Publications by authors named "Geni Rodrigues Sampaio"

24 Publications

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Effects of a Brazilian cardioprotective diet and nuts on cardiometabolic parameters after myocardial infarction: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Trials 2021 Sep 1;22(1):582. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia (INC), Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Nut consumption has been related to improvements on cardiometabolic parameters and reduction in the severity of atherosclerosis mainly in primary cardiovascular prevention. The objective of this trial is to evaluate the effects of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet (DIeta CArdioprotetora Brasileira, DICA Br) based on consumption of inexpensive locally accessible foods supplemented or not with mixed nuts on cardiometabolic features in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods: DICA-NUTS study is a national, multicenter, randomized 16-week follow-up clinical trial. Patients over 40 years old with diagnosis of previous MI in the last 2 to 6 months will be recruited (n = 388). A standardized questionnaire will be applied to data collection and blood samples will be obtained. Patients will be allocated in two groups: Group 1: DICA Br supplemented with 30 g/day of mixed nuts (10 g of peanuts, 10 g of cashew, 10 g of Brazil nuts); and Group 2: only DICA Br. The primary outcome will consist of LDL cholesterol means (in mg/dL) after 16 weeks of intervention. Secondary outcomes will consist of other markers of lipid profile, glycemic profile, and anthropometric data.

Discussion: It is expected that DICA Br supplemented with mixed nuts have superior beneficial effects on cardiometabolic parameters in patients after a MI, when compared to DICA Br.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03728127 . First register: November 1, 2018; Last update: June 16, 2021. World Health Organization Universal Trial Number (WHO-UTN): U1111-1259-8105.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05494-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411551PMC
September 2021

Effects of extra virgin olive oil and pecans on plasma fatty acids in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

Nutrition 2021 Jul 15;91-92:111411. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

HCor Research Institute, Hospital do Coração (IP-HCor), São Paulo, Brazil; Graduate Program in Health Sciences (Cardiology), Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a healthy diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil or pecans on plasma fatty acids (PFAs) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: Patients 40 to 80 y of age were randomized to one of three dietary interventions (allocation ratio 1: 1: 1): healthy diet based on guidelines (control group [CG]), healthy diet supplemented with 30 g/d of pecans (PNG), or a healthy diet supplemented with 30 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil (OOG). PFAs were identified at baseline and at the end of follow-up (12 wk), and correlations between dietary fatty acids intake, PFAs, and clinical biomarkers of the lipid profile were also assessed before and after the interventions.

Results: Among 149 participants included in the analysis (43 CG; 51 PNG; and 55 OOG), correlations were observed between food intake, PFAs, and lipid profile before and after interventions independent of statins used, but all were considered weak. At the end of the study, the OOG showed increased concentrations of oleic fatty acid independently of the type of statin in use (1.49%; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-2.89; P = 0.029); however, there were no significant differences between the groups regarding the final mean values of oleic fatty acid or in the other PFAs.

Conclusions: In patients with stable CAD, there were no significant differences in PFAs after 12 wk according to dietary interventions evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111411DOI Listing
July 2021

Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Erythrocyte Membranes as Predictors of Lower Cardiovascular Risk in Adults without Previous Cardiovascular Events.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 3;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-904, Brazil.

This study investigated the association of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-3 PUFA) within erythrocyte membranes and cardiovascular risk assessed by three different estimates. Inclusion criteria were individuals of both sexes, 30 to 74 years, with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, and no previous cardiovascular events ( = 356). Exclusion criteria were individuals with acute or chronic severe diseases, infectious diseases, pregnant, and/or lactating women. Plasma biomarkers (lipids, glucose, and -reactive protein) were analyzed, and nineteen erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA) were identified. The cardiovascular risk was estimated by Framingham (FRS), Reynolds (RRS), and ACC/AHA-2013 Risk Scores. Three patterns of FA were identified (Factor 1, poor in -3 PUFA), (Factor 2, poor in PUFA), and (Factor 3, rich in -3 PUFA). Total cholesterol was inversely correlated with erythrocyte membranes C18:3 -3 (r = -0.155; = 0.004), C22:6 -3 (r = -0.112; = 0.041), and total -3 (r = -0.211; < 0.001). Total -3 PUFA was associated with lower cardiovascular risk by FRS (OR = 0.811; 95% CI= 0.675-0.976). Regarding RRS, Factor 3 was associated with 25.3% lower odds to have moderate and high cardiovascular risk (OR = 0.747; 95% CI = 0.589-0.948). The ACC/AHA-2013 risk score was not associated with isolated and pooled FA. -3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes are independent predictors of low-risk classification estimated by FRS and RRS, which could be explained by cholesterol-lowering effects of -3 PUFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13061919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227633PMC
June 2021

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Foods: Biological Effects, Legislation, Occurrence, Analytical Methods, and Strategies to Reduce Their Formation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 2;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, 715 Doutor Arnaldo Ave, Sao Paulo 01246-904, Brazil.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199595PMC
June 2021

Postprandial plasma lipidome responses to a high-fat meal among healthy women.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jun 27;97:108809. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Food Research Center (FoRC), CEPID-FAPESP, Research Innovation and Dissemination Centers São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Postprandial lipemia consists of changes in concentrations and composition of plasma lipids after food intake, commonly presented as increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia may also affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) structure and function, resulting in a net decrease in HDL concentrations. Elevated triglycerides (TG) and reduced HDL levels have been positively associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases development. Here, we investigated the plasma lipidome composition of 12 clinically healthy, nonobese and young women in response to an acute high-caloric (1135 kcal) and high-fat (64 g) breakfast meal. For this purpose, we employed a detailed untargeted mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach and data was obtained at four sampling points: fasting and 1, 3 and 5 h postprandial. Analysis of variance revealed 73 significantly altered lipid species between all sampling points. Nonetheless, two divergent subgroups have emerged at 5 h postprandial as a function of differential plasma lipidome responses, and were thereby designated slow and fast TG metabolizers. Late responses by slow TG metabolizers were associated with increased concentrations of several species of TG and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Lipidomic analysis of lipoprotein fractions at 5 h postprandial revealed higher TG and PI concentrations in HDL from slow relative to fast TG metabolizers, but not in apoB-containing fraction. These data indicate that modulations in HDL lipidome during prolonged postprandial lipemia may potentially impact HDL functions. A comprehensive characterization of plasma lipidome responses to acute metabolic challenges may contribute to a better understanding of diet/lifestyle regulation in the metabolism of lipid and glucose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108809DOI Listing
June 2021

Lipid profile and high contents of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in different commercial brands of canned tuna.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 20;352:129334. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Food Technology, Institute of Technology, University Federal Rural of Rio de Janeiro, Rodovia Br 465, Seropédica, RJ, 23890-000, Brazil.

Canned fish is submitted to processes that may degrade its lipids and form harmful compounds called cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). Samples of Brazilian commercial canned tuna were analyzed to evaluate the influence of different liquid mediums (oil and brine) on the fatty acid composition and formation of COPs. The exchange between fish lipids and the constituents of the covering liquid was highlighted by the high levels of linoleic acid found in tuna conserved in oil. High amounts of COPs were found. However, higher contents of COPs were found in tuna in brine (933.14 to 1914.23 µg/g) than in oil (698.24 to 1167.88 µg/g). This result was mainly promoted by the presence of pro-oxidant elements such as salt, as well as greater heat transfer in brine than in oil. This study showed that canned tuna is a potential source of exogenous COPs, indicating the role of liquid mediums in oxidative processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129334DOI Listing
August 2021

The anticholesterol oxidation effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) in frozen fish burgers submitted to grilling.

J Food Sci 2020 Aug 17;85(8):2416-2426. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This study determined the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.), as well as evaluated their anticholesterol oxidation potential in fish burgers. The total phenolic contents were 1.1 ± 0.1 mg GAE/g FW to garlic and 1.3 ± 0.4 mg GAE/g FW for leek. Leek extract showed antioxidant activity index (1.3 ± 0.01) in DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid assay (66.5 ± 1.6%); however, in ORAC assay, no statistic differences were observed (P > 0.05). Besides that, bioactive compounds of garlic and leek extracts were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray by ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS). Fish burgers were prepared using different concentrations of leek and garlic and stored at -18 °C for 90 days. Thus, at days 0, 30, 60, and 90, the samples were grilled and analyzed as to their cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation products contents. Storage and grilling led to an increase in cholesterol oxidation products; however, addition of garlic and leek minimized cholesterol oxidation products formation. After 90 days, samples containing 3% leek + 0.5% garlic ware the most effective in inhibiting the cholesterol oxides formation during storage and showed the lowest increase in cholesterol oxidation products content (21.16%). Thus, the findings of this research indicate the potential application of garlic and leek as natural inhibitors of cholesterol oxidation in food. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Garlic and leek have a set of bioactive compounds with a wide antioxidant capacity when used in meat foods such as fish burgers. Garlic and leek used as natural antioxidants perform well in the shelf life of fish burgers and can be substitutes for synthetic antioxidants in this type of product. The presence of both vegetables reduced the formation of prejudicial products to human health generated during the shelf life of the food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15344DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) fruit against polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol thermo-oxidation in model systems containing sardine oil (Sardinella brasiliensis).

Food Res Int 2020 06 14;132:109091. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Food Technology, Institute of Technology, University Federal Rural of Rio de Janeiro, Rodovia Br 465, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil.

This study evaluated the protective effect of ground aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) fruit addition against fatty acids and cholesterol oxidation in model systems containing sardine oil (Sardinella brasiliensis) during heating (150 and 180 °C). High temperatures reduced the amount of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and caused the formation of oxidized products. Total cholesterol oxides content increased from 58.9 ± 0.26 to 577.5 ± 2.14 μg/g oil, after heating at 180 °C. However, aroeira significantly protected lipids from oxidation. Although the synthetic antioxidant applied as standard (butylated hydroxytoluene) showed greater results, it was used in the maximum concentration permitted by Brazilian legislation (0.01%), suggesting that aroeira fruit could be used as a natural antioxidant for the food industry. The protective effect of aroeira may be correlated to its antioxidant capacity and the presence of bioactive compounds which were identified by UHPLC-ESI-MS in the aroeira extract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109091DOI Listing
June 2020

Insoluble-Bound Polyphenols Released from Guarana Powder: Inhibition of Alpha-Glucosidase and Proanthocyanidin Profile.

Molecules 2020 Feb 5;25(3). Epub 2020 Feb 5.

School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, 715 Dr Arnaldo Avenue, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 01246-904, Brazil.

The Brazilian Food Supplement Law recently recognized that guarana ( ) contains bioactive substances, hence supporting its role as a functional food ingredient. The health benefits of guarana are associated, at least in part, to its phenolic compounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no literature addressing the presence of phenolic compounds in the fraction containing insoluble-bound compounds and its contribution in terms of alpha-glucosidase inhibition. The concentration of phenolic extracts released from the insoluble-bound fraction required to inhibit 50% of alpha-glucosidase (IC) activity was 5.8-fold lower than that present in the soluble counterpart. Both fractions exhibited a mixed inhibition mode. Fourteen proanthocyanidins (dimers to tetramers) present in the insoluble-bound fraction were tentatively identified by MALDi-TOF-MS. Future studies aiming at increasing the concentration of the soluble counterpart are deemed necessary. The results presented here enhance the phenolic database of guarana and have a practical impact on the procurement of nutraceuticals and functional ingredients related to the prevention and/or management of type 2 diabetes. The Brazilian normative on food supplements has been recently revised. This study lends support to the future inclusion of guarana powder in the list of sources of proanthocyanidins for the industry of food supplements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25030679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036825PMC
February 2020

Aroeira fruit (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) as a natural antioxidant: Chemical constituents, bioactive compounds and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity.

Food Chem 2020 Jun 22;315:126274. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Food Technology, Institute of Technology, University Federal Rural of Rio de Janeiro, Rodovia Br 465, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil.

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruit, known as Brazilian pepper or aroeira, is a natural source of bioactive compounds. However, studies about the antioxidant and nutritional contribution of this fruit in food systems are limited. Regarding the presence of bioactive compounds, flavonoids showed the highest level (10.33 ± 0.34 mg QE/g), and potential antioxidant components such biflavonoids were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The aroeira fruit extract showed antioxidant potential in DPPH (42.68 ± 0.05%), ORAC (43.40 ± 6.22 µM TE/g) and β- carotene/linoleic acid (61.41 ± 5.30%) assays. Besides that, in vivo analyses demonstrated the ability of aroeira extracts to decrease the damage caused by oxidative stress promoted by HO in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Thus, the presence of phytochemicals with functional properties and the antioxidant capacity of aroeira fruit indicate its use as a potential natural antioxidant for the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126274DOI Listing
June 2020

Circulating plasma microRNAs dysregulation and metabolic endotoxemia induced by a high-fat high-saturated diet.

Clin Nutr 2020 02 7;39(2):554-562. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, 01246-904 São Paulo, Brazil; Food Research Center (FoRC), CEPID-FAPESP, Research Innovation and Dissemination Centers São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo 05468-140, Brazil. Electronic address:

High-fat diet increase two to three times the plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and induce subclinical inflammation. Diet can modify gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to MicroRNAs (miRNAs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important role in the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in regulation of expression of genes related to the inflammatory response. Also, diet can indirectly induce post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNAs, which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases.

Objective: This study investigated the effect of high-fat high-saturated meal ingestion on plasma miRNA expression and LPS levels during the postprandial period in healthy women.

Methods: An interventional study was carried out in which a high-fat breakfast (1067.45 kcal), composed mainly of saturated fatty acids (56 g), and 500 mL of water, was offered. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 3 and 5 h after meal intake. The studied population consisted of healthy women (n = 11), aged between 20 and 40 years, and body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 25 kg/m. Plasma levels of lipid profile, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and LPS were measured at the 3 time points. A profile of 752 human plasma miRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR assay. These analyzes were performed for all blood collection time-points.

Results: Expression profile analysis revealed 33 differentially expressed plasma circulating miRNAs compared to that of the control group. MiR-145-5p and miR-200 were differentially modulated in all time-points post meal consumption. In addition, there was a significant increase in plasma LPS, triglycerides, myristic and palmitic saturated fatty acids levels at the 3 time-points in comparison with the control basal levels. We also observed increased levels of the plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) cytokine and the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels after 5 h post meal ingestion.

Conclusion: Ingestion of high-fat high-saturated meal was able to induce metabolic endotoxemia and increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TNF-alpha and VCAM-1, as well as modulating circulating miRNAs possibly controlling inflammatory and lipid metabolism proteins at the postprandial period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.02.042DOI Listing
February 2020

Identification and action of phenolic compounds of Jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart.) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities and flour effect on glycemic response and nutritional quality of breads.

Food Res Int 2019 02 24;116:1076-1083. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study investigated the phenolic profile of jatobá-do-cerrado (Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart.) extracts submitted to in vitro digestion, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities; and the effect of jatobá-do-cerrado flour addition on the nutritional quality, glycemic index (GI) and acceptability of breads. The phenolic composition was determined by UPLC-MS. Bread formulations were developed adding the jatobá-do-cerrado flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) to replace wheat flour. Phenolic compounds of biological relevance such as caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin-3-rutinoside and quercetin-3-rhamnoside were present in jatobá-do-cerrado. The phenolic extracts after in vitro digestion significantly inhibited the α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Breads with 20% jatobá-do-cerrado flour addition promoted significant reduction (22%) in GI from 70 (control) to 54.3, while 30% addition presented GI of 57.4 and 10% addition a GI of 62.5. The replacement of refined wheat flour by jatobá-do-cerrado flour reduced glycemic response of breads in a non-dose dependent manner. The dietary fibers and the phenolic compounds of jatobá-do-cerrado exerted a synergetic modulation of glucose metabolism by inhibiting sugar metabolic enzymes and glucose absorption. Thus, jatobá-do-cerrado can be included in the diet of healthy individuals and chronic diseases patients, such as diabetics, as an alternative to improve glycemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.09.050DOI Listing
February 2019

Plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are associated with multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer.

Nutrition 2019 02 21;58:194-200. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Nutrition Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids with multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer patients.

Methods: Ninety-five women with recently diagnosed breast cancer and no previous treatment were selected for this study. The socioeconomic, clinical, and demographic profile of the patients was determined using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Body weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Blood samples were drawn after a 12-h fast for biochemical analyses. The oxidative stress biomarkers low-density lipoprotein (-) and its anti-low-density lipoprotein (-) antibodies, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and adiponectin were measured. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids were assessed by gas chromatography. Factor and principal component analysis was used to identify three factors called factor 1 (anti-inflammatory), factor 2 (antioxidant), and factor 3 (oxidant). Linear regression, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate the association of these factors with plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and their ratios.

Results: ω-3 series fatty acids showed a positive association with Factor 1. A positive association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-6 fatty acids with factors 1 and 2, respectively, was found. ω-6/ω-3 ratio (plasma) was inversely associated with the anti-inflammatory factor.

Conclusion: Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 series were associated with multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.07.115DOI Listing
February 2019

Association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with and without insulin resistance and in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a cross-sectional study.

Nutr J 2018 02 21;17(1):26. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them.

Methods: In this cross-sectional sub-study from the BALANCE Program Trial, we collected data from 359 patients with established cardiovascular disease. Plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were measured. Biomarkers and plasma fatty acid levels of subjects across insulin resistant and not insulin resistant groups were compared, and general linear models were used to examine the association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers.

Results: Subjects with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of hs-CRP (p = 0.002) and IL-6 (p = 0.002) than subjects without insulin resistance. Among subjects without insulin resistance there was a positive association between stearic fatty acid and IL-6 (p = 0.032), and a negative association between alpha-linolenic fatty acid and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05). Among those with insulin resistance there was a positive association between monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic fatty acid and adiponectin (p < 0.05), and a negative association between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05), as well as a negative association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and adiponectin (p < 0.05). Our study has not found any association between hs-CRP and plasma fatty acids.

Conclusions: Subjects in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease with insulin resistance have a higher concentration of hs-CRP and IL-6 than individuals without insulin resistance, and these inflammatory biomarkers are positively associated with saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with unsaturated fatty acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0342-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822607PMC
February 2018

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content and fatty acids profile in coconut, safflower, evening primrose and linseed oils.

Food Chem 2018 Apr 2;245:798-805. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo - USP, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira César, CEP 01246-904 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study aimed at evaluating the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination of commercial vegetable oils and examined the identity through the fatty acids profiles. Coconut, safflower, evening primrose, and linseed oils marketed in São Paulo (Brazil) were investigated totaling 69 samples. Four PAHs, benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), were detected in 96% of the samples at individual levels ranging from not detected to 14.99 μg kg. Chrysene was the abundant hydrocarbon found among all types of oils, with the highest median values. The results of the fatty acid profiles revealed that 43% showed different profiles according to the ones on their labels, with a higher incidence of adulteration of evening primrose oils. The maximum tolerable limits by European Regulation No. 835/2011 were exceeded for BaP in 12%, and for total 4 PAHs in 28%, with a greater contribution of adulterated samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.11.109DOI Listing
April 2018

Association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Nutrition 2017 May 28;37:30-36. Epub 2016 Dec 28.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the association between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory biomarkers among patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: In this cross-sectional substudy from BALANCE Program Trial, we have collected data from 364 patients with established CVD. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and plasma FA concentrations were analyzed to estimate the FA intake. Inflammatory biomarkers measurement consisted of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. After log-transformation of inflammatory biomarkers, multivariate-adjusted general linear model was used to examine the effect of FA intake. The association was adjusted for body mass index, waist circumference, energy, smoking status, age, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, physical activity, and calcium channel blockers.

Results: PUFAs were inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.006) and with IL-1 β. The increase of 1 g/1000 kcal in PUFAs, omega-3, and omega-6 reduces, on average, 6%, 48%, and 8% respectively, the mean concentration of IL-1 β.

Conclusion: Omega-3 and omega-6 FA intakes are inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers among CVD patients. Additional studies on omega-3 and omega-6 intake in relation to inflammatory biomarkers in patients in secondary prevention of CVD are needed, particularly regarding dietary patterns that are rich in some sources of PUFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.12.006DOI Listing
May 2017

Optimization and validation of a method using UHPLC-fluorescence for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold-pressed vegetable oils.

Food Chem 2017 Apr 22;221:809-814. Epub 2016 Nov 22.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo - USP, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo, 715, Cerqueira César, CEP 01246-904 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Among the different food categories, the oils and fats are important sources of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of organic chemical contaminants. The use of a validated method is essential to obtain reliable analytical results since the legislation establishes maximum limits in different foods. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate a method for the quantification of four PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene] in vegetable oils. The samples were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the validation parameters were evaluated according to the INMETRO Guidelines: linearity (r2 >0.99), selectivity (no matrix interference), limits of detection (0.08-0.30μgkg) and quantification (0.25-1.00μgkg), recovery (80.13-100.04%), repeatability and intermediate precision (<10% RSD). The method was found to be adequate for routine analysis of PAHs in the vegetable oils evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.11.098DOI Listing
April 2017

Bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in rats after acute ingestion of maté tea (Ilex paraguariensis) or 5-caffeoylquinic acid.

Eur J Nutr 2017 Dec 17;56(8):2541-2556. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Nutrition Department, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Av Dr Arnaldo 715, São Paulo, SP, CEP 01246-904, Brazil.

Purpose: Yerba maté is widely consumed in South America as different beverages, such as maté tea (roasted leaves) and chimarrão (green dried leaves), and linked to health benefits, mainly attributed to chlorogenic acids (CGAs). Health effects of CGAs depend on their bioavailability, but such data are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of CGAs and metabolites in tissues, hepatic and plasmatic kinetic profile and urinary excretion after ingestion of maté tea or 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA).

Methods: Wistar rats ingested maté tea (MT) or 5-CQA (ST) and were killed after 1.5 h for tissue distribution analysis (pilot study) or at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h for liver and plasma kinetics (main experiment). Urine was collected in metabolic cages. Biological samples were analyzed by UPLC-DAD-MS with and without incubation with β-glucuronidase and sulfatase.

Results: CGAs and metabolites were detected in all tissues. Caffeic acid was the main compound in plasma up to 2 h after ingestion of maté tea, while 5-CQA predominated in ST group. Concentration of microbial metabolites increased 4 h after gavage and reached higher amounts in MT plasma and liver, when compared to ST group. Approximately 4.0 % of compounds ingested by MT and 3.3 % by ST were recovered in urine up to 8 h after the gavage.

Conclusion: The study confirms that not only absorption, but also metabolization of CGAs begins in stomach. There were differences in compounds formed from maté tea or isolated 5-CQA, showing that CGAs profile in food may influence qualitatively and quantitatively the metabolites formed in the body.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1290-1DOI Listing
December 2017

Bioavailability of catechins from guaraná (Paullinia cupana) and its effect on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative stress markers in healthy human subjects.

Food Funct 2016 Jul;7(7):2970-8

School of Public Health - University of São Paulo, São Paulo-SP, Brazil.

We assessed the effects of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) consumption on plasma catechins, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ex vivo LDL oxidation, plasma total antioxidant status and ORAC, and lymphocyte single cell gel electrophoresis) in healthy overweight subjects. Twelve participants completed a 15-day run-in period followed by a 15-day intervention with a daily intake of 3 g guaraná seed powder containing 90 mg (+)-catechin and 60 mg (-)-epicatechin. Blood samples were taken on the first and last day of the intervention period, fasting and 1 h post-dose. The administration of guaraná increased plasma ORAC, while reducing ex vivo LDL oxidation (only in the first study day) and hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes, at 1 h post-dose. Plasma catechin (0.38 ± 0.12 and 0.44 ± 0.18 nmol mL(-1)), epicatechin (0.59 ± 0.18 and 0.64 ± 0.25 nmol mL(-1)) and their methylated metabolites were observed at 1 h post-dose but were almost negligible after overnight fasting. The activities of catalase (in both study days) and glutathione peroxidase (in the last intervention day) increased at 1 h post-dose. Furthermore, the activity of both enzymes remained higher than the basal levels in overnight-fasting individuals on the last intervention day, suggesting a prolonged effect of guaraná that continues even after plasma catechin clearance. In conclusion, guaraná catechins are bioavailable and contribute to reduce the oxidative stress of clinically healthy individuals, by direct antioxidant action of the absorbed phytochemicals and up-regulation of antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6fo00513fDOI Listing
July 2016

Influence of home cooking conditions on Maillard reaction products in beef.

Food Chem 2016 Apr 6;196:161-9. Epub 2015 Sep 6.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, São Paulo, SP 01246-904, Brazil. Electronic address:

The influence of home cooking methods on the generation of Maillard reaction products (MRP) in beef was investigated. Grilling and frying hamburgers to an internal temperature below 90 °C mainly generated furosine. When the temperature reached 90 °C and 100 °C, furosine content decreased by 36% and fluorescent compounds increased by up to 98%. Baking meat at 300 °C, the most severe heat treatment studied, resulted in the formation of carboxymethyllysine. Boiling in water caused very low MRP formation. Acrylamide concentrations in grilled, fried or baked meat were extremely low. Home cooking conditions leading to low MRP generation and pleasant colours were obtained and could be used to guide diabetic and chronic renal patients on how to reduce their carboxymethyllysine intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.09.008DOI Listing
April 2016

Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

J Food Sci 2015 Dec 10;80(12):R2627-39. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Dept. of Food Technology, Rural Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Brazil - Rodovia BR 465, km 7, Seropédica, RJ, CEP, 23890-000, Brazil.

Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13124DOI Listing
December 2015

FISH OIL AND VITAMIN E CHANGE LIPID PROFILES AND ANTI-LDL-ANTIBODIES IN TWO DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS OF WOMEN TRANSITIONING THROUGH MENOPAUSE.

Nutr Hosp 2015 Jul 1;32(1):165-74. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

Department of Nutrition. School of Public Health. University of São Paulo (USP)..

Background: studies have investigated the relationship between the transition through menopause and cardiovascular diseases. White population, generally, have lower levels of traditional coronary heart risk factors, particularly dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, and lower rates of coronary heart disease mortality, than black population. Furthermore many studies have shown the cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) of marine origin. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of omega-3 supplementation, combined or not with vitamin E, on oxidative biomarkers and lipid profiles in nonwhite and white women with dyslipidemia transitioning through menopause.

Methods: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-four eligible women were assigned to receive: fish oil, fish oil plus vitamin E and placebo for three months. At baseline, 45 and 90 days blood sample for biochemical variables and biomarkers of oxidative stress were taken. Socioeconomic and lifestyle variables were collected with standardized questionnaires.

Results: after 90 days the fish oil plus vitamin E treated group had a significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL-C. Furthermore, there was a decrease in anti- LDL- autoantibodies after 45 days. Plasma TBARS concentrations were increased after 90 days in the group receiving only fish oil when compared to the placebo and fish oil-vitamin E groups. All of the effects observed were independent of ethnic group.

Conclusion: supplementation with fish oil and vitamin E reduced total cholesterol and LDL-C, but had opposite effects on oxidative stress compared to supplementation with fish oil alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.32.1.9079DOI Listing
July 2015

[Vitamin and mineral supplements: regulation, consumption, and health implications].

Cad Saude Publica 2015 Jul;31(7):1371-80

Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.

Micronutrient supplementation to reduce nutritional deficiencies has grown in recent years due to changes in the population's dietary patterns. Widespread preoccupation with health, ease in marketing vitamin and mineral supplements, and strong advertising appeal have encouraged increasing consumption of these products, thereby posing health risks. The current study addresses legislation, consumption, and health risks related to vitamin and mineral supplements in Brazil. The Brazilian legislation on dietary supplements is complex. Studies on their consumption by the Brazilian population are limited, and inappropriate use due to gaps in knowledge poses a potential health risk to the population. The study concludes that public policies are needed to raise awareness on this topic among the general public, health professionals, and sales personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00177814DOI Listing
July 2015

Dietary advanced glycation end products and their role in health and disease.

Adv Nutr 2015 Jul 15;6(4):461-73. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Medical Science Department, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico;

Over the past 2 decades there has been increasing evidence supporting an important contribution from food-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to the body pool of AGEs and therefore increased oxidative stress and inflammation, processes that play a major role in the causation of chronic diseases. A 3-d symposium (1st Latin American Symposium of AGEs) to discuss this subject took place in Guanajuato, Mexico, on 1-3 October 2014 with the participation of researchers from several countries. This review is a summary of the different presentations and subjects discussed, and it is divided into 4 sections. The first section deals with current general knowledge about AGEs. The second section dwells on mechanisms of action of AGEs, with special emphasis on the receptor for advanced glycation end products and the potential role of AGEs in neurodegenerative diseases. The third section discusses different approaches to decrease the AGE burden. The last section discusses current methodologic problems with measurement of AGEs in different samples. The subject under discussion is complex and extensive and cannot be completely covered in a short review. Therefore, some areas of interest have been left out because of space. However, we hope this review illustrates currently known facts about dietary AGEs as well as pointing out areas that require further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.115.008433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4496742PMC
July 2015
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