Publications by authors named "Gautam Borthakur"

371 Publications

Final results of a phase 2 clinical trial of LCL161, an oral SMAC mimetic for patients with myelofibrosis.

Blood Adv 2021 08;5(16):3163-3173

Department of Leukemia.

Outcomes in patients with high-risk and treatment-resistant myelofibrosis (MF) post-JAK inhibitor therapy remain poor, with no approved drug therapies beyond the JAK inhibitor class. In certain clinical situations, such as severe thrombocytopenia, administration of most JAK inhibitors are contraindicated. Thus, there is an unmet medical need for the development of novel agents for patients with MF. SMAC mimetics [or inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists] induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Because these agents are hypothesized to have increased activity in a tumor necrosis factor-α cytokine-rich microenvironment, as is the case with MF, we conducted a single-center, investigator-initiated phase 2 clinical trial, with a monovalent SMAC mimetic LCL161 (oral, starting dose, 1500 mg per week) in patients with intermediate to high-risk MF. In an older group, 66% with ≥2 prior therapies and a median baseline platelet count of 52 × 103/μL and 28% with ASXL1 mutations, we observed a 30% objective response by Revised International Working Group-Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment (IWG-MRT) 2013 criteria. Notably, 6 responding patients achieved clinical improvement of anemia: 4, hemoglobin response; 2, transfusion independence. Median OS was 34 months (range, 2.2-60.1+). Reductions of cIAPs were observed in all responders. The most common toxicity was nausea/vomiting (N/V) in 64% (mostly grade 1/2); fatigue in 46%; and dizziness/vertigo in 30%. There were 4 grade 3/4 adverse events (2, syncope; 1, N/V; 1, skin eruption/pruritis). There were 2 deaths during the study period, both unrelated to the study drug. SMAC mimetics may represent an option for older patients with thrombocytopenia or for those in whom prior JAK inhibitors has failed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02098161.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405193PMC
August 2021

Clinical and molecular characterization of myeloid sarcoma without medullary leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Aug 12:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) in the setting of concomitant medullary AML is relatively well described, while much less is known about patients presenting with MS with <20% bone marrow blasts. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 56 patients with MS with <20% marrow blasts seen at MD Anderson between 2005 and 2020. The prevalence of MS without medullary AML was 1.4% among all newly diagnosed AML patients. The majority (75%) of patients had a single known anatomic site involved, with the skin (34%) being the most frequent. The most common histologic subtype was monocytic, and 11% of patients had a known history of an antecedent hematologic disorder. The majority of patients (70%) received frontline intensive chemotherapy induction, with 75% of those evaluable attaining complete or partial responses. The median overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 3.41 and 3.07 years, respectively. Patients with bone marrow blasts of ≥5% or medullary relapse had inferior outcomes, while age (>60 years) was not associated with outcomes. There was a suggestion that patients with isolated leukemia cutis may have had better outcomes compared to patients with other organ involvement, but this did not reach statistical significance. Most patients who had cytogenetic analysis had a diploid karyotype within their MS and bone marrow pathway mutations were enriched in MS at diagnosis, and at time of medullary relapse. Our study provides a large dataset summarizing the clinical and molecular analysis of patients with MS with <20% BM blasts and suggests that monitoring for medullary leukemia is important for early detection of relapse.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1961235DOI Listing
August 2021

Ten-day decitabine with venetoclax versus intensive chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia: A propensity score-matched analysis.

Cancer 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has poor outcomes. Although lower-intensity venetoclax-containing regimens are standard for older/unfit patients with newly diagnosed AML, it is unknown how such regimens compare with intensive chemotherapy (IC) for R/R AML.

Methods: Outcomes of R/R AML treated with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax (DEC10-VEN) were compared with IC-based regimens including idarubicin with cytarabine, with or without cladribine, clofarabine, or fludarabine, with or without additional agents. Propensity scores derived from patient baseline characteristics were used to match DEC10-VEN and IC patients to minimize bias.

Results: Sixty-five patients in the DEC10-VEN cohort were matched to 130 IC recipients. The median ages for the DEC10-VEN and IC groups were 64 and 58 years, respectively, and baseline characteristics were balanced between the 2 cohorts. DEC10-VEN conferred significantly higher responses compared with IC including higher overall response rate (60% vs 36%; odds ratio [OR], 3.28; P < .001), complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi, 19% vs 6%; OR, 3.56; P = .012), minimal residual disease negativity by flow cytometry (28% vs 13%; OR, 2.48; P = .017), and lower rates of refractory disease. DEC10-VEN led to significantly longer median event-free survival compared with IC (5.7 vs 1.5 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.70; P < .001), as well as median overall survival (OS; 6.8 vs 4.7 months; HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37-0.86; P = .008). DEC10-VEN was independently associated with improved OS compared with IC in multivariate analysis. Exploratory analysis for OS in 27 subgroups showed that DEC10-VEN was comparable with IC as salvage therapy for R/R AML.

Conclusion: DEC10-VEN represents an appropriate salvage therapy and may offer better responses and survival compared with IC in adults with R/R AML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33814DOI Listing
August 2021

Phase II study of azacitidine with pembrolizumab in patients with intermediate-1 or higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

Br J Haematol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is upregulated in cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Hypomethylating agent (HMA) treatment results in further increased expression of these immune checkpoints. We hypothesised that combining an anti-PD-1 antibody with HMAs may have efficacy in patients with MDS. To test this concept, we designed a phase II trial of the combination of azacitidine and pembrolizumab with two cohorts. In the 17 previously untreated patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 76%, with a complete response (CR) rate of 18% and median overall survival (mOS) not reached after a median follow-up of 12·8 months. For the HMA-failure cohort (n = 20), the ORR was 25% and CR rate was 5%; with a median follow-up of 6·0 months, the mOS was 5·8 months. The most observed toxicities were pneumonia (32%), arthralgias (24%) and constipation (24%). Immune-related adverse events requiring corticosteroids were required in 43%. Overall, this phase II trial suggests that azacitidine and pembrolizumab is safe with manageable toxicities in patients with higher-risk MDS. This combined therapy may have anti-tumour activity in a subset of patients and merits further studies in the front-line setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17689DOI Listing
August 2021

Venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy with cladribine, idarubicin, and cytarabine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: a cohort from a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Aug;8(8):e552-e561

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Addition of the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax to lower intensity therapy has been shown to improve overall survival in older (aged 75 years or older) and unfit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of venetoclax combined with intensive chemotherapy in patients aged 65 years or younger with acute myeloid leukaemia.

Methods: This cohort study was done at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in the USA, as part of the single-centre, single arm, phase 2, CLIA trial. Here we report on the independent cohort investigating the safety and activity of venetoclax added to intensive chemotherapy (the CLIA regimen [cladribine, high-dose cytarabine, idarubicin]). Eligible patients were aged 18-65 years with a new diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia, mixed phenotype acute leukaemia, or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (≥10% blasts or International Prognostic Scoring System ≥2 [intermediate]), who received no previous potentially curative therapy for leukaemia. Patients received cladribine (5 mg/m) and cytarabine (1·5 g/m for patients aged <60 years, 1 g/m for patients aged ≥60 years) intravenously on days 1-5 and idarubicin (10 mg/m) intravenously on days 1-3. Consolidation was cladribine (5 mg/m) and cytarabine (1 g/m for patients aged <60 years and 0·75 g/m for patients aged ≥60 years) on days 1-3 and idarubicin (8 mg/m) on days 1-2. Venetoclax (400 mg) was given on days 2-8 with each course. Patients with a known FLT3-ITD or FLT3-TKD mutation received midostaurin or gilteritinib. The primary outcome was composite complete response (complete response plus complete response with incomplete blood count recovery). Secondary outcomes were overall response, duration of response, event-free survival, overall survival, and safety. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02115295.

Findings: Between Feb 25, 2019, and March 23, 2021, 77 patients were assessed for eligibility, 50 of whom were enrolled. Median age was 48 years (IQR 37-56). 47 (94% [95% CI 83-98]) patients had composite complete response, with the same proportion also having an overall response; two (4% [1-14]) patients did not respond, and one (2% [0-11]) patient died during induction. 37 (82% [95% CI 68-92]) of 45 patients had undetectable measurable residual disease (MRD). At a median follow-up of 13·5 months (IQR 6·4-19·5), the median duration of response, event-free survival, and overall survival were not reached. At 12 months, the estimated duration of response was 74% (95% CI 60-92), event-free survival was 68% (54-85), and overall survival was 85% (75-97). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse were febrile neutropenia (42 [84%] patients), infection (six [12%]), and alanine aminotransferase elevations (six [12%]). There was one death during induction in a patient treated with CLIA-venetoclax plus a FLT3 inhibitor. Two patients died of infectious complications while in complete response in consolidation cycles, both of whom had FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukaemia and were receiving combined therapy with a FLT3 inhibitor. No deaths were deemed to be treatment related.

Interpretation: Venetoclax added to CLIA was safe and active in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, producing high rates of durable MRD-negative remissions and encouraging event-free survival and overall survival.

Funding: MD Anderson Cancer Center.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00192-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed TP53-mutated acute myeloid leukemia with or without venetoclax-based therapy.

Cancer 2021 Oct 28;127(19):3541-3551. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Venetoclax (VEN) in combination with a hypomethylating agent (HMA) has become the standard of care for patients aged >75 years and for those not eligible for intensive chemotherapy who have newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The benefit of VEN-based therapy in patients who have newly diagnosed AML with mutations in the TP53 gene (TP53 ) over standard therapy is undefined.

Methods: In this single-institutional, retrospective analysis, the authors assessed the clinical outcomes of 238 patients with newly diagnosed TP53 AML and compared the clinical characteristics, response to different therapies, and outcomes of those who received VEN-based (n = 58) and non-VEN-based (n = 180) regimens.

Results: Patients who received VEN-based regimens were older (aged >65 years: 81% vs 65%; P = .02) and had higher response rates (complete remission, 43% vs 32%; P = .06) than those who received non-VEN-based regimens. Compared with patients who received non-VEN-based regimens, no difference in overall survival (median, 6.6 vs 5.7 months; P = .4) or relapse-free survival (median, 4.7 vs 3.5 months; P = .43) was observed in those who received VEN-based regimens, regardless of age or intensity of treatment.

Conclusions: The addition of VEN to standard treatment regimens did not improve outcomes in younger or older patients who had TP53 AML. These data highlight the need for novel therapies beyond VEN to improve the outcome of patients with TP53 AML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33675DOI Listing
October 2021

A phase 1b/2 study of azacitidine with PD-L1 antibody avelumab in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have limited treatment options. In preclinical models of AML, inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis demonstrated antileukemic activity. Avelumab is an anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) approved in multiple solid tumors. The authors conducted a phase 1b/2 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of azacitidine with avelumab in patients with R/R AML.

Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years who had R/R AML received azacitidine 75 mg/m on days 1 through 7 and avelumab on days 1 and 14 of 28-day cycles.

Results: Nineteen patients were treated. The median age was 66 years (range, 22-83 years), 100% had European LeukemiaNet 2017 adverse-risk disease, and 63% had prior exposure to a hypomethylating agent. Avelumab was dosed at 3 mg/kg for the first 7 patients and at 10 mg/kg for the subsequent 12 patients. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia and anemia in 2 patients each. Two patients experienced immune-related adverse events of grade 2 and grade 3 pneumonitis, respectively. The overall complete remission rate was 10.5%, and both were complete remission with residual thrombocytopenia. The median overall survival was 4.8 months. Bone marrow blasts were analyzed for immune-related markers by mass cytometry and demonstrated significantly higher expression of PD-L2 compared with PD-L1 both pretherapy and at all time points during therapy, with increasing PD-L2 expression on therapy.

Conclusions: Although the combination of azacitidine and avelumab was well tolerated, clinical activity was limited. High expression of PD-L2 on bone marrow blasts may be an important mechanism of resistance to anti-PD-L1 therapy in AML.

Lay Summary: This report describes the results of a phase 1b/2 study of azacitidine with the anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor avelumab for patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The clinical activity of the combination therapy was modest, with an overall response rate of 10.5%. However, mass cytometry analysis revealed significantly higher expression of PD-L2 compared with PD-L1 on AML blasts from all patients who were analyzed at all time points. These data suggest a novel potential role for PD-L2 as a means of AML immune escape.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33690DOI Listing
June 2021

Only SF3B1 mutation involving K700E independently predicts overall survival in myelodysplastic syndromes.

Cancer 2021 Oct 23;127(19):3552-3565. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: SF3B1 mutations (SF3B1 ) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) frequently involve codon K700E and have a favorable prognosis. The prognostic effect of non-K700E SF3B1 is uncertain.

Methods: The authors analyzed the clinicopathological features and outcomes of a single-institution series of 94 treatment-naive SF3B1 MDS patients (18%) and 415 treatment-naive SF3B1 MDS patients and explored the differences between K700E and non-K700E SF3B1 MDS.

Results: Fifty-five patients (59%) carried K700E. Recurrent non-K700E mutations (39 [41%]) included R625, H662, and K666. Compared with SF3B1 K700E patients, non-K700E patients had a lower median absolute neutrophil count (1.8 vs 2.4; P = .005) and were frequently "high" according to the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (19% vs 4%; P = .031). Non-K700E MDS was associated frequently with RUNX1 (26% vs 7%; P = .012) and exclusively with BCOR, IDH2, and SRSF2 mutations. A splicing analysis showed the differential distribution of alternatively spliced events and gene expression profiles between K700 and non-K700E MDS patients. The majority (at least 80%) of SF3B1 K700E, SF3B1 non-K700E, and SF3B1 patients were treated with hypomethylating agents. Over a median follow-up of 16 months, SF3B1 had superior overall survival (OS) in comparison with SF3B1 in all MDS patients (not reached vs 25.2 months; P = .0003), in patients with low-grade MDS, and in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS). Compared with SF3B1 , SF3B1 K700E had superior outcomes in all MDS (median OS, 25 months vs not reached; P = .0001), in low-grade MDS (median OS, 41.3 months vs not reached; P = .0015), and in MDS-RS (median OS, 22.3 months vs not reached; P = .0001), but no significant difference was seen between non-K700E and SF3B1 MDS. By multivariable analysis, the absence of SF3B1 K700E mutations was independently associated with the prognosis.

Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of the SF3B1 mutation subtype in MDS risk assessment.

Lay Summary: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with SF3B1 mutations are regarded as having a favorable prognosis by both the World Health Organization and the International Working Group for the Prognosis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes. However, this article shows that only MDS patients with SF3B1 K700E mutations have a favorable prognosis (and not MDS patients with SF3B1 mutations involving other codons). This has important implications for refining future MDS subclassification and risk assessment criteria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33745DOI Listing
October 2021

Core binding factor acute myelogenous leukemia-2021 treatment algorithm.

Blood Cancer J 2021 Jun 16;11(6):114. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Core binding factor acute myelogenous leukemia (CBF-AML), characterized by the presence of either t(8;21) (q22;q22) or inv(16) (p13q22)/t(16;16), is considered good-risk AML in the context of cytarabine based intensive chemotherapy. Still, outcome can be improved significantly through the effective implementation of available therapeutic measures and appropriate disease monitoring. The incorporation of gemtuzumab ozogamicin into frontline therapy should be standard. Cytarabine based induction/consolidation regimen may be combined with anthracycline (3 + 7 standard) or antimetabolite, fludarabine. Serial quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) monitoring of unique fusion transcripts allows monitoring for measurable residual disease clearance; this allows for better prognostication and well as treatment modifications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00503-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209225PMC
June 2021

Ibrutinib Plus Venetoclax for First-line Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Nonrandomized Phase 2 Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Aug;7(8):1213-1219

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.

Importance: Oral targeted therapies have advanced the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These therapies include Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, used as monotherapy, and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax, typically combined with the CD20 monoclonal antibody. Preclinical studies have shown synergy between Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax.

Objective: To examine the rate of complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow-undetectable measurable residual disease (U-MRD) after treatment with the combination of ibrutinib and venetoclax.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A single-center, phase 2 nonrandomized trial enrolled patients from August 17, 2016, to June 5, 2018. Participants included previously untreated patients with CLL who met International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria for treatment indication. Patients were required to have at least 1 of the following features: del(17p), TP53-mutated CLL, del(11q), unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene, or age 65 years or older.

Interventions: Therapy consisted of ibrutinib, 420 mg/d, monotherapy for 3 cycles, thereafter combined with venetoclax (standard weekly dose ramp-up to 400 mg/d) for a total of 24 cycles of combination treatment. Responses were assessed at serial points according to International Workshop on CLL 2008 criteria. Measurable residual disease (MRD) was assessed by multicolor flow cytometry with a sensitivity of 10-4.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Outcomes included complete remission, complete remission with incomplete count recovery, and bone marrow U-MRD rate.

Results: Eighty patients (57 [71%] men) were treated; median age was 65 years (range, 26-83 years). The median follow-up for all 80 patients was 38.5 months (range, 5.6-51.1 months). Five patients discontinued the study during the ibrutinib monotherapy phase; the remaining 75 patients received combination therapy. On an intent-to-treat analysis of combined treatment, 45 (56%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 12 cycles and 53 (66%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission at 24 cycles. Overall, 60 (75%) patients achieved bone marrow U-MRD remission as their best response. Responses were seen across all high-risk subgroups, independent of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene mutation status, fluorescence in situ hybridization category, or TP53 mutation. The 3-year progression-free survival was 93%, and 3-year overall survival was 96%. No patient had CLL progression; 2 patients developed Richter transformation.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that combination therapy with ibrutinib and venetoclax might be beneficial for previously untreated patients with CLL. Remissions appeared to be durable during a follow-up of more than 3 years, with activity seen across high-risk disease subgroups, including those with del(17p)/TP53-mutated CLL.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02756897.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.1649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193546PMC
August 2021

Venetoclax Combined With FLAG-IDA Induction and Consolidation in Newly Diagnosed and Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 27;39(25):2768-2778. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Purpose: Sixty percent of newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (ND-AML) receiving frontline therapy attain a complete response (CR), yet 30%-40% of patients relapse. Relapsed or refractory AML (R/R-AML) remains a particularly adverse population necessitating improved therapeutic options. This phase Ib/II study evaluated the safety and efficacy of fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin combined with the B-cell lymphoma-2 inhibitor venetoclax in ND-AML and R/R-AML.

Materials And Methods: The phase IB portion (PIB) enrolled patients with R/R-AML using a 3 + 3 dose escalation and de-escalation algorithm for identification of maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicities. The phase II portion enrolled patients into two arms to evaluate response and time-to-event end points: phase IIA (PIIA): ND-AML and phase IIB (PIIB): R/R-AML.

Results: Sixty-eight patients have enrolled to date (PIB, 16; PIIA, 29; PIIB, 23). Median age was 46 years (range, 20-73). Grade 3 and 4 adverse events occurring in ≥ 10% of patients included febrile neutropenia (50%), bacteremia (35%), pneumonia (28%), and sepsis (12%). The overall response rate for PIB, PIIA, and PIIB was 75%, 97%, and 70% with 75%, 90%, and 61%, respectively, achieving a composite CR. Measurable residual disease-negative composite CR was attained in 96% of ND-AML and 69% of R/R-AML patients. After a median follow-up of 12 months, median overall survival (OS) for both PII cohorts was not reached. Fifty-six percent of patients proceeded to allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (ND-AML, 69%; R/R-AML, 46%). In R/R-AML, allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation resulted in a significant improvement in OS (median OS, NR; 1-year OS, 87%). One-year survival post-HSCT was 94% in ND-AML and 78% in R/R-AML.

Conclusion: Fludarabine, cytarabine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and idarubicin + venetoclax represents an effective intensive treatment regimen in ND-AML and R/R-AML patients, associated with deep remissions and a high rate of transition to successful transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407653PMC
September 2021

Superior efficacy of co-targeting GFI1/KDM1A and BRD4 against AML and post-MPN secondary AML cells.

Blood Cancer J 2021 May 20;11(5):98. Epub 2021 May 20.

The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

There is an unmet need to overcome nongenetic therapy-resistance to improve outcomes in AML, especially post-myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) secondary (s) AML. Studies presented describe effects of genetic knockout, degradation or small molecule targeted-inhibition of GFI1/LSD1 on active enhancers, altering gene-expressions and inducing differentiation and lethality in AML and (MPN) sAML cells. A protein domain-focused CRISPR screen in LSD1 (KDM1A) inhibitor (i) treated AML cells, identified BRD4, MOZ, HDAC3 and DOT1L among the codependencies. Our findings demonstrate that co-targeting LSD1 and one of these co-dependencies exerted synergistic in vitro lethality in AML and post-MPN sAML cells. Co-treatment with LSD1i and the JAKi ruxolitinib was also synergistically lethal against post-MPN sAML cells. LSD1i pre-treatment induced GFI1, PU.1 and CEBPα but depleted c-Myc, overcoming nongenetic resistance to ruxolitinib, or to BETi in post-MPN sAML cells. Co-treatment with LSD1i and BETi or ruxolitinib exerted superior in vivo efficacy against post-MPN sAML cells. These findings highlight LSD1i-based combinations that merit testing for clinical efficacy, especially to overcome nongenetic therapy-resistance in AML and post-MPN sAML.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00487-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138012PMC
May 2021

Ibrutinib, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and obinutuzumab (iFCG) regimen for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with mutated IGHV and without TP53 aberrations.

Leukemia 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Chemoimmunotherapy with combined fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR) has been an effective treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We initiated a phase II trial for previously untreated patients with CLL with mutated IGHV and absence of del(17p)/TP53 mutation. Patients received ibrutinib, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and obinutuzumab (iFCG) for three cycles. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete count recvoery (CRi) with marrow undetectable measurable residual disease (U-MRD) received additional nine cycles of ibrutinib with three cycles of obinutuzumab; all others received nine additional cycles of ibrutinib and obinutuzumab. Patients in marrow U-MRD remission after cycle 12 discontinued all treatment, including ibrutinib. Forty-five patients were treated. The median follow-up is 41.3 months. Among the total 45 treated patients, after three cycles, 38% achieved CR/CRi and 87% achieved marrow U-MRD. After cycle 12, the corresponding numbers were 67% and 91%, respectively. Overall, 44/45 (98%) patients achieved marrow U-MRD as best response. No patient had CLL progression. The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 98% and 98%, respectively. Per trial design, all patients who completed cycle 12 discontinued ibrutinib, providing for a time-limited therapy. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 58% and 40% patients, respectively. The iFCG regimen with only 3 cycles of chemotherapy is an effective, time-limited regimen for patients with CLL with mutated IGHV and without del(17p)/TP53 mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01280-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Secondary cytogenetic abnormalities in core-binding factor AML harboring inv(16) vs t(8;21).

Blood Adv 2021 05;5(10):2481-2489

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Patients with core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), caused by either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22), have higher complete remission rates and longer survival than patients with other subtypes of AML. However, ∼40% of patients relapse, and the literature suggests that patients with inv(16) fare differently from those with t(8;21). We retrospectively analyzed 537 patients with CBF-AML, focusing on additional cytogenetic aberrations to examine their impact on clinical outcomes. Trisomies of chromosomes 8, 21, or 22 were significantly more common in patients with inv(16)/t(16;16): 16% vs 7%, 6% vs 0%, and 17% vs 0%, respectively. In contrast, del(9q) and loss of a sex chromosome were more frequent in patients with t(8;21): 15% vs 0.4% for del(9q), 37% vs 0% for loss of X in females, and 44% vs 5% for loss of Y in males. Hyperdiploidy was more frequent in patients with inv(16) (25% vs 9%, whereas hypodiploidy was more frequent in patients with t(8;21) (37% vs 3%. In multivariable analyses (adjusted for age, white blood counts at diagnosis, and KIT mutation status), trisomy 8 was associated with improved overall survival (OS) in inv(16), whereas the presence of other chromosomal abnormalities (not trisomy 8) was associated with decreased OS. In patients with t(8;21), hypodiploidy was associated with improved disease-free survival; hyperdiploidy and del(9q) were associated with improved OS. KIT mutation (either positive or not tested, compared with negative) conferred poor prognoses in univariate analysis only in patients with t(8;21).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152510PMC
May 2021

A phase 1 study of the pan-bromodomain and extraterminal inhibitor mivebresib (ABBV-075) alone or in combination with venetoclax in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer 2021 Aug 2;127(16):2943-2953. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California-Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous malignancy driven by genetic and epigenetic factors. Inhibition of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins, epigenetic readers that play pivotal roles in the regulation of genes relevant to cancer pathogenesis, constitutes a novel AML treatment approach.

Methods: In this first-in-human study of the pan-BET inhibitor mivebresib as monotherapy (MIV-mono) or in combination with venetoclax (MIV-Ven), the safety profile, efficacy, and pharmacodynamics of mivebresib were determined in patients with relapsed/refractory AML (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02391480). Mivebresib was administered at 3 monotherapy dose levels (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 mg) or in combination with venetoclax (400 or 800 mg).

Results: Forty-four patients started treatment: of 19 who started MIV-mono, 5 went on to receive MIV-Ven combination therapy after disease progression and a washout period. Twenty-five patients started MIV-Ven, resulting in a total of 30 patients treated with the combination. The most common mivebresib-related treatment-emergent adverse events were dysgeusia (74%), decreased appetite (42%), and diarrhea (42%) in the MIV-mono group and decreased appetite (44%), vomiting (44%), and nausea (40%) in the MIV-Ven group. Serious adverse events occurred in 14 patients (74%) who received MIV-mono and in 22 patients (88%) who received MIV-Ven. In the MIV-mono group, responses were complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery in 1 patient and resistant disease in 15 patients. In the MIV-Ven group, responses were complete remission in 2 patients, partial remission in 2 patients, morphologic leukemia-free state in 2 patients, resistant disease in 12 patients, and aplasia in 1 patient. The pharmacodynamic effects of mivebresib were proportional to dose and drug exposure.

Conclusions: Mivebresib was tolerated and showed antileukemic effects as monotherapy and in combination with venetoclax in patients with relapsed/refractory AML.

Lay Summary: Mivebresib is a novel drug that influences the way cancer cells read genetic information. Mivebresib was tested together with venetoclax in patients with acute myeloid leukemia after standard medicines failed and the disease returned, or when standard medicine was unavailable. Adverse effects were described for different drug doses, and the dose that is tolerable was determined. In some patients, their leukemia improved for some time. More studies are necessary to determine whether mivebresib can be used to treat acute myeloid leukemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360206PMC
August 2021

Clinicopathologic correlates and natural history of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia.

Cancer 2021 Sep 29;127(17):3113-3124. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: There are limited data on the clonal mechanisms underlying leukemogenesis, prognostic factors, and optimal therapy for atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML).

Methods: The authors evaluated the clinicopathologic features, outcomes, and responses to therapy of 65 patients with aCML. The median age was 67 years (range, 46-89 years).

Results: The most frequently mutated genes included ASXL1 (83%), SRSF2 (68%), and SETBP1 (58%). Mutations in SETBP1, SRSF2, TET2, and GATA2 appeared at variant allele frequencies (VAFs) greater than 40%, whereas other RAS pathway mutations were more likely to appear at low VAFs. The acquisition of new, previously undetectable mutations at transformation was observed in 63% of the evaluable patients, with the most common involving signaling pathway mutations. Hypomethylating agents (HMAs) were associated with the highest response rates but with a short duration of response (median, 2.7 months). Therapy with ruxolitinib was not associated with clinically significant responses as a single agent or in combination with an HMA. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was the only therapy associated with improved outcomes (hazard ratio, 0.144; 95% CI, 0.035-0.593; P = .007). Age, platelet counts, bone marrow blast percentages, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were independent predictors of survival and were integrated in a multivariable model that allowed the prediction of 1- and 3-year survival.

Conclusions: aCML is characterized by high frequencies of ASXL1, SRSF2, and SETBP1 mutations and is associated with a high risk of acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Response and survival outcomes with current therapies remain poor. The incorporation of age, platelet counts, bone marrow blast percentages, and LDH levels can allow survival prediction, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation should be considered for all eligible patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33622DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term results of low-intensity chemotherapy with clofarabine or cladribine combined with low-dose cytarabine alternating with decitabine in older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

Am J Hematol 2021 08 26;96(8):914-924. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

The treatment of older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using intensive chemotherapy is associated with treatment intolerance and poor survival. We evaluated two new lower-intensity regimens with clofarabine (n = 119) or cladribine (n = 129) combined with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) alternating with decitabine. We reviewed response rates by subgroup and long term outcomes of 248 patients with newly diagnosed non core-binding-factor AML treated on two clinical trials investigating double nucleoside-analogue therapy (DNT) alternating with HMA from October, 2008 to April, 2018. Of 248 patients with a median age of 69 years (range, 49-85 years), 102 patients (41%) were ≥ 70 years, and 108 (44%) had adverse karyotype. Overall, 164 patients (66%) responded: 147 (59%) complete remission (CR) and 17 (7%) CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi). With a median follow up of 60 months, median relapse-free and overall survival (OS) were 10.8 and 12.5 months, respectively. The 2-year OS was 29%. Among patients with normal karyotype, the CR/CRi rate was 79% and the median OS 19.9 months. High response rates and OS were observed in patients with mutations in NPM1, FLT3, IDH2, and RUNX1. The 4- and 8-week mortality rates were 2% and 11%, respectively. The backbone of clofarabine or cladribine and LDAC alternating with decitabine was effective and safe for the treatment of older patients with newly diagnosed AML. Incorporating targeted therapies could extend the efficacy of this approach and provide more curative therapeutic options in this AML population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26206DOI Listing
August 2021

Impact of splicing mutations in acute myeloid leukemia treated with hypomethylating agents combined with venetoclax.

Blood Adv 2021 04;5(8):2173-2183

Department of Leukemia and.

Spliceosome mutations (SRSF2, SF3B1, U2AF1, ZRSR2), are encountered in ∼50% of secondary acute myeloid leukemia cases (sAML) and define a molecular subgroup with outcomes similar to sAML in de novo AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy. Outcomes in patients with spliceosome mutations treated with hypomethylating agents in combination with venetoclax (HMA+VEN) remains unknown. The primary objective was to compare outcomes in patients with spliceosome mutations vs wild-type patients treated with HMA+VEN. Secondary objectives included analysis of the mutational landscape of the spliceosome cohort and assessing the impact of co-occurring mutations. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients treated with HMA+VEN-based regimens at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. A total of 119 patients (spliceosome mutated n = 39 [SRSF2, n = 24; SF3B1, n = 8; U2AF1, n = 7]; wild-type, n = 80) were included. Similar responses were observed between spliceosome and wild-type cohorts for composite complete response (CRc; 79% vs 75%, P = .65), and measurable residual disease-negative CRc (48% vs 60%, P = .34). Median overall survival for spliceosome vs wild-type patients was 35 vs 14 months (P = .58), and was not reached; 35 months and 8 months for patients with SRSF2, SF3B1, and U2AF1 mutations, respectively. IDH2 mutations were enriched in patients with SRSF2 mutations and associated with favorable outcomes (1- and 2-year overall survival [OS] of 100% and 88%). RAS mutations were enriched in patients with U2AF1 mutations and associated with inferior outcomes (median OS, 8 months). Comparable outcomes were observed between patients with vs without spliceosome mutations treated with HMA+VEN regimens, with specific co-mutation pairs demonstrating favorable outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095152PMC
April 2021

Single-center experience with venetoclax combinations in patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed AML evolving from MPNs.

Blood Adv 2021 04;5(8):2156-2164

In patients with acute myeloid leukemia evolving from myeloproliferative neoplasms (post-MPN-AML), the clinical activity of the B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor venetoclax remains to be determined. We review our experience with venetoclax-based regimens in 14 newly diagnosed (frontline [FL]) and 17 relapsed/refractory (R/R) post-MPN-AML patients. Venetoclax was used in combination with hypomethylating agents in 58% of cases and in 19% with intensive chemotherapy (treatment including cytarabine ≥1 g/m2 or CPX-351); the remaining patients received cladribine and low-dose cytarabine or isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 inhibitors. The median dose of venetoclax during the initial cycle was 100 mg in all patients (range, 50-800 mg) and 200 mg (range, 100-800 mg) for FL patients. The venetoclax dose was adjusted when used concomitantly with azole antifungal agents. In FL patients, complete remission with and without count recovery in 6 patients (median duration of 6.4 months) and partial remission in 1 patient was noted, with a median overall survival of 7 months. In R/R patients, no formal responses were seen, with a median overall survival of 3 months. Hematologic toxicities and adverse events were frequent; 83% of patients developed grade 3 or higher infection during the initial cycle. Severe hemorrhagic complications were observed in 14 patients, including 6 cases of intracranial and subdural hemorrhage. Overall 4-week and 8-week mortality were 10% and 32%, respectively. Given the substantial treatment-associated hematologic toxicity and mortality, and modest short-lived responses only in newly diagnosed patients with venetoclax-based regimens, additional treatment options are urgently needed for these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095138PMC
April 2021

A phase I/II study of the combination of quizartinib with azacitidine or low-dose cytarabine for the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

Haematologica 2021 Aug 1;106(8):2121-2130. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis. We hypothesized that quizartinib, a selective and potent FLT3 inhibitor, with azacitidine (AZA) or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) might improve the outcomes in patients with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML. In this open-label phase I/II trial, patients of any age receiving first-salvage treatment for FLT3-ITD AML or age >60 years with untreated myelodysplastic syndrome or AML were treated with quizartinib plus AZA or LDAC. Seventy-three patients were treated (34 frontline, 39 first-salvage). Among previously untreated patients, composite response (CRc) was achieved in 13/15 (87%, 8 CR, 4 Cri, 1 CRp) treated with quizartinib/AZA and 14/19 (74%, 1 CR, 8 CRi, 5 CRp) in quizartinib/LDAC. The median OS was 19.2 months for quizartinib/AZA and 8.5 months for quizartinib/LDAC cohort; RFS was 10.5 and 6.4 months, respectively. Among previously treated patients, 16 (64%) achieved CRc in quizartinib/AZA and 4 (29%) in quizartinib/LDAC. The median OS for patients treated with quizartinib/AZA and quizartinib/LDAC was 12.8 vs. 4 months, respectively. QTc prolongation grade 3 occurred in only 1 patient in each cohort. Quizartinib-based combinations, particularly with AZA, appear effective in both frontline and first-salvage for patients with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML and are well tolerated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.263392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327731PMC
August 2021

De novo acute myeloid leukemia: A population-based study of outcome in the United States based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, 1980 to 2017.

Cancer 2021 Jun 5;127(12):2049-2061. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Several important treatment and supportive care strategies have been implemented over the past 4 decades in the management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Methods: The authors identified 29,107 patients who were diagnosed with de novo AML between 1980 and 2017 in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Patients were categorized into 5 age groups (ages birth to 14, 15-39, 40-59, 60-69, and ≥70 years) and 4 calendar periods (1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2009, and 2010-2017). The outcomes of patients who had AML within these categories were analyzed.

Results: The overall 5-year survival rates in patients with AML were 9%, 15%, 22%, and 28% in the decades 1980 to 1989, 1990 to 1999, 2000 to 2009, and 2010 to 2017, respectively. Among patients aged 15 to 39 years, the 5-year survival rates were 24%, 41%, 52%, and 63%, respectively; among those aged ≥70 years, the 5-year survival rates were 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5%, respectively. Four-week mortality was surprising high among adults and older patients (range, 20%-45%), even in modern times. Overall, survival continued to improve over the calendar periods and was best in the period from 2010 to 2017. Survival improvement was noticeable across all age groups except patients aged ≥70 years, in whom the estimated 5-year survival rate remained 5% even during the period from 2010 to 2017.

Conclusions: The outcomes of patients with AML showed incremental improvement over time in a population-based study of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. The introduction since 2017 of targeted therapies among older patients and optimizations in supportive care hopefully will continue to improve outcomes in AML, particularly among older patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33458DOI Listing
June 2021

Duration of cytopenias with concomitant venetoclax and azole antifungals in acute myeloid leukemia.

Cancer 2021 Jul 1;127(14):2489-2499. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: Venetoclax (VEN) combined with the hypomethylating agent (HMA) azacitidine improves survival in patients aged ≥75 years with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). VEN and HMA treatment can result in prolonged and often profound neutropenia, and this warrants antifungal prophylaxis. Azole antifungals inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4, the primary enzyme responsible for VEN metabolism; this results in VEN dose reductions for each concomitant antifungal. Limited clinical data exist on outcomes for patients treated with VEN, an HMA, and various azoles.

Methods: The time to neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] > 1000 cells/mm ) and platelet (PLT) recovery (PLT count > 100,000 cells/mm ) in 64 patients with newly diagnosed AML who achieved a response after course 1 of VEN plus an HMA were evaluated. HMA therapy included azacitidine (75 mg/m intravenously/subcutaneously for 7 days) or decitabine (20 mg/m intravenously for 5 or 10 days).

Results: Forty-seven patients (73%) received an azole: posaconazole (n = 17; 27%), voriconazole (n = 9; 14%), isavuconazole (n = 20; 31%), or fluconazole (n = 1; 2%). The median time to ANC recovery were similar for patients who did receive an azole (37 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 34-38 days) and patients who did not receive an azole (39 days; 95% CI, 30 days to not estimable; P = .8). The median time to PLT recovery was significantly longer for patients receiving azoles (28 vs 22 days; P = .01). The median times to ANC recovery (35 vs 38 days) and PLT recovery (26 vs 32 days) were similar with posaconazole and voriconazole.

Conclusions: VEN plus an HMA resulted in neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, with the latter prolonged in patients receiving concomitant azoles. Concomitant posaconazole or voriconazole and VEN (100 mg) resulted in similar ANC and PLT recovery times, suggesting the safety of these dosage combinations during course 1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249340PMC
July 2021

Prognostic value of measurable residual disease after venetoclax and decitabine in acute myeloid leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 04;5(7):1876-1883

Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) provides prognostic information in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the utility of MRD with venetoclax-based lower intensity regimens is unknown. We analyzed the prognostic value of achieving a negative MRD in older/"unfit" patients with AML receiving first-line therapy with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax. MRD was evaluated in bone marrow specimens using multicolor flow cytometry (sensitivity 0.1%). Ninety-seven patients achieving either a complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) or morphologic leukemia-free state were included. Median age was 72 years (interquartile range, 68-78 years), and 64% had adverse-risk AML. Eighty-three patients achieved CR/CRi, and 52 (54%) became MRD negative. Median time to becoming MRD negative was 2.0 months (interquartile range, 0.9-3.1 months). Patients becoming MRD negative by 2 months had longer relapse-free survival (RFS) compared with those remaining MRD positive (median RFS, not reached vs 5.2 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.78; P = .004), longer event-free survival (EFS) (median EFS, not reached vs 5.8 months; HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.12-0.55; P < .001), as well as longer overall survival (OS) (median OS, 25.1 vs 7.1 months; HR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.11-0.51; P < .001). Patients achieving an MRD-negative CR had longer OS compared with those with an inferior response (median OS, 25.1 vs 11.6 months; HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.58; P < .0005). Patients becoming MRD negative within 1 month had an improved OS compared with MRD-positive patients (median OS, 25.1 vs 3.4 months; HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.64; P < .0001). Differential impact of MRD status on survival outcomes persisted at a later 4-month time point of evaluation. In conclusion, MRD-negative status at 1, 2, and 4 months after starting therapy confers significantly better survival in older/unfit patients with AML receiving first-line therapy with 10-day decitabine and venetoclax. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03404193.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045494PMC
April 2021

Patterns of Resistance Differ in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treated with Type I versus Type II FLT3 inhibitors.

Blood Cancer Discov 2021 Mar 6;2(2):125-134. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

The Department of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Despite promising results with FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i), response durations remain short. We studied pretreatment and relapse bone marrow samples from patients with -mutated AML treated with FLT3i-based therapies (secondary resistance cohort), and pretreatment bone marrow samples from patients with no response to FLT3i-based therapies (primary resistance cohort). Targeted next generation sequencing at relapse identified emergent mutations involving on-target , epigenetic modifiers, pathway, and less frequently , and . and D835 mutations emerged most commonly following type I and type II FLT3i-based therapies, respectively. Patients with emergent mutations at relapse had inferior overall survival compared with those without emergent mutations. Among pretreatment mutated patients, pretreatment cohort level variant allelic frequencies for were higher in non-responders, particularly with type I FLT3i-based therapies, suggesting a potential role in primary resistance as well. These data demonstrate distinct pathways of resistance in -mutated AML treated with type I versus II FLT3i.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2643-3230.bcd-20-0143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935111PMC
March 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Acute myeloid leukemia: current progress and future directions.

Blood Cancer J 2021 02 22;11(2):41. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Progress in the understanding of the biology and therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is occurring rapidly. Since 2017, nine agents have been approved for various indications in AML. These included several targeted therapies like venetoclax, FLT3 inhibitors, IDH inhibitors, and others. The management of AML is complicated, highlighting the need for expertise in order to deliver optimal therapy and achieve optimal outcomes. The multiple subentities in AML require very different therapies. In this review, we summarize the important pathophysiologies driving AML, review current therapies in standard practice, and address present and future research directions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00425-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900255PMC
February 2021
-->