Publications by authors named "Geni Sampaio"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Erythrocyte Membranes as Predictors of Lower Cardiovascular Risk in Adults without Previous Cardiovascular Events.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 3;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-904, Brazil.

This study investigated the association of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-3 PUFA) within erythrocyte membranes and cardiovascular risk assessed by three different estimates. Inclusion criteria were individuals of both sexes, 30 to 74 years, with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, and no previous cardiovascular events ( = 356). Exclusion criteria were individuals with acute or chronic severe diseases, infectious diseases, pregnant, and/or lactating women. Plasma biomarkers (lipids, glucose, and -reactive protein) were analyzed, and nineteen erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA) were identified. The cardiovascular risk was estimated by Framingham (FRS), Reynolds (RRS), and ACC/AHA-2013 Risk Scores. Three patterns of FA were identified (Factor 1, poor in -3 PUFA), (Factor 2, poor in PUFA), and (Factor 3, rich in -3 PUFA). Total cholesterol was inversely correlated with erythrocyte membranes C18:3 -3 (r = -0.155; = 0.004), C22:6 -3 (r = -0.112; = 0.041), and total -3 (r = -0.211; < 0.001). Total -3 PUFA was associated with lower cardiovascular risk by FRS (OR = 0.811; 95% CI= 0.675-0.976). Regarding RRS, Factor 3 was associated with 25.3% lower odds to have moderate and high cardiovascular risk (OR = 0.747; 95% CI = 0.589-0.948). The ACC/AHA-2013 risk score was not associated with isolated and pooled FA. -3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes are independent predictors of low-risk classification estimated by FRS and RRS, which could be explained by cholesterol-lowering effects of -3 PUFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13061919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227633PMC
June 2021

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Foods: Biological Effects, Legislation, Occurrence, Analytical Methods, and Strategies to Reduce Their Formation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 2;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, 715 Doutor Arnaldo Ave, Sao Paulo 01246-904, Brazil.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199595PMC
June 2021

Postprandial plasma lipidome responses to a high-fat meal among healthy women.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jun 27;97:108809. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Food Research Center (FoRC), CEPID-FAPESP, Research Innovation and Dissemination Centers São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Postprandial lipemia consists of changes in concentrations and composition of plasma lipids after food intake, commonly presented as increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia may also affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) structure and function, resulting in a net decrease in HDL concentrations. Elevated triglycerides (TG) and reduced HDL levels have been positively associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases development. Here, we investigated the plasma lipidome composition of 12 clinically healthy, nonobese and young women in response to an acute high-caloric (1135 kcal) and high-fat (64 g) breakfast meal. For this purpose, we employed a detailed untargeted mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach and data was obtained at four sampling points: fasting and 1, 3 and 5 h postprandial. Analysis of variance revealed 73 significantly altered lipid species between all sampling points. Nonetheless, two divergent subgroups have emerged at 5 h postprandial as a function of differential plasma lipidome responses, and were thereby designated slow and fast TG metabolizers. Late responses by slow TG metabolizers were associated with increased concentrations of several species of TG and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Lipidomic analysis of lipoprotein fractions at 5 h postprandial revealed higher TG and PI concentrations in HDL from slow relative to fast TG metabolizers, but not in apoB-containing fraction. These data indicate that modulations in HDL lipidome during prolonged postprandial lipemia may potentially impact HDL functions. A comprehensive characterization of plasma lipidome responses to acute metabolic challenges may contribute to a better understanding of diet/lifestyle regulation in the metabolism of lipid and glucose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108809DOI Listing
June 2021

The effect of the a regional cardioprotective nutritional program on inflammatory biomarkers and metabolic risk factors in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease, a randomised trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 28;40(6):3828-3835. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: To evaluate the effect of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program (BALANCE Program) on inflammatory biomarkers, involved in the pathophysiology of the atherosclerosis, on inflammatory biomarkers, cardiovascular risk factors, and on plasma fatty acids in cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients.

Methods: In this substudy of the BALANCE Program randomized clinical trial, a total of 369 patients aged 45 years or older, who have experienced cardiovascular disease in the previous 10 years, were included. These patients were randomized into two groups and followed up for six months: BALANCE Program group and control group (conventional nutrition advice). In the initial and six-month final visits, anthropometry (body weight, height and waist circumference), food intake evaluation by 24-h dietary recall, plasma inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein levels), blood pressure, glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, and plasma fatty acids levels were evaluated.

Results: The BALANCE Program group showed increased plasma alpha-linolenic acid levels (P = 0.008), reduction in waist circumference (P = 0.049) and BMI (P = 0.032). No difference was observed among plasma inflammatory biomarkers and clinical data.

Conclusion: After six months of follow-up, BALANCE Program led to a significant reduction on BMI and waist circumference in individuals in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. Although plasmatic alpha-linolenic acid has increased, there was no impact on plasma inflammatory biomarkers.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01620398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.035DOI Listing
June 2021

Lipid profile and high contents of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in different commercial brands of canned tuna.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 20;352:129334. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Food Technology, Institute of Technology, University Federal Rural of Rio de Janeiro, Rodovia Br 465, Seropédica, RJ, 23890-000, Brazil.

Canned fish is submitted to processes that may degrade its lipids and form harmful compounds called cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Samples of Brazilian commercial canned tuna were analyzed to evaluate the influence of different liquid mediums (oil and brine) on the fatty acid composition and formation of COPs. The exchange between fish lipids and the constituents of the covering liquid was highlighted by the high levels of linoleic acid found in tuna conserved in oil. High amounts of COPs were found. However, higher contents of COPs were found in tuna in brine (933.14 to 1914.23 µg/g) than in oil (698.24 to 1167.88 µg/g). This result was mainly promoted by the presence of pro-oxidant elements such as salt, as well as greater heat transfer in brine than in oil. This study showed that canned tuna is a potential source of exogenous COPs, indicating the role of liquid mediums in oxidative processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129334DOI Listing
August 2021

Do Flavonoids from Durum Wheat Contribute to Its Bioactive Properties? A Prospective Study.

Molecules 2021 Jan 17;26(2). Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Departamento de Ciencias Vegetales, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7830490, Chile.

A clear gap with respect to the potential biological properties of wheat flavonoids exists in the available literature. This information is crucial for breeding programs aiming to produce new varieties presenting improved health benefits. Accordingly, advanced breeding lines of whole durum wheat were evaluated in this contribution. The highest recovery of phenolics was achieved using aqueous acetone (50:50, ), as verified by multi-response optimization, thus showing that phenolics could be largely underestimated by employing an inappropriate extraction. The concentration of derivatives of apigenin, the main phenolics present, ranged from 63.5 to 80.7%, as evaluated by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Phenolics from the breeding line 98 exhibited the highest ability in scavenging peroxyl radicals, reducing power as well as in terms of inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity, a key enzyme regulating the absorption of triacylglycerols. In contrast, none of the samples exhibited a significant anti-diabetic potential. Despite their high concentration compared to that of phenolic acids, results of this work do not support a significant antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect of durum wheat flavonoids. Therefore, breeding programs and animal and/or human trials related to the effect of durum wheat flavonoids on oxidative stress and absorption of triacylglycerols are discouraged at this point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830396PMC
January 2021

Infusion time for fish oil-containing parenteral emulsions in surgery: A study on ω-3 fatty acid dynamics in rats.

Nutrition 2021 03 19;83:111066. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Surgery, Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, LIM 35.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to contribute to the design of specialized parenteral nutrition protocols in surgery by evaluating the dynamics of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentrations in different body pools after the infusion of fish oil-containing lipid emulsion (FOLE) in rats that had undergone surgical central venous catheterization (CVC).

Methods: After 5-d adaptation in metabolic cages, 78 male Lewis rats (300-450 g) fed a standard diet were sacrificed (baseline control) or had only CVC (surgical control) or also received a 72-h infusion of a parenteral lipid emulsion with or without fish oil. The catheterized animals were sacrificed 0 (T0), 2 (T2), 6 (T6), and 12 h (T12) after the infusion ended. Gas chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), and arachidonic (ARA) acids and the ω-3 to ω-6 ratio in plasma, liver, and blood leukocytes. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were applied to plasma and liver data and descriptive analysis to leukocyte data.

Results: Plasma, liver, and leukocytes exhibited almost undetectable EPA and DHA and detectable ARA concentrations at baseline. Immediately after FOLE infusion (T0), these PUFAs changed in all pools, resulting in a higher ratio of ω-3 to ω-6 compared with rats with no FOLE infusion (P < 0.05). All these changes decreased over time, with residual effects remaining until T6 in plasma, T12 in liver, and only until T2 in leukocytes.

Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that ω-3 PUFAs are cleared early after the end of FOLE infusion, mainly in leukocytes. This should be considered when FOLEs are applied for immunomodulatory purposes in surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111066DOI Listing
March 2021

Is There an Advantage in Enriching Parenteral Lipid Emulsions Containing Fatty Acids From Fish Oil With Medium-Chain Triglycerides? A Study on Body Pool Concentrations of ω-3 Fatty Acids in Lewis Rats.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2020 Oct 27. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Surgery (LIM-35), Department of Gastroenterology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) into parenteral lipid emulsions rich in fatty acids from fish oil (FOLEs) has been shown to improve their clearance and extrahepatic uptake. We assessed whether this effect could favor the leukocyte uptake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for immunomodulatory purposes METHODS: Following 5-day adaptation in metabolic cages, 42 male Lewis rats fed with AIN-93M chow were killed (baseline control group [BC]) or submitted to central venous catheterization and distributed into (1) surgical control group without parenteral infusion (chow group), (2) test emulsion (MCT/LCT/FO) group with the parenteral infusion of a FOLE containing 40% MCT, and (3) control emulsion group (LCT/FO) with the parenteral infusion of an FOLE without MCT. The 2 FOLEs had similar ω-3 PUFA contents and ω-6/ω-3 PUFA ratios and were infused during 48 and 72 hours. Concentrations of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs in plasma, liver, and blood mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were assessed by gas chromatography RESULTS: In both FOLE groups, leukocyte concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs peaked after 48 hours' infusion (vs BC). At this time point, plasma concentrations of ω-3 PUFAs were higher in MCT/LCT/FO group than in LCT/FO group and the opposite was found in the liver (P<.05), but no differences in PUFA concentrations were observed between these groups in leukocytes (P>.05) CONCLUSION: The ω-3 PUFAs provided by FOLEs rich in MCT were less incorporated by liver and remained more available for extrahepatic cell delivery, but this did not result in a clear benefit in increasing their incorporation by peripheral leukocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpen.2041DOI Listing
October 2020

The anticholesterol oxidation effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) in frozen fish burgers submitted to grilling.

J Food Sci 2020 Aug 17;85(8):2416-2426. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This study determined the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.), as well as evaluated their anticholesterol oxidation potential in fish burgers. The total phenolic contents were 1.1 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g FW to garlic and 1.3 ± 0.4 mg GAE/g FW for leek. Leek extract showed antioxidant activity index (1.3 ± 0.01) in DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid assay (66.5 ± 1.6%); however, in ORAC assay, no statistic differences were observed (P > 0.05). Besides that, bioactive compounds of garlic and leek extracts were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray by ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS). Fish burgers were prepared using different concentrations of leek and garlic and stored at -18 °C for 90 days. Thus, at days 0, 30, 60, and 90, the samples were grilled and analyzed as to their cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products contents. Storage and grilling led to an increase in cholesterol oxidation products; however, addition of garlic and leek minimized cholesterol oxidation products formation. After 90 days, samples containing 3% leek + 0.5% garlic ware the most effective in inhibiting the cholesterol oxides formation during storage and showed the lowest increase in cholesterol oxidation products content (21.16%). Thus, the findings of this research indicate the potential application of garlic and leek as natural inhibitors of cholesterol oxidation in food. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Garlic and leek have a set of bioactive compounds with a wide antioxidant capacity when used in meat foods such as fish burgers. Garlic and leek used as natural antioxidants perform well in the shelf life of fish burgers and can be substitutes for synthetic antioxidants in this type of product. The presence of both vegetables reduced the formation of prejudicial products to human health generated during the shelf life of the food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15344DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) fruit against polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol thermo-oxidation in model systems containing sardine oil (Sardinella brasiliensis).

Food Res Int 2020 06 14;132:109091. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Food Technology, Institute of Technology, University Federal Rural of Rio de Janeiro, Rodovia Br 465, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil.

This study evaluated the protective effect of ground aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) fruit addition against fatty acids and cholesterol oxidation in model systems containing sardine oil (Sardinella brasiliensis) during heating (150 and 180 °C). High temperatures reduced the amount of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and caused the formation of oxidized products. Total cholesterol oxides content increased from 58.9 ± 0.26 to 577.5 ± 2.14 μg/g oil, after heating at 180 °C. However, aroeira significantly protected lipids from oxidation. Although the synthetic antioxidant applied as standard (butylated hydroxytoluene) showed greater results, it was used in the maximum concentration permitted by Brazilian legislation (0.01%), suggesting that aroeira fruit could be used as a natural antioxidant for the food industry. The protective effect of aroeira may be correlated to its antioxidant capacity and the presence of bioactive compounds which were identified by UHPLC-ESI-MS in the aroeira extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109091DOI Listing
June 2020

Insoluble-Bound Polyphenols Released from Guarana Powder: Inhibition of Alpha-Glucosidase and Proanthocyanidin Profile.

Molecules 2020 Feb 5;25(3). Epub 2020 Feb 5.

School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, 715 Dr Arnaldo Avenue, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-904, Brazil.

The Brazilian Food Supplement Law recently recognized that guarana ( ) contains bioactive substances, hence supporting its role as a functional food ingredient. The health benefits of guarana are associated, at least in part, to its phenolic compounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no literature addressing the presence of phenolic compounds in the fraction containing insoluble-bound compounds and its contribution in terms of alpha-glucosidase inhibition. The concentration of phenolic extracts released from the insoluble-bound fraction required to inhibit 50% of alpha-glucosidase (IC) activity was 5.8-fold lower than that present in the soluble counterpart. Both fractions exhibited a mixed inhibition mode. Fourteen proanthocyanidins (dimers to tetramers) present in the insoluble-bound fraction were tentatively identified by MALDi-TOF-MS. Future studies aiming at increasing the concentration of the soluble counterpart are deemed necessary. The results presented here enhance the phenolic database of guarana and have a practical impact on the procurement of nutraceuticals and functional ingredients related to the prevention and/or management of type 2 diabetes. The Brazilian normative on food supplements has been recently revised. This study lends support to the future inclusion of guarana powder in the list of sources of proanthocyanidins for the industry of food supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036825PMC
February 2020

Aroeira fruit (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) as a natural antioxidant: Chemical constituents, bioactive compounds and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity.

Food Chem 2020 Jun 22;315:126274. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Food Technology, Institute of Technology, University Federal Rural of Rio de Janeiro, Rodovia Br 465, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil.

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruit, known as Brazilian pepper or aroeira, is a natural source of bioactive compounds. However, studies about the antioxidant and nutritional contribution of this fruit in food systems are limited. Regarding the presence of bioactive compounds, flavonoids showed the highest level (10.33 ± 0.34 mg QE/g), and potential antioxidant components such biflavonoids were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The aroeira fruit extract showed antioxidant potential in DPPH (42.68 ± 0.05%), ORAC (43.40 ± 6.22 µM TE/g) and β- carotene/linoleic acid (61.41 ± 5.30%) assays. Besides that, in vivo analyses demonstrated the ability of aroeira extracts to decrease the damage caused by oxidative stress promoted by HO in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Thus, the presence of phytochemicals with functional properties and the antioxidant capacity of aroeira fruit indicate its use as a potential natural antioxidant for the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126274DOI Listing
June 2020

Circulating plasma microRNAs dysregulation and metabolic endotoxemia induced by a high-fat high-saturated diet.

Clin Nutr 2020 02 7;39(2):554-562. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, 01246-904 São Paulo, Brazil; Food Research Center (FoRC), CEPID-FAPESP, Research Innovation and Dissemination Centers São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo 05468-140, Brazil. Electronic address:

High-fat diet increase two to three times the plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and induce subclinical inflammation. Diet can modify gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to MicroRNAs (miRNAs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important role in the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in regulation of expression of genes related to the inflammatory response. Also, diet can indirectly induce post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNAs, which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases.

Objective: This study investigated the effect of high-fat high-saturated meal ingestion on plasma miRNA expression and LPS levels during the postprandial period in healthy women.

Methods: An interventional study was carried out in which a high-fat breakfast (1067.45 kcal), composed mainly of saturated fatty acids (56 g), and 500 mL of water, was offered. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 3 and 5 h after meal intake. The studied population consisted of healthy women (n = 11), aged between 20 and 40 years, and body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 25 kg/m. Plasma levels of lipid profile, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and LPS were measured at the 3 time points. A profile of 752 human plasma miRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR assay. These analyzes were performed for all blood collection time-points.

Results: Expression profile analysis revealed 33 differentially expressed plasma circulating miRNAs compared to that of the control group. MiR-145-5p and miR-200 were differentially modulated in all time-points post meal consumption. In addition, there was a significant increase in plasma LPS, triglycerides, myristic and palmitic saturated fatty acids levels at the 3 time-points in comparison with the control basal levels. We also observed increased levels of the plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) cytokine and the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels after 5 h post meal ingestion.

Conclusion: Ingestion of high-fat high-saturated meal was able to induce metabolic endotoxemia and increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TNF-alpha and VCAM-1, as well as modulating circulating miRNAs possibly controlling inflammatory and lipid metabolism proteins at the postprandial period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.02.042DOI Listing
February 2020

Identification and action of phenolic compounds of Jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart.) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities and flour effect on glycemic response and nutritional quality of breads.

Food Res Int 2019 02 24;116:1076-1083. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study investigated the phenolic profile of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart.) extracts submitted to in vitro digestion, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities; and the effect of jatobá-do-cerrado flour addition on the nutritional quality, glycemic index (GI) and acceptability of breads. The phenolic composition was determined by UPLC-MS. Bread formulations were developed adding the jatobá-do-cerrado flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) to replace wheat flour. Phenolic compounds of biological relevance such as caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin-3-rutinoside and quercetin-3-rhamnoside were present in jatobá-do-cerrado. The phenolic extracts after in vitro digestion significantly inhibited the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Breads with 20% jatobá-do-cerrado flour addition promoted significant reduction (22%) in GI from 70 (control) to 54.3, while 30% addition presented GI of 57.4 and 10% addition a GI of 62.5. The replacement of refined wheat flour by jatobá-do-cerrado flour reduced glycemic response of breads in a non-dose dependent manner. The dietary fibers and the phenolic compounds of jatobá-do-cerrado exerted a synergetic modulation of glucose metabolism by inhibiting sugar metabolic enzymes and glucose absorption. Thus, jatobá-do-cerrado can be included in the diet of healthy individuals and chronic diseases patients, such as diabetics, as an alternative to improve glycemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.09.050DOI Listing
February 2019

Plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are associated with multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer.

Nutrition 2019 02 21;58:194-200. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Nutrition Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids with multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer patients.

Methods: Ninety-five women with recently diagnosed breast cancer and no previous treatment were selected for this study. The socioeconomic, clinical, and demographic profile of the patients was determined using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Body weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Blood samples were drawn after a 12-h fast for biochemical analyses. The oxidative stress biomarkers low-density lipoprotein (-) and its anti-low-density lipoprotein (-) antibodies, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and adiponectin were measured. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids were assessed by gas chromatography. Factor and principal component analysis was used to identify three factors called factor 1 (anti-inflammatory), factor 2 (antioxidant), and factor 3 (oxidant). Linear regression, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate the association of these factors with plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and their ratios.

Results: ω-3 series fatty acids showed a positive association with Factor 1. A positive association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-6 fatty acids with factors 1 and 2, respectively, was found. ω-6/ω-3 ratio (plasma) was inversely associated with the anti-inflammatory factor.

Conclusion: Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 series were associated with multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.07.115DOI Listing
February 2019

Association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with and without insulin resistance and in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a cross-sectional study.

Nutr J 2018 02 21;17(1):26. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them.

Methods: In this cross-sectional sub-study from the BALANCE Program Trial, we collected data from 359 patients with established cardiovascular disease. Plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were measured. Biomarkers and plasma fatty acid levels of subjects across insulin resistant and not insulin resistant groups were compared, and general linear models were used to examine the association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers.

Results: Subjects with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of hs-CRP (p = 0.002) and IL-6 (p = 0.002) than subjects without insulin resistance. Among subjects without insulin resistance there was a positive association between stearic fatty acid and IL-6 (p = 0.032), and a negative association between alpha-linolenic fatty acid and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05). Among those with insulin resistance there was a positive association between monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic fatty acid and adiponectin (p < 0.05), and a negative association between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05), as well as a negative association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and adiponectin (p < 0.05). Our study has not found any association between hs-CRP and plasma fatty acids.

Conclusions: Subjects in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease with insulin resistance have a higher concentration of hs-CRP and IL-6 than individuals without insulin resistance, and these inflammatory biomarkers are positively associated with saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with unsaturated fatty acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0342-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822607PMC
February 2018

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content and fatty acids profile in coconut, safflower, evening primrose and linseed oils.

Food Chem 2018 Apr 2;245:798-805. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo - USP, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira César, CEP 01246-904 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed at evaluating the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination of commercial vegetable oils and examined the identity through the fatty acids profiles. Coconut, safflower, evening primrose, and linseed oils marketed in São Paulo (Brazil) were investigated totaling 69 samples. Four PAHs, benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), were detected in 96% of the samples at individual levels ranging from not detected to 14.99 μg kg. Chrysene was the abundant hydrocarbon found among all types of oils, with the highest median values. The results of the fatty acid profiles revealed that 43% showed different profiles according to the ones on their labels, with a higher incidence of adulteration of evening primrose oils. The maximum tolerable limits by European Regulation No. 835/2011 were exceeded for BaP in 12%, and for total 4 PAHs in 28%, with a greater contribution of adulterated samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.11.109DOI Listing
April 2018

Impact of Air Frying on Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Oxidation in Sardines: Protective Effects of Aromatic Herbs.

J Food Sci 2017 Dec 10;82(12):2823-2831. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Dept. of Food Technology, Inst. of Technology, Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Rodovia Br 465, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil.

The high temperatures used to fry fish may induce thermo-oxidation of cholesterol, forming cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). COPs have been associated to coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and other chronic diseases. Air fryers are an alternative thermal process technology to fry foods without oil, and are considered a healthier cooking method. This study is the 1st to evaluate the formation of COPs and the degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in air-fried sardine fillets. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of fresh herbs added as natural antioxidants to sardines subjected to air frying. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), and a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) were added in quantities of 0%, 2%, and 4%. Air frying significantly decreased the content of essential PUFAs, and increased the levels of COPs from 61.2 (raw) to 283 μg/g (P < 0.05) in the control samples. However, the use of herbs as natural antioxidants proved to be effective reducing such levels of COPs in most samples. The addition of 4% of cheiro-verde in air-fried sardines presented the best protective effect against lipid oxidation.

Practical Application: Fish is an important source of essential lipids. However, oxidized cholesterol products, which are formed during thermal processing, are potential hazards to human health. Air fryers present an alternative thermal process for frying food without oil, and this method of cooking is considered to be more convenient and healthier This study shows that the air frying increased the formation of cholesterol oxidation products and decreased the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in sardine fillets. However, the lipid oxidation is significantly reduced by adding fresh herbs, such as parsley (Petroselinum crispum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.), or a mixture of both herbs (cheiro-verde) that are natural antioxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13967DOI Listing
December 2017

Association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Nutrition 2017 May 28;37:30-36. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the association between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory biomarkers among patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: In this cross-sectional substudy from BALANCE Program Trial, we have collected data from 364 patients with established CVD. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and plasma FA concentrations were analyzed to estimate the FA intake. Inflammatory biomarkers measurement consisted of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. After log-transformation of inflammatory biomarkers, multivariate-adjusted general linear model was used to examine the effect of FA intake. The association was adjusted for body mass index, waist circumference, energy, smoking status, age, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, physical activity, and calcium channel blockers.

Results: PUFAs were inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.006) and with IL-1 β. The increase of 1 g/1000 kcal in PUFAs, omega-3, and omega-6 reduces, on average, 6%, 48%, and 8% respectively, the mean concentration of IL-1 β.

Conclusion: Omega-3 and omega-6 FA intakes are inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers among CVD patients. Additional studies on omega-3 and omega-6 intake in relation to inflammatory biomarkers in patients in secondary prevention of CVD are needed, particularly regarding dietary patterns that are rich in some sources of PUFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.12.006DOI Listing
May 2017

Optimization and validation of a method using UHPLC-fluorescence for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold-pressed vegetable oils.

Food Chem 2017 Apr 22;221:809-814. Epub 2016 Nov 22.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo - USP, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira César, CEP 01246-904 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Among the different food categories, the oils and fats are important sources of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of organic chemical contaminants. The use of a validated method is essential to obtain reliable analytical results since the legislation establishes maximum limits in different foods. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate a method for the quantification of four PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene] in vegetable oils. The samples were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the validation parameters were evaluated according to the INMETRO Guidelines: linearity (r2 >0.99), selectivity (no matrix interference), limits of detection (0.08-0.30μgkg) and quantification (0.25-1.00μgkg), recovery (80.13-100.04%), repeatability and intermediate precision (<10% RSD). The method was found to be adequate for routine analysis of PAHs in the vegetable oils evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.098DOI Listing
April 2017

Bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in rats after acute ingestion of maté tea (Ilex paraguariensis) or 5-caffeoylquinic acid.

Eur J Nutr 2017 Dec 17;56(8):2541-2556. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Nutrition Department, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Av Dr Arnaldo 715, São Paulo, SP, CEP 01246-904, Brazil.

Purpose: Yerba maté is widely consumed in South America as different beverages, such as maté tea (roasted leaves) and chimarrão (green dried leaves), and linked to health benefits, mainly attributed to chlorogenic acids (CGAs). Health effects of CGAs depend on their bioavailability, but such data are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of CGAs and metabolites in tissues, hepatic and plasmatic kinetic profile and urinary excretion after ingestion of maté tea or 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA).

Methods: Wistar rats ingested maté tea (MT) or 5-CQA (ST) and were killed after 1.5 h for tissue distribution analysis (pilot study) or at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h for liver and plasma kinetics (main experiment). Urine was collected in metabolic cages. Biological samples were analyzed by UPLC-DAD-MS with and without incubation with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase.

Results: CGAs and metabolites were detected in all tissues. Caffeic acid was the main compound in plasma up to 2 h after ingestion of maté tea, while 5-CQA predominated in ST group. Concentration of microbial metabolites increased 4 h after gavage and reached higher amounts in MT plasma and liver, when compared to ST group. Approximately 4.0 % of compounds ingested by MT and 3.3 % by ST were recovered in urine up to 8 h after the gavage.

Conclusion: The study confirms that not only absorption, but also metabolization of CGAs begins in stomach. There were differences in compounds formed from maté tea or isolated 5-CQA, showing that CGAs profile in food may influence qualitatively and quantitatively the metabolites formed in the body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1290-1DOI Listing
December 2017

Bioavailability of catechins from guaraná (Paullinia cupana) and its effect on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative stress markers in healthy human subjects.

Food Funct 2016 Jul;7(7):2970-8

School of Public Health - University of São Paulo, São Paulo-SP, Brazil.

We assessed the effects of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) consumption on plasma catechins, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ex vivo LDL oxidation, plasma total antioxidant status and ORAC, and lymphocyte single cell gel electrophoresis) in healthy overweight subjects. Twelve participants completed a 15-day run-in period followed by a 15-day intervention with a daily intake of 3 g guaraná seed powder containing 90 mg (+)-catechin and 60 mg (-)-epicatechin. Blood samples were taken on the first and last day of the intervention period, fasting and 1 h post-dose. The administration of guaraná increased plasma ORAC, while reducing ex vivo LDL oxidation (only in the first study day) and hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes, at 1 h post-dose. Plasma catechin (0.38 ± 0.12 and 0.44 ± 0.18 nmol mL(-1)), epicatechin (0.59 ± 0.18 and 0.64 ± 0.25 nmol mL(-1)) and their methylated metabolites were observed at 1 h post-dose but were almost negligible after overnight fasting. The activities of catalase (in both study days) and glutathione peroxidase (in the last intervention day) increased at 1 h post-dose. Furthermore, the activity of both enzymes remained higher than the basal levels in overnight-fasting individuals on the last intervention day, suggesting a prolonged effect of guaraná that continues even after plasma catechin clearance. In conclusion, guaraná catechins are bioavailable and contribute to reduce the oxidative stress of clinically healthy individuals, by direct antioxidant action of the absorbed phytochemicals and up-regulation of antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6fo00513fDOI Listing
July 2016

Influence of home cooking conditions on Maillard reaction products in beef.

Food Chem 2016 Apr 6;196:161-9. Epub 2015 Sep 6.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, São Paulo, SP 01246-904, Brazil. Electronic address:

The influence of home cooking methods on the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRP) in beef was investigated. Grilling and frying hamburgers to an internal temperature below 90 °C mainly generated furosine. When the temperature reached 90 °C and 100 °C, furosine content decreased by 36% and fluorescent compounds increased by up to 98%. Baking meat at 300 °C, the most severe heat treatment studied, resulted in the formation of carboxymethyllysine. Boiling in water caused very low MRP formation. Acrylamide concentrations in grilled, fried or baked meat were extremely low. Home cooking conditions leading to low MRP generation and pleasant colours were obtained and could be used to guide diabetic and chronic renal patients on how to reduce their carboxymethyllysine intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.09.008DOI Listing
April 2016

Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

J Food Sci 2015 Dec 10;80(12):R2627-39. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Dept. of Food Technology, Rural Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Brazil - Rodovia BR 465, km 7, Seropédica, RJ, CEP, 23890-000, Brazil.

Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13124DOI Listing
December 2015

[Vitamin and mineral supplements: regulation, consumption, and health implications].

Cad Saude Publica 2015 Jul;31(7):1371-80

Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.

Micronutrient supplementation to reduce nutritional deficiencies has grown in recent years due to changes in the population's dietary patterns. Widespread preoccupation with health, ease in marketing vitamin and mineral supplements, and strong advertising appeal have encouraged increasing consumption of these products, thereby posing health risks. The current study addresses legislation, consumption, and health risks related to vitamin and mineral supplements in Brazil. The Brazilian legislation on dietary supplements is complex. Studies on their consumption by the Brazilian population are limited, and inappropriate use due to gaps in knowledge poses a potential health risk to the population. The study concludes that public policies are needed to raise awareness on this topic among the general public, health professionals, and sales personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00177814DOI Listing
July 2015

Dietary advanced glycation end products and their role in health and disease.

Adv Nutr 2015 Jul 15;6(4):461-73. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Medical Science Department, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico;

Over the past 2 decades there has been increasing evidence supporting an important contribution from food-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to the body pool of AGEs and therefore increased oxidative stress and inflammation, processes that play a major role in the causation of chronic diseases. A 3-d symposium (1st Latin American Symposium of AGEs) to discuss this subject took place in Guanajuato, Mexico, on 1-3 October 2014 with the participation of researchers from several countries. This review is a summary of the different presentations and subjects discussed, and it is divided into 4 sections. The first section deals with current general knowledge about AGEs. The second section dwells on mechanisms of action of AGEs, with special emphasis on the receptor for advanced glycation end products and the potential role of AGEs in neurodegenerative diseases. The third section discusses different approaches to decrease the AGE burden. The last section discusses current methodologic problems with measurement of AGEs in different samples. The subject under discussion is complex and extensive and cannot be completely covered in a short review. Therefore, some areas of interest have been left out because of space. However, we hope this review illustrates currently known facts about dietary AGEs as well as pointing out areas that require further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.115.008433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4496742PMC
July 2015

Development and validation of methods for the extraction of phenolic acids from plasma, urine, and liver and analysis by UPLC-MS.

J Agric Food Chem 2013 Jun 13;61(25):6113-21. Epub 2013 Jun 13.

Nutrition Department, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo , Av. Dr. Arnaldo 715, CEP 01246-904, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This study developed and validated a method for the extraction and determination of 11 phenolic acids in rat plasma, urine, and liver by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). A system suitability test (instrumental linearity, area, and retention time precision) was performed and recovery, intraday and between-day precisions, detection limits (LOD), and quantification limits (LOQ) were determined for all compounds in each biological matrix. Recoveries varied between 88 and 117% in plasma, between 87 and 102% in urine, and between 38 and 100% in liver. Precision was higher than 13.7% intraday and 14.0% interday in all matrices, at three concentration levels. To demonstrate the applicability, the method was used to estimate the concentrations of phenolic acids in samples from animals that received 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) by gavage. The excellent validation results and the applicability of the method to real samples confirmed the suitability for studies on absorption, bioavailability, and pharmacokinetics of phenolic acids derived from foods rich in phenolic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf401534dDOI Listing
June 2013

Influence of seasonality on the chemical composition of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae).

Food Chem 2013 Jun 29;138(2-3):786-90. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

School of Nutrition, Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Brazil.

This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of seasonality on the chemical composition of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae). Samples were collected during summer and winter from the estuary and lagoon complex of the municipality of Barra de São Miguel, Alagoas, Brazil. Statistical differences (p<0.05) between summer and winter were observed in relation to chemical composition. The oysters cultivated in the winter presented some nutritional advantages because of the higher levels of proteins and functional nutrients, such as the eicosapentaenoic-docosahexaenoic acid combination and percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 and n-6), and the lower levels of saturated fatty acids. Therefore, the animals in winter presented a higher content of cholesterol oxides. The levels of cholesterol oxides found in these products during winter may encourage researchers to investigate the composition of oysters cultivated in different climates all over the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.088DOI Listing
June 2013
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