Publications by authors named "Genevieve Mezoh"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Endothelial Dysfunction as a Primary Consequence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1321:33-43

Department of Chemical Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg, South Africa.

A number of different viral species are known to have effects on the endothelium. These include dengue, Ebola, Marburg, Lassa fever, yellow fever and influenza viruses, cytomegalovirus and coronaviruses. There are currently seven human endemic coronaviruses, all of which cause respiratory diseases and bind to receptors found within the endothelium. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly infectious. Like its predecessor, SARS-CoV, it binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), which is expressed in many cell types, particularly in the lung, including endothelial cells. The initiation of a cytokine storm by the virus along with infection of endothelial cells leads to apoptosis and structural and functional changes that attenuate vascular integrity in many organs including the lungs, heart, liver and kidney. Endothelial damage also enhances the coagulation pathway leading to thrombus formation in major vessels and capillaries. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 has an adverse outcome for individuals with particular comorbid diseases, e.g. hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is possible that this is due to the presence of pre-existing endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation in subjects with these diseases. Therapies for COVID-19 that target the endothelium, the inflammatory response and the coagulation pathway are currently under trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59261-5_3DOI Listing
March 2021

Deciphering Endothelial Dysfunction in the HIV-Infected Population.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1134:193-215

Department of Chemical Pathology, University of the Witwatersrand Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), as a possible consequence of endothelial dysfunction, is prevalent among HIV-infected patients despite successful administration of antiretroviral drugs. This warrants the routine clinical assessment of endothelial function in HIV-positive patients to circumvent potential CVD events. Several different non-invasive strategies have been employed to assess endothelial function in clinical research studies yielding inconsistencies among these reports. This review summarises the different techniques used for assessing endothelial function, with a focus on proposed blood-based biomarkers, such as endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL6) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM). The identification of suitable blood-based biomarkers, especially those that can be measured using a point-of-care device, would be more applicable in under-resourced countries where the prevalence of HIV is high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-12668-1_11DOI Listing
August 2019