considered. Due to the complexity of the deformity, this remains challenging and should be staged. The present study evaluated the role of femoro-pedal distraction using a circular external fixator in reconstructive treatment of tibial aplasia. The purpose of femoro-pedal distraction is to realign the limb and achieve soft tissue lengthening to allow subsequent reconstructive surgery.

Methods: This was a retrospective study involving ten patients (12 limbs) with tibial aplasia, who underwent staged reconstruction. During the first operation a circular hexapod external fixator was applied and femoro-pedal distraction was undertaken over several months. Subsequent surgery included reconstruction of the knee joint and alignment of the foot.

Results: The mean follow-up was 7.1 years (2 to 10). The mean age of the patients at the time of the application of the fixator was 2.3 years (1.1 to 5.0). The mean time under distraction was 139.7 days (81.0 to 177.0). A mean fibular distalization of 38.7 mm (14.0 to 67.0) was achieved. Pin infections occurred in four limbs (33.3%) and osteitis in one. A femoral fracture occurred in one patient. Premature removal of the frame was not required in any patient. Sufficient realignment of the leg as well as soft tissue lengthening was achieved in all patients, allowing subsequent reconstruction. All patients were able to mobilize fully weight bearing after reconstruction. Functional outcome was limited in all limbs, and five patients (50.0%) required additional reconstructive operations.

Conclusion: Regarding the functional results in the treatment of tibial aplasia, amputation remains superior to limb salvage. The latter procedure should only be performed in patients whose parents refuse amputation. Femoro-pedal distraction efficiently prepares the limb by realigning the leg and soft tissue lengthening. Minor complications are frequent, but usually do not hinder the continuation of distraction. Even though a fully weight-bearing limb is achieved, the functional outcome of reconstructive treatment remains limited. Recurrent deformities frequently occur and may require further operations. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(9):1248-1255.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B9.BJJ-2019-1484.R1DOI Listing
September 2020

Tibial lengthening using a retrograde magnetically driven intramedullary lengthening device in 10 patients with preexisting ankle and hindfoot fusion.

Acta Orthop 2020 12 24;91(6):761-769. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Children's Orthopedics, Deformity Reconstruction and Foot Surgery, University Hospital of Muenster.

Background and purpose - Motorized intramedullary lengthening nails (ILNs) have been developed as an alternative to external fixators for long bone lengthening. The antegrade approach represents the standard method for tibial ILN insertion. In patients with preexisting ankle and hindfoot fusion a retrograde approach provides an alternative technique that has not been evaluated so far. We report the outcome of this method in 10 patients. Patients and methods - This retrospective study included 10 patients (mean age 18 years [13-25]) with preexisting ankle and hindfoot fusion who underwent tibial lengthening with a retrograde ILN (PRECICE). The mean leg length discrepancy (LLD) was 58 mm (36-80). The underlying conditions were congenital (n = 9) and post tumor resection (n = 1). The main outcome measures were: ILN reliability, distraction achieved, distraction index (DIX), time to bone healing, consolidation index (CIX), complications, and functional results. Results - All patients achieved the goal of lengthening (mean 48 mm [26-80]). Average DIX was 0.6 mm/day (0.5-0.7) and mean CIX was 44 days/cm (26-60). Delayed consolidation occurred in 2 patients and healed after ILN dynamization or nail exchange with grafting. Toe contractures in 2 other patients were resolved with physiotherapy or tenotomy. Until last follow-up (mean 18 months [12-30]) no true complications were encountered, knee motion remained unaffected, and full osseous consolidation occurred in all patients. Interpretation - In patients with LLD and preexisting ankle and hindfoot fusion distal tibial lengthening using a retrograde ILN is a reliable alternative to the standard approach with equivalent bone healing potential and low complication rates leaving the knee unaffected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453674.2020.1807222DOI Listing
December 2020

Aneurysmal bone cyst inadvertently treated with chemotherapy-A series of three cases.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 10 6;67(10):e28638. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Orthopedics and Tumororthopedics, University Hospital Munster, Muenster, Germany.

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign locally aggressive tumor that occurs in childhood and early adulthood. Most relevant differential diagnoses are the telangiectatic osteosarcoma and the giant cell tumor. In the present case series chemotherapy following the EURAMOS or the Euro-Ewing 99 protocol was externally applied in three patients with the misdiagnosis of ABC as malignant bone tumor. In all three cases, a significant reduction of the volume of the ABC was achieved. This is the first report about the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ABC. Chemotherapy reduces the size of an ABC and leads to progressive sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28638DOI Listing
October 2020

[Treatment of chondroblastoma of the humeral head : A tumour- and shoulder-orthopaedic challenge].

Orthopade 2020 Dec;49(12):1098-1102

Klinik für Allgemeine Orthopädie und Tumororthopädie, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, 48149, Münster, Deutschland.

We present the case of a 22-year-old female patient with chondroblastoma in the right humeral head. To allow a gentle and anatomic resurfacing of the humeral joint surface and to avoid total joint arthroplasty in our young patient with high functional requirements, we implanted a HemiCAP® after intralesional curettage of the chondroblastoma. Our patient's excellent short-term functional outcome shows that our approach can be considered a very good therapeutic option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00132-020-03958-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683489PMC
December 2020