Publications by authors named "Gautier Koscielny"

13 Publications

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Open Targets Platform: supporting systematic drug-target identification and prioritisation.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(D1):D1302-D1310

Open Targets, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SD, UK.

The Open Targets Platform (https://www.targetvalidation.org/) provides users with a queryable knowledgebase and user interface to aid systematic target identification and prioritisation for drug discovery based upon underlying evidence. It is publicly available and the underlying code is open source. Since our last update two years ago, we have had 10 releases to maintain and continuously improve evidence for target-disease relationships from 20 different data sources. In addition, we have integrated new evidence from key datasets, including prioritised targets identified from genome-wide CRISPR knockout screens in 300 cancer models (Project Score), and GWAS/UK BioBank statistical genetic analysis evidence from the Open Targets Genetics Portal. We have evolved our evidence scoring framework to improve target identification. To aid the prioritisation of targets and inform on the potential impact of modulating a given target, we have added evaluation of post-marketing adverse drug reactions and new curated information on target tractability and safety. We have also developed the user interface and backend technologies to improve performance and usability. In this article, we describe the latest enhancements to the Platform, to address the fundamental challenge that developing effective and safe drugs is difficult and expensive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa1027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779013PMC
January 2021

Open Targets Genetics: systematic identification of trait-associated genes using large-scale genetics and functional genomics.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(D1):D1311-D1320

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK.

Open Targets Genetics (https://genetics.opentargets.org) is an open-access integrative resource that aggregates human GWAS and functional genomics data including gene expression, protein abundance, chromatin interaction and conformation data from a wide range of cell types and tissues to make robust connections between GWAS-associated loci, variants and likely causal genes. This enables systematic identification and prioritisation of likely causal variants and genes across all published trait-associated loci. In this paper, we describe the public resources we aggregate, the technology and analyses we use, and the functionality that the portal offers. Open Targets Genetics can be searched by variant, gene or study/phenotype. It offers tools that enable users to prioritise causal variants and genes at disease-associated loci and access systematic cross-disease and disease-molecular trait colocalization analysis across 92 cell types and tissues including the eQTL Catalogue. Data visualizations such as Manhattan-like plots, regional plots, credible sets overlap between studies and PheWAS plots enable users to explore GWAS signals in depth. The integrated data is made available through the web portal, for bulk download and via a GraphQL API, and the software is open source. Applications of this integrated data include identification of novel targets for drug discovery and drug repurposing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778936PMC
January 2021

Open Targets Platform: new developments and updates two years on.

Nucleic Acids Res 2019 01;47(D1):D1056-D1065

European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SD, UK.

The Open Targets Platform integrates evidence from genetics, genomics, transcriptomics, drugs, animal models and scientific literature to score and rank target-disease associations for drug target identification. The associations are displayed in an intuitive user interface (https://www.targetvalidation.org), and are available through a REST-API (https://api.opentargets.io/v3/platform/docs/swagger-ui) and a bulk download (https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data). In addition to target-disease associations, we also aggregate and display data at the target and disease levels to aid target prioritisation. Since our first publication two years ago, we have made eight releases, added new data sources for target-disease associations, started including causal genetic variants from non genome-wide targeted arrays, added new target and disease annotations, launched new visualisations and improved existing ones and released a new web tool for batch search of up to 200 targets. We have a new URL for the Open Targets Platform REST-API, new REST endpoints and also removed the need for authorisation for API fair use. Here, we present the latest developments of the Open Targets Platform, expanding the evidence and target-disease associations with new and improved data sources, refining data quality, enhancing website usability, and increasing our user base with our training workshops, user support, social media and bioinformatics forum engagement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky1133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324073PMC
January 2019

Uncovering novel repositioning opportunities using the Open Targets platform.

Drug Discov Today 2017 12 14;22(12):1800-1807. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

GSK, Medicines Research Center, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2NY, UK; Open Targets, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. Electronic address:

The recently developed Open Targets platform consolidates a wide range of comprehensive evidence associating known and potential drug targets with human diseases. We have harnessed the integrated data from this platform for novel drug repositioning opportunities. Our computational workflow systematically mines data from various evidence categories and presents potential repositioning opportunities for drugs that are marketed or being investigated in ongoing human clinical trials, based on evidence strength on target-disease pairing. We classified these novel target-disease opportunities in several ways: (i) number of independent counts of evidence; (ii) broad therapy area of origin; and (iii) repositioning within or across therapy areas. Finally, we elaborate on one example that was identified by this approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2017.09.007DOI Listing
December 2017

Open Targets: a platform for therapeutic target identification and validation.

Nucleic Acids Res 2017 01 29;45(D1):D985-D994. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Open Targets, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SD, UK.

We have designed and developed a data integration and visualization platform that provides evidence about the association of known and potential drug targets with diseases. The platform is designed to support identification and prioritization of biological targets for follow-up. Each drug target is linked to a disease using integrated genome-wide data from a broad range of data sources. The platform provides either a target-centric workflow to identify diseases that may be associated with a specific target, or a disease-centric workflow to identify targets that may be associated with a specific disease. Users can easily transition between these target- and disease-centric workflows. The Open Targets Validation Platform is accessible at https://www.targetvalidation.org.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw1055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5210543PMC
January 2017

Linking rare and common disease: mapping clinical disease-phenotypes to ontologies in therapeutic target validation.

J Biomed Semantics 2016 23;7. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SD UK ; Centre for Therapeutic Target Validation, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SD UK.

Background: The Centre for Therapeutic Target Validation (CTTV - https://www.targetvalidation.org/) was established to generate therapeutic target evidence from genome-scale experiments and analyses. CTTV aims to support the validity of therapeutic targets by integrating existing and newly-generated data. Data integration has been achieved in some resources by mapping metadata such as disease and phenotypes to the Experimental Factor Ontology (EFO). Additionally, the relationship between ontology descriptions of rare and common diseases and their phenotypes can offer insights into shared biological mechanisms and potential drug targets. Ontologies are not ideal for representing the sometimes associated type relationship required. This work addresses two challenges; annotation of diverse big data, and representation of complex, sometimes associated relationships between concepts.

Methods: Semantic mapping uses a combination of custom scripting, our annotation tool 'Zooma', and expert curation. Disease-phenotype associations were generated using literature mining on Europe PubMed Central abstracts, which were manually verified by experts for validity. Representation of the disease-phenotype association was achieved by the Ontology of Biomedical AssociatioN (OBAN), a generic association representation model. OBAN represents associations between a subject and object i.e., disease and its associated phenotypes and the source of evidence for that association. The indirect disease-to-disease associations are exposed through shared phenotypes. This was applied to the use case of linking rare to common diseases at the CTTV.

Results: EFO yields an average of over 80% of mapping coverage in all data sources. A 42% precision is obtained from the manual verification of the text-mined disease-phenotype associations. This results in 1452 and 2810 disease-phenotype pairs for IBD and autoimmune disease and contributes towards 11,338 rare diseases associations (merged with existing published work [Am J Hum Genet 97:111-24, 2015]). An OBAN result file is downloadable at http://sourceforge.net/p/efo/code/HEAD/tree/trunk/src/efoassociations/. Twenty common diseases are linked to 85 rare diseases by shared phenotypes. A generalizable OBAN model for association representation is presented in this study.

Conclusions: Here we present solutions to large-scale annotation-ontology mapping in the CTTV knowledge base, a process for disease-phenotype mining, and propose a generic association model, 'OBAN', as a means to integrate disease using shared phenotypes.

Availability: EFO is released monthly and available for download at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/efo/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13326-016-0051-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4804633PMC
October 2016

The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium Web Portal, a unified point of access for knockout mice and related phenotyping data.

Nucleic Acids Res 2014 Jan 4;42(Database issue):D802-9. Epub 2013 Nov 4.

European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK, Medical Research Council Harwell (Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Centre), Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD, UK and Mouse Informatics Group, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.

The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) web portal (http://www.mousephenotype.org) provides the biomedical community with a unified point of access to mutant mice and rich collection of related emerging and existing mouse phenotype data. IMPC mouse clinics worldwide follow rigorous highly structured and standardized protocols for the experimentation, collection and dissemination of data. Dedicated 'data wranglers' work with each phenotyping center to collate data and perform quality control of data. An automated statistical analysis pipeline has been developed to identify knockout strains with a significant change in the phenotype parameters. Annotation with biomedical ontologies allows biologists and clinicians to easily find mouse strains with phenotypic traits relevant to their research. Data integration with other resources will provide insights into mammalian gene function and human disease. As phenotype data become available for every gene in the mouse, the IMPC web portal will become an invaluable tool for researchers studying the genetic contributions of genes to human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964955PMC
January 2014

Analysis of variation at transcription factor binding sites in Drosophila and humans.

Genome Biol 2012 Sep 28;13(9):R49. Epub 2012 Sep 28.

European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, CB10 1SD, UK.

Background: Advances in sequencing technology have boosted population genomics and made it possible to map the positions of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) with high precision. Here we investigate TFBS variability by combining transcription factor binding maps generated by ENCODE, modENCODE, our previously published data and other sources with genomic variation data for human individuals and Drosophila isogenic lines.

Results: We introduce a metric of TFBS variability that takes into account changes in motif match associated with mutation and makes it possible to investigate TFBS functional constraints instance-by-instance as well as in sets that share common biological properties. We also take advantage of the emerging per-individual transcription factor binding data to show evidence that TFBS mutations, particularly at evolutionarily conserved sites, can be efficiently buffered to ensure coherent levels of transcription factor binding.

Conclusions: Our analyses provide insights into the relationship between individual and interspecies variation and show evidence for the functional buffering of TFBS mutations in both humans and flies. In a broad perspective, these results demonstrate the potential of combining functional genomics and population genetics approaches for understanding gene regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491393PMC
September 2012

VectorBase: improvements to a bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vector genomics.

Nucleic Acids Res 2012 Jan 1;40(Database issue):D729-34. Epub 2011 Dec 1.

European Bioinformatics Institute EMBL, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SD, UK.

VectorBase (http://www.vectorbase.org) is a NIAID-supported bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens. It hosts data for nine genomes: mosquitoes (three Anopheles gambiae genomes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus), tick (Ixodes scapularis), body louse (Pediculus humanus), kissing bug (Rhodnius prolixus) and tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans). Hosted data range from genomic features and expression data to population genetics and ontologies. We describe improvements and integration of new data that expand our taxonomic coverage. Releases are bi-monthly and include the delivery of preliminary data for emerging genomes. Frequent updates of the genome browser provide VectorBase users with increasing options for visualizing their own high-throughput data. One major development is a new population biology resource for storing genomic variations, insecticide resistance data and their associated metadata. It takes advantage of improved ontologies and controlled vocabularies. Combined, these new features ensure timely release of multiple types of data in the public domain while helping overcome the bottlenecks of bioinformatics and annotation by engaging with our user community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkr1089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3245112PMC
January 2012

Ensembl 2012.

Nucleic Acids Res 2012 Jan 15;40(Database issue):D84-90. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK.

The Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org) provides genome resources for chordate genomes with a particular focus on human genome data as well as data for key model organisms such as mouse, rat and zebrafish. Five additional species were added in the last year including gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) and Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) bringing the total number of supported species to 61 as of Ensembl release 64 (September 2011). Of these, 55 species appear on the main Ensembl website and six species are provided on the Ensembl preview site (Pre!Ensembl; http://pre.ensembl.org) with preliminary support. The past year has also seen improvements across the project.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkr991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3245178PMC
January 2012

Ensembl Genomes: an integrative resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species.

Nucleic Acids Res 2012 Jan 8;40(Database issue):D91-7. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK.

Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrative resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species. The project exploits and extends technology (for genome annotation, analysis and dissemination) developed in the context of the (vertebrate-focused) Ensembl project and provides a complementary set of resources for non-vertebrate species through a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces. These provide access to data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, polymorphisms and comparative analysis. Since its launch in 2009, Ensembl Genomes has undergone rapid expansion, with the goal of providing coverage of all major experimental organisms, and additionally including taxonomic reference points to provide the evolutionary context in which genes can be understood. Against the backdrop of a continuing increase in genome sequencing activities in all parts of the tree of life, we seek to work, wherever possible, with the communities actively generating and using data, and are participants in a growing range of collaborations involved in the annotation and analysis of genomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkr895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3245118PMC
January 2012

Ensembl's 10th year.

Nucleic Acids Res 2010 Jan 11;38(Database issue):D557-62. Epub 2009 Nov 11.

European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK.

Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org) integrates genomic information for a comprehensive set of chordate genomes with a particular focus on resources for human, mouse, rat, zebrafish and other high-value sequenced genomes. We provide complete gene annotations for all supported species in addition to specific resources that target genome variation, function and evolution. Ensembl data is accessible in a variety of formats including via our genome browser, API and BioMart. This year marks the tenth anniversary of Ensembl and in that time the project has grown with advances in genome technology. As of release 56 (September 2009), Ensembl supports 51 species including marmoset, pig, zebra finch, lizard, gorilla and wallaby, which were added in the past year. Major additions and improvements to Ensembl since our previous report include the incorporation of the human GRCh37 assembly, enhanced visualisation and data-mining options for the Ensembl regulatory features and continued development of our software infrastructure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkp972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2808936PMC
January 2010

ASTD: The Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database.

Genomics 2009 Mar 24;93(3):213-20. Epub 2008 Dec 24.

European Bioinformatics Institute, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

The Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database (ASTD) gives access to a vast collection of alternative transcripts that integrate transcription initiation, polyadenylation and splicing variant data. Alternative transcripts are derived from the mapping of transcribed sequences to the complete human, mouse and rat genomes using an extension of the computational pipeline developed for the ASD (Alternative Splicing Database) and ATD (Alternative Transcript Diversity) databases, which are now superseded by ASTD. For the human genome, ASTD identifies splicing variants, transcription initiation variants and polyadenylation variants in 68%, 68% and 62% of the gene set, respectively, consistent with current estimates for transcription variation. Users can access ASTD through a variety of browsing and query tools, including expression state-based queries for the identification of tissue-specific isoforms. Participating laboratories have experimentally validated a subset of ASTD-predicted alternative splice forms and alternative polyadenylation forms that were not previously reported. The ASTD database can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/astd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.11.003DOI Listing
March 2009
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