Publications by authors named "Genevieve E Roth"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Noninvasive bladder testing of adolescent females to assess visceral hypersensitivity.

Pain 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Ob/Gyn, NorthShore University HealthSystem Evanston, IL, United States, Department of Ob/Gyn, University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States, Department of Psychology, Loyola University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.

Abstract: Excess pain after visceral provocation has been suggested as a marker for chronic pelvic pain risk in women. However, few noninvasive tests have been validated that could be performed readily on youth in early risk windows. Therefore, we evaluated the validity and reliability of a noninvasive bladder pain test in 124 healthy premenarchal females (median age 11, [interquartile range 11-12]), as previously studied in adult women. We explored whether psychosocial, sensory factors, and quantitative sensory test results were associated with provoked bladder pain and assessed the relation of bladder pain with abdominal pain history. Compared with findings in young adult females (age 21 [20-28]), results were similar except that adolescents had more pain at first sensation to void (P = 0.005) and lower maximum tolerance volume (P < 0.001). Anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, and pain catastrophizing predicted provoked bladder pain (P's < 0.05). Bladder pain inversely correlated with pressure pain thresholds (r = -0.25, P < 0.05), but not with cold pressor pain or conditioned pain modulation effectiveness. Bladder pain was also associated with frequency of abdominal pain symptoms (r = 0.25, P = 0.039). We found strong retest reliability for bladder pain at standard levels of sensory urgency in 21 adolescents who attended repeat visits at 6 to 12 months (intraclass correlations = 0.88-0.90). Noninvasive bladder pain testing seems reproducible in adolescent females and may predict abdominal pain symptomatology. Confirmation of our findings and further investigation of the bladder test across menarche will help establish how visceral sensitivity contributes to the early trajectory of pelvic pain risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002311DOI Listing
April 2021

Development and validation of a real-time method characterizing spontaneous pain in women with dysmenorrhea.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Apr 15;47(4):1472-1480. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

Aim: Prior research has primarily focused on static pain assessment, largely ignoring the dynamic nature of pain over time. We used a novel assessment tool for characterizing pain duration, frequency, and amplitude in women with dysmenorrhea and evaluated how these metrics were affected by naproxen treatment.

Methods: Dysmenorrheic women (n = 25) rated their menstrual pain by squeezing a pressure bulb proportional to the magnitude of their pain. To evaluate whether bulb squeezing was affected by naproxen, we compared parameters before and after naproxen. We also analyzed the correlation between pain relief on a numerical rating scale to changes in bulb squeezing parameters. Random bulb-squeezing activity in pain-free participants (n = 14) was used as a control for nonspecific effects or bias.

Results: In dysmenorrheic women, naproxen reduced the duration of the squeezing during a painful bout, the number of painful bouts and bout intensity. Before naproxen, the correlation between these bulb squeeze parameters and self-reported pain on numeric rating scale was not significant (R = 0.12, p = 0.304); however, there was a significant correlation between changes in bulb squeeze activity and self-reported pain relief after naproxen (R = 0.55, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a convenient technique for continuous pain assessment, capturing three different dimensions: duration, frequency, and magnitude. Naproxen may act by reducing the duration and frequency of episodic pain in addition to reducing the severity. After further validation, these methods could be used for other pain conditions for deeper phenotyping and assessing novel treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14663DOI Listing
April 2021

Cortical Mechanisms of Visual Hypersensitivity in Women at Risk for Chronic Pelvic Pain.

medRxiv 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Multisensory hypersensitivity (MSH), which refers to persistent discomfort across sensory modalities, is a risk factor for chronic pain. Developing a better understanding of the neural contributions of disparate sensory systems to MSH may clarify its role in the development of chronic pain. We recruited a cohort of women ( =147) enriched with participants with menstrual pain at risk for developing chronic pain. Visual sensitivity was measured using a periodic pattern-reversal stimulus during EEG. Self-reported visual unpleasantness ratings were also recorded. Bladder pain sensitivity was evaluated with an experimental bladder-filling task associated with early clinical symptoms of chronic pelvic pain. Visual stimulation induced unpleasantness was associated with bladder pain and evoked primary visual cortex excitation; however, the relationship between unpleasantness and cortical excitation was moderated by bladder pain. Thus, future studies aimed at reversing the progression of MSH into chronic pain should prioritize targeting of cortical mechanisms responsible for maladaptive sensory input integration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.03.20242032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836135PMC
January 2021

Low Serum Naproxen Concentrations Are Associated with Minimal Pain Relief: A Preliminary Study in Women with Dysmenorrhea.

Pain Med 2020 11;21(11):3102-3108

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, NorthShore University HealthSystem & Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objective: Incomplete pain relief after administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is common, but it is unknown whether malabsorption or heightened metabolism contributes to NSAID resistance. To explain the etiology of NSAID resistance, we evaluated naproxen absorption and metabolism in relation to pain relief in a pilot study of women with dysmenorrhea.

Methods: During menses, participants completed before and after naproxen ingestion pain assessments. Analgesic effectiveness was calculated as a percent change in pain rating before and after naproxen administration. To evaluate the impact of malabsorption, the correlation between analgesic effectiveness and serum naproxen was analyzed. To identify whether hypermetabolism contributes to NSAID resistance, we also analyzed the metabolite O-desmethylnaproxen.

Results: Serum naproxen and O-desmethylnaproxen concentrations of the dysmenorrheic cohort (N = 23, 126 ± 10 µg/mL, 381 ± 56 ng/mL) and healthy controls (N = 12, 135 ± 8 µg/mL, 355 ± 58 ng/mL) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), suggesting that menstrual pain does not affect drug absorption and metabolism. However, nine dysmenorrhea participants had levels of analgesic effectiveness <30%. Among dysmenorrheic women, analgesic effectiveness was correlated with serum naproxen (r = 0.49, P = 0.019) and O-desmethylnaproxen (r = 0.45, P = 0.032) concentrations. After controlling for other gynecological diagnoses, a multivariate model analysis confirmed that lower serum naproxen concentrations were associated with reduced pain relief (P  = 0.038).

Conclusions: Our preliminary findings suggest that poor drug absorption contributes to ineffective pain relief in dysmenorrheic women. Future studies should explore whether malabsorption contributes to NSAID resistance for other pain conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnaa133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784249PMC
November 2020

Dysmenorrhea subtypes exhibit differential quantitative sensory assessment profiles.

Pain 2020 06;161(6):1227-1236

Department of Ob/Gyn, Northshore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, United States.

Women who develop bladder pain syndrome (BPS), irritable bowel syndrome, or dyspareunia frequently have an antecedent history of dysmenorrhea. Despite the high prevalence of menstrual pain, its role in chronic pelvic pain emergence remains understudied. We systematically characterized bladder, body, and vaginal mechanical sensitivity with quantitative sensory testing in women with dysmenorrhea (DYS, n = 147), healthy controls (HCs) (n = 37), and women with BPS (n = 25). Previously, we have shown that a noninvasive, bladder-filling task identified a subset of women with both dysmenorrhea and silent bladder pain hypersensitivity, and we repeated this to subtype dysmenorrhea sufferers in this study (DYSB; n = 49). DYS, DYSB, and BPS participants had lower vaginal mechanical thresholds and reported more pain to a cold stimulus during a conditioned pain modulation task and greater pelvic examination after-pain than HCs (P's < 0.05). DYSB participants also had reduced body mechanical thresholds and less conditioned pain modulation compared to HCs and DYS participants (P's < 0.05). Comparing quantitative sensory testing results among the DYS and HC groups only, provoked bladder pain was the only significant predictor of self-reported menstrual pain (r = 0.26), bladder pain (r = 0.57), dyspareunia (r = 0.39), and bowel pain (r = 0.45). Our findings of widespread sensory sensitivity in women with dysmenorrhea and provoked bladder pain, much like that observed in chronic pain, suggest a need to study the trajectory of altered mechanisms of pain processing in preclinical silent visceral pain phenotypes to understand which features convey inexorable vs modifiable risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230023PMC
June 2020

Low Serum Oxytocin Concentrations Are Associated with Painful Menstruation.

Reprod Sci 2020 02 6;27(2):668-674. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, NorthShore University HealthSystem and The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Evanston, IL, USA.

Oxytocin-dependent mechanisms are hypothesized to contribute to painful menses, but clinical trials of oxytocin antagonists for dysmenorrhea have had divergent outcomes. In contrast, broader studies have shown that increased systemic oxytocin concentrations are associated with increased pain tolerance and improved psychosocial function. We sought to confirm whether increased serum oxytocin concentrations are associated with menstrual pain and other psychosocial factors. Women with a history of primary dysmenorrhea (n = 19), secondary dysmenorrhea (n = 12), and healthy controls (n = 15) completed pain and psychosocial questionnaires, provided a medical history, and rated their pain during the first 48 h of menses. Serum samples were collected during menses to measure oxytocin concentrations. Oxytocin was significantly lower in participants with a history of primary (704 ± 33 pg/mL; p < 0.001) or secondary (711 ± 66 pg/mL; p < 0.01) dysmenorrhea compared to healthy controls (967 ± 53 pg/mL). Menstrual pain over the past 3 months (r = -0.58; p < 0.001) and during the study visit (r = -0.45; p = 0.002) was negatively correlated with oxytocin concentrations. Pain catastrophizing (r = -0.39), pain behavior (r = -0.32), and pain interference (r = -0.31) were also negatively correlated with oxytocin levels (p's < 0.05). Oxytocin was not significantly correlated with psychosocial factors. Contrary to our hypothesis, women with a history of primary or secondary dysmenorrhea had lower oxytocin concentrations during menses when compared to healthy controls. Lower circulating oxytocin concentrations were also associated with worse menstrual pain and pain-related behavior. When considering the existing literature, low circulating oxytocin may be a sign of dysfunctional endogenous pain modulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-019-00071-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044072PMC
February 2020

Persistent autonomic dysfunction and bladder sensitivity in primary dysmenorrhea.

Sci Rep 2019 02 18;9(1):2194. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston IL, 60201, USA.

Menstrual pain, also known as dysmenorrhea, is a leading risk factor for bladder pain syndrome (BPS). A better understanding of the mechanisms that predispose dysmenorrheic women to BPS is needed to develop prophylactic strategies. Abnormal autonomic regulation, a key factor implicated in BPS and chronic pain, has not been adequately characterized in women with dysmenorrhea. Thus, we examined heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy (n = 34), dysmenorrheic (n = 103), and BPS participants (n = 23) in their luteal phase across a bladder-filling task. Both dysmenorrheic and BPS participants reported increased bladder pain sensitivity when compared to controls (p's < 0.001). Similarly, dysmenorrheic and BPS participants had increased heart rate (p's < 0.01), increased diastolic blood pressure (p's < 0.01), and reduced HRV (p's < 0.05) when compared to controls. Dysmenorrheic participants also exhibited little change in heart rate between maximum bladder capacity and after micturition when compared to controls (p = 0.013). Our findings demonstrate menstrual pain's association with abnormal autonomic activity and bladder sensitivity, even two weeks after menses. Our findings of autonomic dysfunction in both early episodic and chronic visceral pain states points to an urgent need to elucidate the development of such imbalance, perhaps beginning in adolescence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38545-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379479PMC
February 2019

Abdominal skeletal muscle activity precedes spontaneous menstrual cramping pain in primary dysmenorrhea.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 07 5;219(1):91.e1-91.e7. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, NorthShore University HealthSystem and Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Evanston IL. Electronic address:

Background: Dysmenorrhea is a pervasive pain condition that affects 20-50% of reproductive-aged women. Distension of a visceral organ, such as the uterus, could elicit a visceromotor reflex, resulting in involuntary skeletal muscle activity and referred pain. Although referred abdominal pain mechanisms can contribute to visceral pain, the role of abdominal muscle activity has not yet been investigated within the context of menstrual pain.

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether involuntary abdominal muscle activity precedes spontaneous episodes of menstrual cramping pain in dysmenorrheic women and whether naproxen administration affects abdominal muscle activity.

Study Design: Abdominal electromyography activity was recorded from women with severe dysmenorrhea (n = 38) and healthy controls (n = 10) during menses. Simultaneously, pain was measured in real time using a squeeze bulb or visual analog rheostat. Ninety minutes after naproxen administration, abdominal electromyography activity and menstrual pain were reassessed. As an additional control, women were also recorded off menses, and data were analyzed in relation to random bulb squeezes. Because it is unknown whether mechanisms of menstrual cramps are different in primary or secondary dysmenorrhea/chronic pelvic pain, the relationship between medical history and abdominal muscle activity was examined. To further examine differences in nociceptive mechanisms, pressure pain thresholds were also measured to evaluate changes in widespread pain sensitivity.

Results: Abdominal muscle activity related to random-bulb squeezing was rarely observed in healthy controls on menses (0.9 ± 0.6 episodes/hour) and in dysmenorrhea participants off menses (2.3 ± 0.6 episodes/hour). In dysmenorrheic participants during menses, abdominal muscle activity frequently preceded bulb squeezing indicative of menstrual cramping pain (10.8 ± 3.0 episodes/hour; P < .004). Whereas 45% of the women with dysmenorrhea (17 of 38) had episodes of abdominal muscle activity associated pain, only 13% (5 of 38) had episodes after naproxen (P = .011). Women with the abdominal muscle activity-associated pain were less likely to have a diagnosis for secondary dysmenorrhea or chronic pelvic pain (2 of 17) than women without this pain phenotype (10 of 21; P = .034). Similarly, women with the abdominal muscle activity-associated pain phenotype had less nonmenstrual pain days per month (0.6 ± 0.5) than women without the phenotype (12.4 ± 0.3; P = .002). Women with abdominal muscle activity-associated pain had pressure pain thresholds (22.4 ± 3.0 N) comparable with healthy controls (22.2 ± 3.0 N; P = .967). In contrast, women without abdominal muscle activity-associated pain had lower pressure pain thresholds (16.1 ± 1.9 N; P = .039).

Conclusion: Abdominal muscle activity may contribute to cramping pain in primary dysmenorrhea but is resolvable with naproxen. Dysmenorrheic patients without cramp-associated abdominal muscle activity exhibit widespread pain sensitivity (lower pressure pain thresholds) and are more likely to also have a chronic pain diagnosis, suggesting their cramps are linked to changes in central pain processes. This preliminary study suggests new tools to phenotype menstrual pain and supports the hypothesis that multiple distinct mechanisms may contribute to dysmenorrhea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2018.04.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6741772PMC
July 2018