Publications by authors named "Geoffrey Bradford"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Congenital Smooth Muscle Hamartoma Obscuring the Cornea.

Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2021 8;2021:6692229. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, West Virginia University School of Medicine, 1 Medical Center Drive, P.O. Box 9193, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma is a benign proliferation of smooth muscle that most commonly presents in the lumbosacral area or proximal extremities. Although exceedingly rare, congenital smooth muscle hamartomas have been reported to occur in ocular structures such as the brow, eyelid, and conjunctival fornix. This case describes an atypical congenital bulbar lesion in a newborn male which obscured the cornea. The lesion, which appeared to originate from the bulbar conjunctiva and/or the limbus, was excised at 5 months of age. Pathologic evaluation was consistent with congenital smooth muscle hamartoma. The authors of this report believe it is the first to describe a patient with a congenital smooth muscle hamartoma of the bulbar conjunctiva/limbus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6692229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123998PMC
May 2021

12 Components of a Strong Vision Health System of Care: Part 3-Standardized Approach for Rescreening.

NASN Sch Nurse 2020 Jan 28;35(1):10-14. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Member of the Advisory Committee of the NCCVEH at Prevent Blindness.

Strong school-based vision and eye health systems include 12 key components to be implemented before, during, and after the actual vision screening event. The National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health (NCCVEH) at Prevent Blindness partnered with the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) to provide guidance for school nurses for each of the 12 key components via a Vision and Eye Health webpage on the NASN website ( https://www.nasn.org/nasn-resources/practice-topics/vision-health ). This online resource is designed to support school nurses accountable for vision screening and maintaining the eye health of preschool- and school-age children. This NCCVEH/NASN webpage addresses key activities that provide overall support for a child's vision and eye health-beginning with parent/caregiver education and ending with an annual evaluation of the school's vision and eye health system. NASN School Nurse is publishing information about each of these 12 components. The May 2019 installment provided details about the 12 Components approach as a whole and Components 1 and 2: Family Education and a Comprehensive Communication/Approval Process. The July 2019 edition described Components 3 and 4: Vision Screening Tools and Procedures and Vision Health for Children With Special Health Care Needs. This article describes Component 5: Standardized Approach for Rescreening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602X19890470DOI Listing
January 2020

12 Components of a Strong Vision Health System of Care: Part 2-Vision Screening Tools and Procedures and Vision Health for Children With Special Health Care Needs.

NASN Sch Nurse 2019 Jul;34(4):195-201

Successful vision screening efforts require the implementation of 12 key components of a strong vision health system of care. The National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health (NCCVEH) at Prevent Blindness partnered with the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) to provide guidance around these 12 components via a Vision and Eye Health webpage on the NASN website ( https://www.nasn.org/nasn-resources/practice-topics/vision-health ). This online resource is organized according to the 12 Components of a Strong Vison Health System of Care to support school nurses accountable for screening the vision of preschool and K-12 students. This NCCVEH/NASN webpage addresses key activities that support a child's vision health-beginning with parent/caregiver education and ending with an annual evaluation of the school's vision health system. Each of these 12 components will be described in . The May 2019 installment provided information about the 12 components approach as a whole and details on Family Education and a Comprehensive Communication/Approval Process. This installment describes Components 3 and 4: Vision Screening Tools and Procedures and Vision Health for Children with Special Health Care Needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602X19851724DOI Listing
July 2019

12 Components of a Strong Vision Health System of Care: Components 1 and 2-Family Education and Comprehensive Communication/Approval Process.

NASN Sch Nurse 2019 May 8;34(3):145-148. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Member of the National Expert Panel to NCCVEH at Prevent Blindness, Morgantown, WV.

The National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health (NCCVEH) at Prevent Blindness partnered with the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) to provide guidance for school nurses responsible for screening the vision of preschool and K-12 students. Goals of this national partnership are to (1) standardize approaches to vision health, (2) facilitate follow up to eye care for students who do not pass vision screening, (3) provide family/caregiver friendly educational information, and (4) consult with leading pediatric eye care experts to promote evidence-based best practices. The NCCVEH/NASN partnership created a Vision and Eye Health page on the NASN website ( https://www.nasn.org/nasn-resources/practice-topics/vision-health ). This resource is organized according to the 12 Components of a Strong Vision Health System of Care. The 12 components emerged as the NCCVEH considered vision screening from a systems perspective. This systems perspective addresses key activities along the entire spectrum of care that supports a child's vision health-beginning with parent/caregiver education and ending with an annual evaluation of the school's vision health system. Each of these 12 components will be described in 4 installments of NASN School Nurse in 2019. This installment describes the first two components: Family Education and a Comprehensive Communication/Approval Process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602X19829842DOI Listing
May 2019

An Eye on Vision: Seven Questions About Vision Screening and Eye Health-Part 4.

NASN Sch Nurse 2018 Nov 1;33(6):351-354. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Member of National Expert Panel to the National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health (NCCVEH) at Prevent Blindness.

Current evidence-based and best-practice vision screening and eye health approaches, tools, and procedures are the result of revised national guidelines in the past 3 years and advances in research during the past 18 years. To help the busy school nurse with little time to keep up with changes in children's vision practices and a growing body of literature, the National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness is providing answers to seven questions that are often received from the field. Topical areas are (1) instrument-based screening and stereopsis, (2) optotype-based screening if child is referred from instrument-based screening, (3) next steps if a student's glasses are scratched or broken, (4) critical line screening with a threshold eye chart, (5) full threshold screening if student does not pass critical line screening, (6) holding a ruler beneath line of optotypes to identify, and (7) convergence insufficiency screening in the school setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602X18803653DOI Listing
November 2018

An Eye on Vision: Five Questions About Vision Screening and Eye Health-Part 3.

NASN Sch Nurse 2018 Sep 26;33(5):279-283. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Member of National Expert Panel to the National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health (NCCVEH) at Prevent Blindness.

Current evidence-based and best practice vision screening and eye health approaches, tools, and procedures are the result of revised national guidelines in the past 3 years and advances in research during the past 18 years. To help the busy school nurse with little time to keep up with changes in children's vision practices and a growing body of literature, the National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness is providing answers to five questions that are often received from the field. Topical areas are: (1) instrument-based screening for children ages 6 years and older, (2) stereoacuity screening and Random Dot E, (3) binocular distance visual acuity screening, (4) a 2-line difference between the eyes as part of referral criteria, and (5) state vision screening guidelines excluding evidence-based tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602X18785951DOI Listing
September 2018

An Eye on Vision: Five Questions About Vision Screening and Eye Health-Part 2.

NASN Sch Nurse 2018 Jul 8;33(4):210-213. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Member of the National Expert Panel to the NCCVEH at Prevent Blindness.

Current evidence-based and best practice vision screening and eye health approaches, tools, and procedures are the result of revised national guidelines in the last 3 years and advances in research during the past 18 years. To help the busy school nurse, with little time to keep up with changes in children's vision practices and a growing body of literature, the National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness is providing answers to five questions that are often received from the field. Topical areas include (1) which numbers to record when using a 10-foot chart, (2) instrument-based screening and visual acuity, (3) screening children who wear glasses, (4) referring children who do not pass color vision deficiency screening, and (5) conducting near visual acuity screening monocularly or binocularly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602X18779801DOI Listing
July 2018

An Eye on Vision: Five Questions About Vision Screening and Eye Health.

NASN Sch Nurse 2018 May;33(3):146-149

Member of the National Expert Panel to the National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health (NCCVEH) at Prevent Blindness.

Current evidence-based and best-practice vision screening and eye health approaches, tools, and procedures are the result of revised national guidelines in the past 3 years and advances in research during the past 18 years. In providing answers to the five questions in this article, the National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness used published, peer-reviewed research; vision screening and eye health national guidelines; and consensus-based best practices from eye care professionals and public health experts. The answers may differ from your state or district vision screening guidelines and mandates. This is the second installment of the "An Eye on Vision" frequently asked questions section that will appear in future editions of NASN School Nurse. To review the first installment, see the March 2018 edition of NASN School Nurse. The authors encourage vision screeners to submit their vision screening and eye health questions to the email address that appears at the end of this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602X18765210DOI Listing
May 2018

An Eye on Vision: 20 Questions About Vision Screening and Eye Health.

NASN Sch Nurse 2018 Mar;33(2):87-92

Professor Emeritus, New England College of Optometry, Boston, MA.

Current evidence-based and best practice vision screening and eye health approaches, tools, and procedures are the result of revised national guidelines in the past 3 years and advances in research during the last 16 years. To help the busy school nurse with little time to keep up with changes in children's vision practices and a growing body of literature, the National Center for Children's Vision and Eye Health at Prevent Blindness is providing answers to 20 questions received most often from the field. Question topics are: (1) arranging the screening environment, (2) occluders to cover the eyes during vision screening, (3) optotype-based screening at distance, (4) optotype-based screening at near, (5) instrument-based screening, (6) muscle imbalance screening, (7) referrals, and (8) vision screening certification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602X18754320DOI Listing
March 2018

A multicenter analysis of the ophthalmic knowledge assessment program and American Board of Ophthalmology written qualifying examination performance.

Ophthalmology 2012 Oct 28;119(10):1949-53. Epub 2012 Jul 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Objective: To compare the performance on the American Board of Ophthalmology Written Qualifying Examination (WQE) with the performance on step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and the Ophthalmic Knowledge Assessment Program (OKAP) examination for residents in multiple residency programs.

Design: Comparative case series.

Participants: Fifteen residency programs with 339 total residents participated in this study. The data were extracted from the 5-year American Board of Ophthalmology report to each participating program in 2009 and included residency graduating classes from 2003 through 2007. Residents were included if data were available for the USMLE, OKAP examination in ophthalmology years 1 through 3, and the WQE score. Residents were excluded if one or more of the test scores were not available.

Methods: Two-sample t tests, logistic regression analysis, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the association of the various tests (USMLE, OKAP examination year 1, OKAP examination year 2, OKAP examination year 3, and maximum OKAP examination score) as a predictor for a passing or failing grade on the WQE.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure of this study was first time pass rate for the WQE.

Results: Using ROC analysis, the OKAP examination taken at the third year of ophthalmology residency best predicted performance on the WQE. For the OKAP examination taken during the third year of residency, the probability of passing the WQE was at least 80% for a score of 35 or higher and at least 95% for a score of 72 or higher.

Conclusions: The OKAP examination, especially in the third year of residency, can be useful to residents to predict the likelihood of success on the high-stakes WQE examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.06.010DOI Listing
October 2012

A historical review of distance vision screening eye charts: what to toss, what to keep, and what to replace.

NASN Sch Nurse 2011 Jul;26(4):221-8

The Good-Lite Company School Health Corporation, Elgin, IL, USA.

Vision screening protocol and equipment guidelines differ among schools across the United States. Budget cuts are forcing many school nurses to reevaluate their vision screening programs, as well as items in their vision screening toolboxes. School nurses tasked with inventorying those toolboxes to determine which items to toss, keep, or replace are oftentimes perplexed by the copious choices featured in vendor catalogs and websites. For school nurses who want their vision screening toolboxes to include eye charts, national and international eye chart design guidelines are available to help ensure selected eye charts are standardized. A national consensus policy exists that recommends specific eye charts. And, a large body of vision screening literature is available to help school nurses make informed decisions. Current documents suggest that LEA Symbols are appropriate for young children and Sloan Letters are a better choice than "Snellen" charts for older children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1942602x11411094DOI Listing
July 2011

Legislative issues facing pediatric ophthalmology in 2006.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2006 Oct;17(5):441-6

Pediatric Ophthalmology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

Purpose Of Review: There has been a surge in legislative activity concerning children's vision in recent years. This review will summarize and compare newly enacted state statutes and review legislation that has been introduced at both the state and federal level. Detailed reference sites are provided and may be a useful resource for those involved in legislative advocacy.

Recent Findings: The legislative arena has often mirrored the disparate views of ophthalmology and optometry regarding the most appropriate methods for identifying vision problems in young children. While state legislation mandating comprehensive eye examinations for all asymptomatic and risk free children was passed in Kentucky in 2000, no other state since has successfully enacted and implemented similar legislation. In contrast, numerous states, have enacted mandatory preschool vision screening legislation. Federal legislation, introduced separately by ophthalmology and optometry, would provide funds for uninsured children's eye exams, but the two bills have important differences in eligibility requirements. Issues such as eye safety and retinoblastoma detection have also been addressed through the legislative process.

Summary: There has been a myriad of state and federal legislative activity in the area of children's vision. The momentum is likely to continue as additional states file new legislation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.icu.0000243019.74757.20DOI Listing
October 2006

Project Universal Preschool Vision Screening: a demonstration project.

Pediatrics 2006 Feb;117(2):e226-37

Department of Optometry, School of Optometry, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Objectives: Visual disorders among preschool-aged children are common, yet screening is infrequent. The purpose of this project was to implement the vision screening recommendations proposed by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau and National Eye Institute Vision Screening in the Preschool Child Task Force: monocular visual acuity and stereopsis testing.

Methods: Four sites fully participated in the implementation of the task force recommendations with 3- and 4-year-old children. Two of the sites worked with primary care practices (testing performed by staff); 2 worked with community-based programs (testing performed by lay volunteers). Each site tracked number of children screened by age, as well as proportion testable, referred, and with documented follow-up evaluation.

Results: Variations in implementation of the recommendations were observed. Successful screening among 3-year-olds ranged from 70% to 93%; referral rates were 1% to 41%, and follow-up rates were 29% to 100%. Successful screening among 4-year-olds ranged from 88% to 98%; referral rates were 2% to 40%, and follow-up rates were 41% to 100%. The proportion of 3-year-olds who were treated was significantly different between the community-based sites (n = 20) and the primary care sites (n = 2). Similarly, the proportion of 4-year-olds who were treated was significantly different between the community-based sites (n = 36) and the primary care sites (n = 11).

Conclusion: . The variability across pilot sites in numbers successfully screened and numbers referred suggests that all aspects of preschool vision screening need thorough review before the goal of universal preschool vision screening can be realized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-2809DOI Listing
February 2006
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