Publications by authors named "Georg C Korenke"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Structural brain anomalies in patients with FOXG1 syndrome and in Foxg1+/- mice.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2019 Apr 3;6(4):655-668. Epub 2019 Mar 3.

Institut für Medizinische Genetik und angewandte Genomik Universitätsklinikum Tübingen Tübingen Germany.

Objective: FOXG1 syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with heterozygous variants or chromosomal microaberrations in 14q12. The study aimed at assessing the scope of structural cerebral anomalies revealed by neuroimaging to delineate the genotype and neuroimaging phenotype associations.

Methods: We compiled 34 patients with a heterozygous (likely) pathogenic variant. Qualitative assessment of cerebral anomalies was performed by standardized re-analysis of all 34 MRI data sets. Statistical analysis of genetic, clinical and neuroimaging data were performed. We quantified clinical and neuroimaging phenotypes using severity scores. Telencephalic phenotypes of adult +/- mice were examined using immunohistological stainings followed by quantitative evaluation of structural anomalies.

Results: Characteristic neuroimaging features included corpus callosum anomalies (82%), thickening of the fornix (74%), simplified gyral pattern (56%), enlargement of inner CSF spaces (44%), hypoplasia of basal ganglia (38%), and hypoplasia of frontal lobes (29%). We observed a marked, filiform thinning of the rostrum as recurrent highly typical pattern of corpus callosum anomaly in combination with distinct thickening of the fornix as a characteristic feature. Thickening of the fornices was not reported previously in FOXG1 syndrome. Simplified gyral pattern occurred significantly more frequently in patients with early truncating variants. Higher clinical severity scores were significantly associated with higher neuroimaging severity scores. Modeling of heterozygosity in mouse brain recapitulated the associated abnormal cerebral morphology phenotypes, including the striking enlargement of the fornix.

Interpretation: Combination of specific corpus callosum anomalies with simplified gyral pattern and hyperplasia of the fornices is highly characteristic for FOXG1 syndrome.
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April 2019

Epilepsy in KCNH1-related syndromes.

Epileptic Disord 2016 Jun;18(2):123-36

Pediatric Neurology Division Department of Pediatrics, Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza-University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

KCNH1 mutations have been identified in patients with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome and Temple-Baraitser syndrome, as well as patients with uncharacterized syndromes with intellectual disability and overlapping features. These syndromes include dysmorphic facial features, nail hypo/aplasia, thumb and skeletal anomalies, intellectual disability, and seizures. We report the epilepsy phenotype in patients with KCNH1 mutations. Demographic data, electroclinical features, response to antiepileptic drugs, and results of significant diagnostic investigations of nine patients carrying mutations in KCNH1 were obtained from referring centres. Epilepsy was present in 7/9 patients. Both generalized and focal tonic-clonic seizures were observed. Complete seizure control was achieved with pharmacological treatment in 2/7 patients; polytherapy was required in 4/7 patients. Status epilepticus occurred in 4/7 patients. EEG showed a diffusely slow background in 7/7 patients with epilepsy, with variable epileptiform abnormalities. Cerebral folate deficiency and an increase in urinary hypoxanthine and uridine were observed in one patient. Epilepsy is a key phenotypic feature in most individuals with KCNH1-related syndromes, suggesting a direct role of KCNH1 in epileptogenesis, although the underlying mechanism is not understood.
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June 2016

HACE1 deficiency causes an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome.

J Med Genet 2015 Dec 30;52(12):797-803. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Section of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Yorkshire Regional Genetics Service, Leeds, UK.

Background: The genetic aetiology of neurodevelopmental defects is extremely diverse, and the lack of distinctive phenotypic features means that genetic criteria are often required for accurate diagnostic classification. We aimed to identify the causative genetic lesions in two families in which eight affected individuals displayed variable learning disability, spasticity and abnormal gait.

Methods: Autosomal recessive inheritance was suggested by consanguinity in one family and by sibling recurrences with normal parents in the second. Autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, respectively, were used to identify the causative gene.

Results: In both families, biallelic loss-of-function mutations in HACE1 were identified. HACE1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the activity of cellular GTPases, including Rac1 and members of the Rab family. In the consanguineous family, a homozygous mutation p.R219* predicted a truncated protein entirely lacking its catalytic domain. In the other family, compound heterozygosity for nonsense mutation p.R748* and a 20-nt insertion interrupting the catalytic homologous to the E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT) domain was present; western blot analysis of patient cells revealed an absence of detectable HACE1 protein.

Conclusion: HACE1 mutations underlie a new autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder. Previous studies have implicated HACE1 as a tumour suppressor gene; however, since cancer predisposition was not observed either in homozygous or heterozygous mutation carriers, this concept may require re-evaluation.
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December 2015