Publications by authors named "Genevieve Bergendahl"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Relapsed and Refractory Childhood Solid Tumors Reveals a Diverse Molecular Landscape and Mechanisms of Immune Evasion.

Cancer Res 2021 12 5;81(23):5818-5832. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), Phoenix, Arizona.

Children with treatment-refractory or relapsed (R/R) tumors face poor prognoses. As the genomic underpinnings driving R/R disease are not well defined, we describe here the genomic and transcriptomic landscapes of R/R solid tumors from 202 patients enrolled in Beat Childhood Cancer Consortium clinical trials. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was elevated relative to untreated tumors at diagnosis, with one-third of tumors classified as having a pediatric high TMB. Prior chemotherapy exposure influenced the mutational landscape of these R/R tumors, with more than 40% of tumors demonstrating mutational signatures associated with platinum or temozolomide chemotherapy and two tumors showing treatment-associated hypermutation. Immunogenomic profiling found a heterogenous pattern of neoantigen and MHC class I expression and a general absence of immune infiltration. Transcriptional analysis and functional gene set enrichment analysis identified cross-pathology clusters associated with development, immune signaling, and cellular signaling pathways. While the landscapes of these R/R tumors reflected those of their corresponding untreated tumors at diagnosis, important exceptions were observed, suggestive of tumor evolution, treatment resistance mechanisms, and mutagenic etiologies of treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: Tumor heterogeneity, chemotherapy exposure, and tumor evolution contribute to the molecular profiles and increased mutational burden that occur in treatment-refractory and relapsed childhood solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-1033DOI Listing
December 2021

A subset analysis of a phase II trial evaluating the use of DFMO as maintenance therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma.

Int J Cancer 2020 12 24;147(11):3152-3159. Epub 2020 May 24.

Helen DeVos Children's Hospital at Spectrum Health, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA.

Neuroblastoma is a sympathetic nervous system tumor, primarily presenting in children under 6 years of age. The long-term prognosis for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (HRNB) remains poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy. This report provides an update to a phase II trial evaluating DFMO as maintenance therapy in HRNB. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of 81 subjects with HRNB treated with standard COG induction, consolidation and immunotherapy followed by 2 years of DFMO on the NMTRC003/003b Phase II trial were compared to a historical cohort of 76 HRNB patients treated at Beat Childhood Cancer Research Consortium (BCC) hospitals who were disease-free after completion of standard upfront therapy and did not receive DFMO. The 2- and 5-year EFS were 86.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 79.3%-94.2%] and 85.2% [77.8%-93.3%] for the NMTRC003/003b subset vs 78.3% [69.5%-88.3%] and 65.6% [55.5%-77.5%] for the historical control group. The 2- and 5-year OS were 98.8% [96.4-100%] and 95.1% [90.5%-99.9%] vs 94.4% [89.3%-99.9%] and 81.6% [73.0%-91.2%], respectively. DFMO maintenance for HRNB after completion of standard of care therapy was associated with improved EFS and OS relative to historical controls treated at the same institutions. These results support additional investigations into the potential role of DFMO in preventing relapse in HRNB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586843PMC
December 2020

Maintenance DFMO Increases Survival in High Risk Neuroblastoma.

Sci Rep 2018 09 27;8(1):14445. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.

High risk neuroblastoma (HRNB) accounts for 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. Despite aggressive therapy approximately half of patients will relapse, typically with only transient responses to second-line therapy. This study evaluated the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) as maintenance therapy to prevent relapse following completion of standard therapy (Stratum 1) or after salvage therapy for relapsed/refractory disease (Stratum 2). This Phase II single agent, single arm multicenter study enrolled from June 2012 to February 2016. Subjects received 2 years of oral DFMO (750 ± 250 mg/m twice daily). Event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis. 101 subjects enrolled on Stratum 1 and 100 were eligible for ITT analysis; two-year EFS was 84% (±4%) and OS 97% (±2%). 39 subjects enrolled on Stratum 2, with a two-year EFS of 54% (±8%) and OS 84% (±6%). DFMO was well tolerated. The median survival time is not yet defined for either stratum. DFMO maintenance therapy for HRNB in remission is safe and associated with high EFS and OS. Targeting ODC represents a novel therapeutic mechanism that may provide a new strategy for preventing relapse in children with HRNB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32659-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160434PMC
September 2018

Molecular Guided Therapy Provides Sustained Clinical Response in Refractory Choroid Plexus Carcinoma.

Front Pharmacol 2017 25;8:652. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Pediatric Oncology Translational Research Program, Helen DeVos Children's Hospital at Spectrum HealthGrand Rapids, MI, United States.

Choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs) are rare, aggressive pediatric brain tumors with no established curative therapy for relapsed disease, and poor survival rates. Mutation or dysfunction correlates with poor or no survival outcome in CPCs. Here, we report the case of a 4 month-old female who presented with disseminated CPC. After initial response to tumor resection and adjuvant-chemotherapy, the tumor recurred and metastasized with no response to aggressive relapse therapy suggesting genetic predisposition. This patient was then enrolled to a Molecular Guided Therapy Clinical Trial. Genomic profiling of patient tumor and normal sample identified a germline mutation with loss of heterozygosity, somatic mutations including , and aberrant activation of biological pathways. The mutations were not targetable for therapy. However, targeting the altered biological pathways (mTOR, PDGFRB, FGF2, HDAC) guided identification of possibly beneficial treatment with a combination of sirolimus, thalidomide, sunitinib, and vorinostat. This therapy led to 92% reduction in tumor size with no serious adverse events, excellent quality of life and long term survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622196PMC
September 2017

A Phase 1 Trial of TPI 287 as a Single Agent and in Combination With Temozolomide in Patients with Refractory or Recurrent Neuroblastoma or Medulloblastoma.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 Jan 31;63(1):39-46. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Helen DeVos Children's Hospital, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Background: The primary aim of this Phase I study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of TPI 287 and the safety and tolerability of TPI 287 alone and in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) in pediatric patients with refractory or recurrent neuroblastoma or medulloblastoma. The secondary aims were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of TPI 287 and the treatment responses.

Procedure: Eighteen patients were enrolled to a phase I dose escalation trial of weekly intravenous infusion of TPI 287 for two 28-day cycles with toxicity monitoring to determine the MTD, followed by two cycles of TPI 287 in combination with TMZ. Samples were collected to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters C(max), AUC(0-24), t(1/2), CL, and Vd on day 1 of cycles 1 (TPI 287 alone) and 3 (TPI 287 + TMZ) following TPI 287 infusion. Treatment response was evaluated by radiographic (CT or MRI) and radionuclide (MIBG) imaging for neuroblastoma.

Results: We determined the MTD of TPI 287 alone and in combination with temozolomide to be 125 mg/m(2). The non-dose-limiting toxicities at this dose were mainly anorexia and pain. The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of two patients at 135 mg/m(2) were grade 3 hemorrhagic cystitis and grade 3 sensory neuropathy.

Conclusions: Overall, TPI 287 was well tolerated by pediatric patients with refractory and relapsed neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma at a dose of 125 mg/m(2) IV on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28 day cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.25687DOI Listing
January 2016

A Phase I Trial of DFMO Targeting Polyamine Addiction in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Neuroblastoma.

PLoS One 2015 27;10(5):e0127246. Epub 2015 May 27.

College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States of America; University of Hawaii at Hilo, The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, Hilo, Hawaii, United States of America.

Background: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common cancer in infancy and most frequent cause of death from extracranial solid tumors in children. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) expression is an independent indicator of poor prognosis in NB patients. This study investigated safety, response, pharmacokinetics, genetic and metabolic factors associated with ODC in a clinical trial of the ODC inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) ± etoposide for patients with relapsed or refractory NB.

Methods And Findings: Twenty-one patients participated in a phase I study of daily oral DFMO alone for three weeks, followed by additional three-week cycles of DFMO plus daily oral etoposide. No dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) were identified in patients taking doses of DFMO between 500-1500 mg/m2 orally twice a day. DFMO pharmacokinetics, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ODC gene and urinary levels of substrates for the tissue polyamine exporter were measured. Urinary polyamine levels varied among patients at baseline. Patients with the minor T-allele at rs2302616 of the ODC gene had higher baseline levels (p=0.02) of, and larger decreases in, total urinary polyamines during the first cycle of DFMO therapy (p=0.003) and had median progression free survival (PFS) that was over three times longer, compared to patients with the major G allele at this locus although this last result was not statistically significant (p=0.07). Six of 18 evaluable patients were progression free during the trial period with three patients continuing progression free at 663, 1559 and 1573 days after initiating treatment. Median progression-free survival was less among patients having increased urinary polyamines, especially diacetylspermine, although this result was not statistically significant (p=0.056).

Conclusions: DFMO doses of 500-1500 mg/m2/day are safe and well tolerated in children with relapsed NB. Children with the minor T allele at rs2302616 of the ODC gene with relapsed or refractory NB had higher levels of urinary polyamine markers and responded better to therapy containing DFMO, compared to those with the major G allele at this locus. These findings suggest that this patient subset may display dependence on polyamines and be uniquely susceptible to therapies targeting this pathway.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT#01059071.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127246PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4446210PMC
April 2016

Feasibility of implementing molecular-guided therapy for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.

Cancer Med 2015 Jun 26;4(6):871-86. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona.

The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a process which would utilize genome-wide expression data from tumor biopsies to support individualized treatment decisions. Current treatment options for recurrent neuroblastoma are limited and ineffective, with a survival rate of <10%. Molecular profiling may provide data which will enable the practitioner to select the most appropriate therapeutic option for individual patients, thus improving outcomes. Sixteen patients with neuroblastoma were enrolled of which fourteen were eligible for this study. Feasibility was defined as completion of tumor biopsy, pathological evaluation, RNA quality control, gene expression profiling, bioinformatics analysis, generation of a drug prediction report, molecular tumor board yielding a treatment plan, independent medical monitor review, and treatment initiation within a 21 day period. All eligible biopsies passed histopathology and RNA quality control. Expression profiling by microarray and RNA sequencing were mutually validated. The average time from biopsy to report generation was 5.9 days and from biopsy to initiation of treatment was 12.4 days. No serious adverse events were observed and all adverse events were expected. Clinical benefit was seen in 64% of patients as stabilization of disease for at least one cycle of therapy or partial response. The overall response rate was 7% and the progression free survival was 59 days. This study demonstrates the feasibility and safety of performing real-time genomic profiling to guide treatment decision making for pediatric neuroblastoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4472210PMC
June 2015

A phase 1 study of nifurtimox in patients with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2011 Jan;33(1):25-30

Department of Pediatrics, Vermont Children's Hospital, Burlington, VT, USA.

The primary aim of this phase 1 study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and evaluate the safety of nifurtimox alone and in combination with cyclophosphamide and topotecan in multiple relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma pediatric patients. The secondary aim was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nifurtimox and the treatment response. To these ends, we performed a phase 1 dose escalation trial of daily oral nifurtimox with toxicity monitoring to determine the MTD, followed by 3 cycles of nifurtimox in combination with cyclophosphamide and topotecan. Samples were collected to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters maximum concentration, time at which maximum concentration is reached, and area under the curve between 0 and 8 hours. Treatment response was evaluated by radiographic and radionuclide (I-metaiodobenzylguanidine) imaging, measurement of urinary catecholamines, and clearance of bone marrow disease. We determined the MTD of nifurtimox to be 30 mg/kg/d. The non-dose-limiting toxicities were mainly nausea and neuropathy. The dose-limiting toxicities of 2 patients at 40 mg/kg/d were a grade 3 pulmonary hemorrhage and a grade 3 neuropathy (reversible). Overall, nifurtimox was well tolerated by pediatric patients at a dose of 30 mg/kg/d, and tumor responses were seen both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy. A Phase 2 study to determine the antitumor efficacy of nifurtimox is currently underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181f47061DOI Listing
January 2011
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