Publications by authors named "Gaurav Sharma"

540 Publications

Electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide using micro and nanoporous CeO catalysts.

Environ Res 2022 Aug 3:113961. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile.

In this research work, focus has been made on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified commercial micro and synthesized nano-CeO for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (HO). Firstly, CeO nanoleaves were prepared by solvothermal route. Both commercially available micro CeO and synthesized nano-CeO structures were analyzed by different characterization techniques. The Raman spectra of synthesized nano CeO has more oxygen vacancies than micro CeO. SEM images revealed that the synthesized CeO acquired leaf-like morphology. The catalyst nano CeO offered mesoporosity from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms with massive sites of activation for increasing efficiency. Experiments on determining HO using micro CeO or nano-CeO/GCE was conducted using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. Enhanced HO reduction peak current with lower potential was observed in nano-CeO/GCE. The influence of scan rate and HO concentration on the performance of nano-CeO/GCE were also studied. The obtained results have indicated that nano-CeO/GCE showed improved electrochemical sensing behavior towards the reduction of HO than micro-CeO/GCE and bare GCE. A linear relationship was obtained over 0.001 μM-0.125 μM concentration of HO, with good sensitivity 141.96 μA μM and low detection limit of 0.4 nM. Hence, the present nano-CeO system will have a great potential with solvothermal synthesis approach in the development of electrochemical sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113961DOI Listing
August 2022

Triple-negative breast cancer metastasis involves complex epithelial-mesenchymal transition dynamics and requires vimentin.

Sci Transl Med 2022 Aug 3;14(656):eabn7571. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype associated with early metastatic recurrence and worse patient outcomes. TNBC tumors express molecular markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), but its requirement during spontaneous TNBC metastasis in vivo remains incompletely understood. We demonstrated that spontaneous TNBC tumors from a genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM), multiple patient-derived xenografts, and archival patient samples exhibited large populations in vivo of hybrid E/M cells that lead invasion ex vivo while expressing both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. The mesenchymal marker vimentin promoted invasion and repressed metastatic outgrowth. We next tested the requirement for five EMT transcription factors and observed distinct patterns of utilization during invasion and colony formation. These differences suggested a sequential activation of multiple EMT molecular programs during the metastatic cascade. Consistent with this model, our longitudinal single-cell RNA analysis detected three different EMT-related molecular patterns. We observed cancer cells progressing from epithelial to hybrid E/M and strongly mesenchymal patterns during invasion and from epithelial to a hybrid E/M pattern during colony formation. We next investigated the relative epithelial versus mesenchymal state of cancer cells in both GEMM and patient metastases. In both contexts, we observed heterogeneity between and within metastases in the same individual. We observed a complex spectrum of epithelial, hybrid E/M, and mesenchymal cell states within metastases, suggesting that there are multiple successful molecular strategies for distant organ colonization. Together, our results demonstrate an important and complex role for EMT programs during TNBC metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abn7571DOI Listing
August 2022

Life table, survival, and fecundity parameters of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from desert and coastal regions of India.

Acta Trop 2022 Jul 29:106625. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Estuarine Biology Regional Centre (EBRC), Zoological Survey of India, Gopalpur-on-Sea, Ganjam, Odisha, 761002, India. Electronic address:

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895) is the anthropophilic and day-biter mosquito, residing in peridomestic habitats and is responsible for vector-borne diseases i.e., chikungunya and dengue. The knowledge of mosquito life demographics is very important to provide a foundation for a successful vector control program. In the present study, a comparative adult life table, survival, and fecundity parameters were evaluated on desert (Jodhpur, Rajasthan) and coastal (Kolkata, West Bengal) strains of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from India under the standard laboratory conditions. The results showed significant differences between these strains for the life expectancy of males, fecundity (total eggs/cohort and eggs/female life span), oviposition days, intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and doubling time (DT). Female mosquitoes lived longer than the males in both strains. Significant differences were observed in the net reproductive rate (R) between Kolkata and Jodhpur strains. The coastal (Kolkata) strain showed a longer male life expectancy (5.6 days) than the desert strain (4.0 days). However, the fecundity (eggs/female lifespan) was higher in Kolkata (360.2) than the Jodhpur strain (229.7). The Kolkata strain showed higher R, r, λ, and the lower T, DT than the Jodhpur strain. Conclusively, the results indicate that the coastal strain of Ae. albopictus is more r-strategist than the desert strain. This study may help in the precise prediction of Ae. albopictus population dynamics surviving in these geographical areas for vector management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2022.106625DOI Listing
July 2022

Intracranial Myopericytoma: A Rare Benign Tumor at an Extremely Rare Location.

Asian J Neurosurg 2022 Mar 21;17(1):100-104. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, Dharamshila Narayana Superspeciality Hospital and Research Centre, New Delhi, India.

A 50-year-old female presented with a history of seizures, headache, nausea, and vomiting. On imaging, parafalcine meningioma with mass effect features was rendered. She underwent right frontal tumor excision and craniotomy. Pathological examination showed a tumor composed of syncytial aggregates of round to plump fusiform cells forming whorls around prominent branching congested vessels. The tumorous cells expressed α-smooth actin and heavy-chain caldesmon and were negative for epithelial membrane antigen, protein S100, HMB45, CD34, calponin, and desmin, thus providing the final diagnosis of intracranial myopericytoma. The rarity of this benign tumor at an extremely rare location prompted this study. As preoperative radiological investigations are nonspecific in such cases, a detailed and comprehensive pathological examination is mandatory to come to a definitive diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-1748794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298590PMC
March 2022

HRS phosphorylation drives immunosuppressive exosome secretion and restricts CD8 T-cell infiltration into tumors.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 14;13(1):4078. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Biology, School of Arts & Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

The lack of tumor infiltration by CD8 T cells is associated with poor patient response to anti-PD-1 therapy. Understanding how tumor infiltration is regulated is key to improving treatment efficacy. Here, we report that phosphorylation of HRS, a pivotal component of the ESCRT complex involved in exosome biogenesis, restricts tumor infiltration of cytolytic CD8 T cells. Following ERK-mediated phosphorylation, HRS interacts with and mediates the selective loading of PD-L1 to exosomes, which inhibits the migration of CD8 T cells into tumors. In tissue samples from patients with melanoma, CD8 T cells are excluded from the regions where tumor cells contain high levels of phosphorylated HRS. In murine tumor models, overexpression of phosphorylated HRS increases resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment, whereas inhibition of HRS phosphorylation enhances treatment efficacy. Our study reveals a mechanism by which phosphorylation of HRS in tumor cells regulates anti-tumor immunity by inducing PD-L1 immunosuppressive exosomes, and suggests HRS phosphorylation blockade as a potential strategy to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31713-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9283393PMC
July 2022

Bivalirudin anticoagulation in neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Perfusion Technology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: To determine the dosage of bivalirudin as the anticoagulant for cardiac surgery in neonates and infants.

Design: Pilot study.

Setting: Tertiary-care hospital.

Participants: Twenty-five neonates and infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing cardiac surgery.

Interventions: The children received a 1 mg/kg bivalirudin bolus followed by a 2.5 mg/kg/h infusion as the anticoagulant for cardiac surgery. The dose was adjusted subsequently to maintain an activated clotting time (ACT) >480 s.

Measurements And Main Results: The mean age and weight were 5.3 months and 5.2 kg, respectively. Out of the 25 children, 16 were cyanotic. Baseline rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) (Tem Innovations GmbH, Munich, Germany) analysis revealed an underlying coagulation defect across EXTEM, INTEM, FIBTEM, and ADPTEM parameters. The dose of anticoagulant required was 1 mg/kg. followed by a 2.2 ± 0.4 mg/kg/h infusion. Only 1 child required an additional bolus dose. The ACT remained elevated for 4 hours after discontinuation of infusion. The mean 24-h postoperative chest tube drainage was 92 ± 36 mL. Excessive bleeding occurred in 4 children, 1 of whom required re-exploration. The platelet count remained low for 5 days, and, postoperatively, the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time remained low for 2 days.

Conclusions: Effective anticoagulation was achieved with bivalirudin in the neonates and infants undergoing cardiac surgery. The dose required to maintain an ACT >480 s was 1.0 mg/kg, followed by 2.2 ± 0.4 mg/kg/h. The ACT remained elevated for 4 h after the discontinuation of bivalirudin infusion, resulting in an increased chest-tube output in some patients. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to further evaluate the safety of bivalirudin in the neonates and infants with complex congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2022.04.044DOI Listing
May 2022

Case Report: Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) and Fungemia in Post-acute COVID-19 Syndrome: A Clinical Challenge.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 17;9:835421. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated Lok Nayak Hopital, New Delhi, India.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes a disease (COVID-19) with multisystem involvement. The world is now entering a phase of post-COVID-19 manifestations in this pandemic. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event triggered by viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Both Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome-Adults (MIS-A) and Cytokine Storm Syndrome (CSS) are considered close differentials of sHLH and add to the spectrum of Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS). In this report, we presented the case of a middle-aged Asian man who was initially discharged upon recovery from severe COVID-19 infection after 17 days of hospitalization to a private institute and later came to our hospital 13 days post-discharge. Here, he was diagnosed with sHLH, occurring as an extension of CSS, with delayed presentation falling within the spectrum of PACS. The diagnosis of sHLH was made holistically with the HLH-2004 criteria. Our patient initially responded to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and dexamethasone, later complicated by disseminated infection and had a fatal outcome. Though many cases of HLH during active COVID-19 and a few cases post COVID-19 recovery have been reported, based on H-score, which has limitations as a diagnostic tool. We report the first case report of post-COVID-19 sHLH using the HLH-2004 criteria, complicated by disseminated Candidemia, emphasizing that the care of patients with COVID-19 does not conclude at the time of hospital discharge. We highlight the importance of surveillance in the post-COVID phase for early detection of sHLH which may predispose to fatal opportunistic infections (OIs).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.835421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9247387PMC
June 2022

Umbilical Nodule Metastasis from Unknown Primary: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Dilemma.

Surg J (N Y) 2022 Apr 30;8(2):e127-e130. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Umbilical nodule metastasis is not a common presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary. It may be the presenting symptom of a primary malignancy or as metastatic site of previously diagnosed cancer and is considered to be a poor prognostic finding. We here report a case of young male who presented with umbilical mass, but the primary could not be localized even after thorough investigations and work up. Also, there existed therapeutic dilemma because immunohistochemistry did not favor one site, and so he was considered for combination chemotherapy in view of unresectable disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-1749423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9246513PMC
April 2022

Umbilical Artery Systolic/Diastolic Ratio and Amniotic Fluid Index in Prediction of Adverse Perinatal Outcome in Term Pregnancies.

Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2022 Apr-Jun;12(2):76-81. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Geetanjali Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Background: Antenatal fetal surveillance is a field of increasing importance in modern obstetrics. It is based on fetal heart rate monitoring using nonstress test and contraction stress test, ultrasound biometry and amniotic fluid assessment, Doppler blood flow studies of fetal and uteroplacental circulation, and an evaluation of biophysical fetal parameters. The combination of these methods leads to improvements in fetal morbidity and mortality.

Aim: The present study aimed to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of umbilical artery (UA) systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio, and amniotic fluid index (AFI) in term pregnancies for the prediction of perinatal outcome and their relation with perinatal outcome.

Methods: This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital on 100 pregnant women where all the term singleton pregnancies (37-42 weeks) admitted in maternity were subjected to color Doppler for UA S/D ratio assessment and AFI estimation. Further, management of patients was done according to color Doppler findings and their relation with perinatal outcome.

Results: Out of 100 pregnant women, 68% had AFI >8 (normal), while 32% of women had AFI <8 (abnormal), with the mean AFI being 9.39 ± 2.55 cm, whereas70% had S/D ratio <3 (normal) and 30% of women had S/D ratio >3 (abnormal), with the mean S/D ratio of 2.61 ± 0.450. UA S/D ratio had better performance values (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value) than AFI in predicting adverse perinatal outcomes.

Conclusion: AFI and UA S/D ratio are important for predicting low appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration score, meconium, respiratory complications, and perinatal mortality in high as well as low-risk pregnancy cases. However, UA S/D ratio is a better predictor of perinatal outcome in high-risk pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijabmr.ijabmr_452_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9215189PMC
May 2022

Lignocellulolytic enzymes from Aspergillus allahabadii for efficient bioconversion of rice straw into fermentable sugars and biogas.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jun 23;360:127507. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Microbiology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, Punjab, India. Electronic address:

The study was aimed at developing lignocellulolytic strain capable of efficient hydrolysis of mild alkali deacetylated (MAD) rice straw. The valorisation of lignin rich black liquor obtained during pre-treatment of rice straw into biogas was also evaluated. Study reports highly proficient cellulolytic Aspergillus allahabadii strain harbouring a spectrum of CAZymes based on comparative genome wide analysis that was subjected to strain breeding for developing a hyper producing strain. The secretome analysis showed up-modulation and several folds increase in the CAZyme activities in the culture extracts of the developed strain MAN 40 when compared to parent. The cellulolytic cocktail of the developed strain showed 1.52 folds higher saccharification of MAD rice straw when compared to Cellic CTec 3. Moreover, in-situ addition of cellulases derived from developed strains resulted in ∼3.7 folds higher methane production during anaerobic digestion of mixture of lignin rich black liquor and differently treated rice straw.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127507DOI Listing
June 2022

Furostanol saponins from Asparagus racemosus as potential hypoglycemic agents.

Phytochemistry 2022 Sep 23;201:113286. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, BS-10/1, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, 226031, India; Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility & Research, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, BS-10/1, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, 226031, U.P., India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, 201002, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Bioactivity guided phytochemical investigation led to isolation of six undescribed furostanol saponins, furoasparoside A-F along with five known compounds, gallic acid, methyl gallate, quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, liquiritigenin 4-O-β-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-glucopyranoside and β-glucogallin for the first time from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Isolated saponins were screened for their antidiabetic potential in L6-GLUT4myc myotubes in vitro followed by an in vivo evaluation in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and db/db mice. Furoasparoside E produced a notable decrease in the postprandial blood glucose profile, in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, type 2 diabetes model. The effect of furoasparoside E on GLUT4 translocation was found to be mediated by the AMPK-dependent signaling pathway in L6-GLUT4myc myotubes. Moreover, it emerged as a stable plant metabolite with higher bioavailability and efficacy in in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. Therefore, these studies indicated that furoasparoside E may serve as a propitious lead for the management of type 2 diabetes and its secondary complications from natural source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2022.113286DOI Listing
September 2022

Primer for Designing Main Protease (M) Inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2.

J Phys Chem Lett 2022 Jun 21;13(25):5776-5786. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33146, United States.

The COVID-19 outbreak has been devastating, with hundreds of millions of infections and millions of deaths reported worldwide. In response, the application of structure-activity relationships (SAR) upon experimentally validated inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M) may provide an avenue for the identification of new lead compounds active against COVID-19. Upon the basis of information gleaned from a combination of reported crystal structures and the docking of experimentally validated inhibitors, four "rules" for designing potent M inhibitors have been proposed. The aim here is to guide medicinal chemists toward the most probable hits and to provide guidance on repurposing available structures as M inhibitors. Experimental examination of our own previously reported inhibitors using the four "rules" identified a potential lead compound, the cathepsin inhibitor , that was 2.3 times more potent than SARS-CoV-2 M inhibitor .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.2c01193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9235046PMC
June 2022

Visible-light driven dual heterojunction formed between g-CN/[email protected] for the effective degradation of tetracycline.

Environ Pollut 2022 Sep 14;308:119597. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Nanshan District Key Lab. for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, PR China.

In the present study, we have successfully formulated a dual heterojunction of g-CN/[email protected] (GCBM) which was found to be highly active in the visible region. GCBM was found to be highly efficient for the degradation of an antibiotic, tetracycline (TC) as compared to the individual constituting units; g-CN and BiOCl. Maximum of 97% TC degradation rate was obtained within 90 min of visible light irradiation for initial concentration of 10 mg/L of TC. Optical analysis exhibited that the synthesized heterojunction showed high absorption in the complete spectrum. The reactive species specified by the scavenger study showed the major involvement of O and OH radicals. The charge transfer mechanism showed that 2 schemes were majorly involvement in which Z-scheme was formed between g-CN and BiOCl and Schottky junction was formed between g-CN and Mxene-TiC. The formation of Schottky junction helped in inhibiting the back transfer of photogenerated charges and thus, helped in reducing the recombination rate. The synthesized photocatalyst was found to be highly reusable and was studied for consecutive 5 cycles that generalized the high proficiency even after repetitive cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119597DOI Listing
September 2022

A Tandem Semipinacol Rearrangement/Aldehyde Arylation or Alkylation of Trisubstituted 2,3-Epoxy Alcohols with Grignard Reagents for Functionalized 1,3-Diols.

J Org Chem 2022 Jun 9;87(12):7696-7711. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Medicinal & Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sector 10, Jankipuram extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow 226031, UP, India.

A tandem semipinacol rearrangement/aldehyde arylation or alkylation reaction leading to formation of functionalized 1,3-diols bearing three consecutive tertiary stereocenters is identified from the reaction of various new trisubstituted 2,3-epoxy alcohols with numerous Grignard reagents. This reaction is useful for stereoselective construction of three consecutive tertiary stereocenters. The observed 1,3-diols exist in the configuration, which is confirmed by two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, the crystal structure of acetonide of 1,3-diol analogue , and further density functional theory studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.2c00267DOI Listing
June 2022

C-Labeled Diethyl Ketoglutarate Derivatives as Hyperpolarized Probes of 2-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase Activity.

Anal Sens 2021 Nov 9;1(4):156-160. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Advanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas South-western Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

The TCA cycle is a central metabolic pathway for energy production and biosynthesis. A major control point of metabolic flux through the cycle is the decarboxylation of 2-ketoglutarate by the TCA cycle enzyme 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (2-KGDH). In this project, we developed C labeled 2-ketoglutarate derivatives to monitor 2-KGDH activity in vivo. C NMR analysis of liver extracts revealed that uniformly C labeled 2-ketogutarate, in its cell permeable ester form, was rapidly taken up and hydrolyzed in liver and underwent extensive metabolism to produce labeled glutamate, succinate, lactate and other metabolites. Diethyl [1,2-C]-2-ketoglutarate was successfully polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization and within seconds after injection into rats, the probe produced hyperpolarized [C]bicarbonate in the liver reflecting flux through the TCA cycle. These experiments demonstrate that this tracer offers the possibility of directly monitoring flux through 2-KGDH in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anse.202100021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9165698PMC
November 2021

Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Duck Enteritis Virus (DEV/India/IVRI-2016) Isolated from Southern India.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2022 Jul 2;11(7):e0124421. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Molecular characterization of Indian isolates of duck enteritis virus (DEV) so far has been limited to a few selected genomic regions. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an isolate, DEV/India/IVRI-2016, from southern India that is 158,091 bp in length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mra.01244-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9302156PMC
July 2022

Phytochemically stabilized chitosan encapsulated Cu and Ag nanocomposites to remove cefuroxime axetil and pathogens from the environment.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 23;212:451-464. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Chemistry, Career Point University, Bhoranj (Tikker - Kharwarian), Hamirpur, MDR 35, Himachal Pradesh 176041, India. Electronic address:

Antibiotics have been a source of concern since they are causing resistance in bacteria that live in water and air. As a result, green technology was used to manufacture silver and copper nanoparticles, which were encapsulated with the biopolymer chitosan derived from the root extract of the Potentilla astrosanguinea plant. XRD, FTIR, TEM, EDX, and UV-Visible spectroscopy were methods used for structural and spectroscopic analysis. These nanomaterials have a roughly spherical 2-30 nm average size and a face-centered cubic (FCC) shape, according to the findings. The photocatalytic drug degradation and antibacterial properties of the produced nanocomposites were outstanding, with some resistance lasting longer than 180 days. The current study discovered that under UV light exposure, silver nanocomposites degrade drugs rapidly within 40 min, with an average rate of over 95%, while copper nanocomposites degrade drugs rapidly within 70 min, with an average rate of 84%. These nanocomposites have demonstrated exceptionally compelling antibacterial action against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal pathogens in addition to photocatalytic activity. The lowest recorded MIC values were 10.30 μg/mL and 10.84 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the lowest MBC values were 91.24 μg/mL and 99.50 μg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.05.143DOI Listing
July 2022

Contemporary Strategies to Promote Dialysis Access Fistula Maturation.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2022 Aug 15;56(6):590-594. Epub 2022 May 15.

1863Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

: The inability of a newly created arteriovenous fistula to support hemodialysis due to non-maturation results in increased complications secondary to catheter dependence. : In view of the highly variable approaches by providers with heterogenous backgrounds (general surgery, vascular surgery, interventional radiology and interventional nephrology, urology, transplant surgery, etc.) we sought to describe a collection of algorithms that have functioned well in our hands to manage this challenging clinical problem and guide trainees and practicing clinicians alike.: Physical examination along with selective duplex ultrasound and fistulogram can identify most pathologies underlying non-maturation.: Both endovascular and open techniques can be employed to optimize maturation rates in this complex population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15385744211037834DOI Listing
August 2022

Lysinibacillus macroides-mediated control of cellulose-producing morphotype of Salmonella.

J Sci Food Agric 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Soil-dwelling human pathogens like Salmonella are transmitted by fresh produce such as tomato, spinach, onion and cabbage. With >2600 serovars, it is difficult to classify the good plant colonizers from the non-colonizers. Generally, soil microbiota are classified as autochthonous or zymogenous organisms, based on their ability to survive in soil. However, such information for soil-dwelling human pathogens is not available Thus there is a need to classify these organisms for designing a strategy to prevent their outbreak. Moreover, soil harbours a plethora of microbes, which can be screened for competitive organisms to control such human pathogens.

Results: In this study, we examined whether the morphotype based on the attachment factors (e.g., cellulose and curli fimbri) of Salmonella was important for its colonization of roots. Secondly, we tracked the location of the bacteria in the plant cell. Interestingly, most of the epidermal cells occupied by Salmonella showed propidium iodide-positive nuclei. As an extension of the study, a screening of competitive rhizospheric bacteria was performed. One isolate, identified as Lysinibacillus macroides, was able to inhibit the biofilm of Salmonella and subsequently reduced its colonization on roots.

Conclusion: Based on this study, we classified the Rdar (red, dry and rough) morphotypes as good plant colonists. The ability to colonize and subsequent kill the live plant cell throws light on the zymogenous life cycle of soil-dwelling Salmonella. Additionally, Lysinibacillus macroides served as a biocontrol agent by reducing the burden of Salmonella in various vegetables. Such organisms can further be explored to prevent contamination of the food chain. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.12016DOI Listing
May 2022

Are Countries Becoming Better at SARS-CoV-2 Genomic Surveillance?

Front Public Health 2022 25;10:887955. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology (IBAB), Bengaluru, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.887955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9088876PMC
April 2022

Harmonizing Prokaryotic Nomenclature: Fixing the Fuss over Phylum Name Flipping.

mBio 2022 06 10;13(3):e0097022. Epub 2022 May 10.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnologygrid.418831.7 (IBAB), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Lloyd and Tahon recently criticized proposed bacterial phylum nomenclature changes (K.G. Lloyd, G. Tahon, Nat Rev Microbiol 20:123-124, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-022-00684-2) precipitated by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP)'s official recognition of phylum nomenclature rules. Here, we extend the critique. While we applaud bringing consistency to phylum names, we prognosticate what this minute but momentous change entails for the future of microbial nomenclature and how this will sow confusion among researchers. Several pitfalls of the proposed ICSP framework-based nomenclature are also detailed, including (i) improper type genus name and suffix usage, (ii) loss of Bacteria/Archaea distinctions, (iii) disruption of major phylum name prefixes, and (iv) absence of organism name prevalidation. Finally, we suggest new names for the key bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (), Firmicutes (), Actinobacteria (), and Tenericutes (), while keeping the archaeal phylum names Crenarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Together, these changes will help researchers attain chaos-free uniform nomenclature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00970-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9239268PMC
June 2022

Role of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery in the Management of Diabetic Renal Papillary Necrosis.

J Endourol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Urology, Asian Institute of Nephrology & Urology, Hyderabad, India.

It is challenging to diagnose diabetic renal papillary necrosis (RPN) radiologically due to the limitation in performing a contrast study in patients with compromised renal function. Endoscopic management by Double 'J' (DJ) stenting or percutaneous nephrostomy is the preferred treatment. The aim of our study was to analyze the role of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in the management of RPN by retrieving necrosed papillae. This retrospective study included diabetic patients who presented with acute pyelonephritis or urosepsis at our institute. After evaluating with appropriate laboratory and radiological investigations, retrograde pyelography (RGP) and DJ stenting were performed in those who did not respond to intravenous antibiotic therapy. The RIRS was performed in patients who had filling defects in the pelvicaliceal system (PCS) on RGP after 3 weeks at the time of DJ stent removal. Patients with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months were included. A total of 187 patients (81 female, 106 male) with diabetes with a mean age of 58.3 years were enrolled in this study. The mean serum creatinine was 2.7 mg/dL and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 32.8 mL/min/1.73 m. One hundred twenty-six patients (67.3%) had hydroureteronephrosis (HUN), out of whom 74 (58.7%) had necrosed papillae in the PCS. In 61 (32.6%) patients, there was no HUN; however, 25 (41%) of these patients had necrosed papillae in PCS. Necrosed renal papillae were retrieved in 83 patients (46.1%) by RIRS. All the patients were followed up for a minimum period of 6 months; seven patients (3.8%) had recurrent pyelonephritis. The RIRS plays a significant role in the management of diabetic RPN. Retrieving necrosed papillae from the PCS after confirming their presence by RGP prevents ureteric obstruction, which leads to urosepsis, and presumptively prevents or delays future episodes of pyelonephritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2022.0175DOI Listing
June 2022

Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox 2) Expression in Newly Diagnosed Plasma Cell Myeloma: A Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Study on 73 Cases from a Single Tertiary Care Center.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2022 Apr 4;38(2):235-245. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Public Health Dentistry, SCB Dental College and Hospital, Cuttack, India.

To study the cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox 2) expression in newly diagnosed plasma cell myeloma cases by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and correlate with clinicohematological characteristics. Immunohistochemical expression of Cox 2 on bone marrow trephine biopsy was studied in newly diagnosed myeloma [56 males, 17 females, median age; 58 years (36-75)] and fifteen controls using SP21 clone antibody. A median immuno-score (proportion x intensity) stratified the entire cohort into low and high expressors. Cox 2 immunoexpression was compared and correlated with clinicolaboratory characteristics and marrow histomorphology and survival. Twenty one of 73 (38.7%) cases had a plasmablastic morphology whereas remainder fifty-two (61.3%) had a differentiated morphology. The Cox 2 expression was noted in 71/73 (97.2%) cases (median score = 127.3) and 15/15 (100%) controls. Low expressors was associated with higher circulating plasma cells, increased marrow tumor burden, blastic morphology, and lower proliferation index ( < 0.05) with a peculiar '' cytoplasmic positivity ( < 0.001); whereas high expressors had thinned out bony trabeculae with granular cytoplasmic positivity with or without membrane accentuation ( < 0.001). Cox 2 expression had a weak negative correlation with tumor burden (r; -0.32,  = 0.01) and positive correlation with proliferation index (r; 0.29,  = 0.03). There was no statistically significant difference in the survival between low ( = 20) and high ( = 23) expressors (log rank  = 0.11). A high proportion of myeloma cells in our cohort expressed Cox 2 using SP21 clone; and this may have a role in futuristic research and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-021-01448-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9001773PMC
April 2022

The Origin and Clinical Relevance of Yoga Nidra.

Sleep Vigil 2022 23;6(1):61-84. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), AIIMS Road, Patrapada, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751019 India.

Yoga nidra, also known as 'yogic sleep', is a simplified form of an ancient tantric relaxation technique. The most general description of the practice is that it combines guided mental imagery with a specific yoga posture called Shavasana (or "corpse pose"). The goal of yoga nidra is to promote a profound state of relaxation, which differs from sleep inasmuch as there is still an awareness of one's surroundings. While several components of the practice have been known since ancient times, it was not until the 1960s that an updated and systematized system of practice was introduced to the public through the writings of Swami Satyananda Saraswati. Unlike other schools of yoga, which emphasize concentration or contemplation, yoga nidra's goal is complete relaxation. As such, its advocates claim that it is suitable for all individuals, from beginners to advanced practitioners of yoga. The calm inner stillness induced by yoga nidra is claimed by practitioners to be an effective stress management tool as well as a means for attaining greater receptivity to personal resolutions. These resolutions can range from the goal of achieving self-transformation, enhancing creativity, or improving one's learning ability. Additionally, yoga nidra is claimed to promote beneficial changes in physiological and mental health. The following narrative review summarizes the basic steps used to achieve the final state of yoga nidra relaxation as well as some recent experimental findings regarding its physiological and psychological effects. Standard research databases were searched for relevant articles. Clinical studies have shown that yoga nidra meditation is associated with positive physiological changes, including improvements in several hematological variables, red blood cell counts, blood glucose levels, and hormonal status. Two neuroimaging studies have shown that yoga nidra produces changes in endogenous dopamine release and cerebral blood flow, a further confirmation that its effects on the CNS are objectively measurable. The practice has also been shown to reduce psychometrically measured indices of mild depression and anxiety, although these benefits were not shown in an experimental study to extend to severe depression or severe anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41782-022-00202-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9033521PMC
April 2022

An investigation on dissimilarity of mass flow rate and N on exergo-enviro-economic parameters for solar still of single slope type integrated with N similar PVT flat plate collectors having series connection.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graphic Era Deemed to Be University, Bell Road, Clement Town, Dehradun, 248002, Uttarakhand, India.

This paper investigates analytically the effect of dissimilarity of mass flow rate [Formula: see text] and number of collectors (N) on exergo-enviro-economic parameters for solar still of single slope type integrated with N similar photovoltaic thermal flat plate collectors having series connection (NPVTFPC-SS) keeping water depth as 0.14 m. All four kinds of weather conditions for New Delhi have been taken for the computation of different parameters. All relevant equations obtained using energy balance equations for all components of the system have been fed to a computer code inscribed in MATLAB-2015a for computing different parameters. The computation of different relevant parameters has been performed for various values of [Formula: see text] and N while keeping water depth as constant to know the effect of variation of [Formula: see text] and N on exergo-enviro-economic parameters for NPVTFPC-SS. It has been concluded that the value of carbon credit earned, enviroeconomic and exegoeconomic parameters, and productivity diminishes with the enhancement in [Formula: see text] at given N. The optimum value of N for given value of [Formula: see text] has been found to be 10 from exergoeconomic parameter viewpoint and 6 from productivity viewpoint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20406-8DOI Listing
April 2022

Hypoalbuminemia and not undernutrition predicts high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in resource-constrained centers.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 09 21;69(9):e29738. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Army Hospital Research and Referral, Delhi, India.

Background: The standard practice to mitigate high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-induced nephrotoxicity (HMN) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is to monitor levels until serum MTX falls below a predefined threshold. It is not feasible in most resource-constrained centers. Literature on the various factors affecting HMN in these centers is limited, retrospective, and heterogeneous. Though hypoalbuminemia has been postulated as a risk factor for HMN, the relationship of undernutrition with HMN has not been studied.

Procedure: This prospective observational study consecutively enrolled children < 12 years old with ALL receiving HD-MTX. Children with preexisting renal disease and exposed to nephrotoxic drugs two weeks preceding HD-MTX infusion were excluded. HD-MTX was administered over 24 hours (BFM-2009 protocol) with 12 hours of prehydration. Solitary MTX levels at 36 hours (MTX36) were outsourced, and 6-8 doses of leucovorin were given six-hourly. Hydration was continued till last dose of leucovorin. Various factors affecting HMN (rise in creatinine to 1.5 times baseline) were recorded: age, sex, type of ALL, risk group of ALL, first dose of MTX, dose of MTX, undernourishment, serum protein, and albumin along with C-reactive protein and MTX36 levels.

Results: Forty-four children who received 150 HD-MTX cycles were analyzed. HMN was seen in 14% of cycles. On univariate analysis, undernourishment, MTX36 levels, hypoproteinemia, and hypoalbuminemia were significantly associated with HMN. On multivariate analysis, hypoalbuminemia and MTX36 levels significantly predicted the development of HMN with odds ratios of 4.71 and 1.45.

Conclusion: Hypoalbuminemia and solitary serum MTX levels predict HMN in centers where serial MTX level monitoring is not feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.29738DOI Listing
September 2022

Association of injection Tocilizumab and inflammatory markers in COVID19.

J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Apr;70(4):11-12

Rnt Medical College, Bhilwara, Udaipur.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus has spread all over the world. Scientists are trying to discover drugs as effective treatment for patients with COVID-19. So far about 30 drugs have been introduced that one of them is Tocilizumab. Some reports showed a positive effect of Tocilizumab on Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen (SPO2) but results of CT scan in patients in different. In some patients, CT scan showed reduced infiltration, however in other no change was observed. Unfortunately, until now there has been no definitive and effective treatment for patients with COVID-19. Based on evidence of the Tocilizumab's effect on the SARS COV 2, researchers hope this drug will make effective and promising treatment to improve lung tissue inflammation in patients with the fatal COVID-19 virus. The present study provides an overview of respiratory inflammation with COVID-19 and probable effect of Tocilizumab on SARS-COV 2.

Material: A Case Series was conducted on 30 patients, RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 cases; admitted and kept under observation in medicine ward, ICU or dedicated COVID-19 wards of RNT Medical College and associated group of Hospitals for a duration of 30 days after getting approval from institutional ethics committee if they met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected from records at the time of admission of these cases.

Observation: In our study on day 1 mean of IL6 was 248.3 and on day 3 after giving injection Tocilizumab mean of IL6 was 138.7 and p value was 0.205 and on day1 mean of serum ferritin was 474.2 and on day 3 after giving injection Tocilizumab mean of serum ferritin was 415.2 and p value was 0.649 and on day 1 mean of LDH was 652 and on day 3 after giving injection Tocilizumab mean of LDH was 389.6 and p value was 0.006 and on day 1 mean of CRP was 100 and on day 3 after giving injection Tocilizumab mean of CRP was 35.95 and p value was 0.006 and out of 30 patient 22 patients were discharged and 8 patients declared death.

Conclusion: In present study it was interpreted that injection Tocilizumab play an important role in reducing inflammation in COVID 19disease. Tocilizumab have significant role in reducing mortality from COVID 19.
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April 2022

Gum Acacia-Crosslinked-Poly(Acrylamide) Hydrogel Supported CN/BiOI Heterostructure for Remediation of Noxious Crystal Violet Dye.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Mar 30;15(7). Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Nanshan District Key Laboratory for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Herein, we report the designing of a CN/BiOI heterostructure that is supported on gum acacia-crosslinked-poly(acrylamide) hydrogel to fabricate a novel nanocomposite hydrogel. The potential application of the obtained nanocomposite hydrogel to remediate crystal violet dye (CVD) in an aqueous solution was explored. The structural and functional analysis of the nanocomposite hydrogel was performed by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The different reaction parameters, such as CVD concentration, nanocomposite hydrogel dosage, and working pH, were optimized. The CN/BiOI heterostructure of the nanocomposite hydrogel depicts Z-scheme as the potential photocatalytic mechanism for the photodegradation of CVD. The degradation of CVD was also specified in terms of COD and HR-MS analysis was carried to demonstrate the major degradation pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15072549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8999743PMC
March 2022

Chitosan as a Tool for Sustainable Development: A Mini Review.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Apr 5;14(7). Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Departamento de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales e Ingeniería Química (IAAB), Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Spain.

New developments require innovative ecofriendly materials defined by their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and versatility. For that reason, the scientific society is focused on biopolymers such as chitosan, which is the second most abundant in the world after cellulose. These new materials should show good properties in terms of sustainability, circularity, and energy consumption during industrial applications. The idea is to replace traditional raw materials with new ecofriendly materials which contribute to keeping a high production rate but also reducing its environmental impact and the costs. The chitosan shows interesting and unique properties, thus it can be used for different purposes which contributes to the design and development of sustainable novel materials. This helps in promoting sustainability through the use of chitosan and diverse materials based on it. For example, it is a good sustainable alternative for food packaging or it can be used for sustainable agriculture. The chitosan can also reduce the pollution of other industrial processes such as paper production. This mini review collects some of the most important advances for the sustainable use of chitosan for promoting circular economy. Hence, the present review focuses on different aspects of chitosan from its synthesis to multiple applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14071475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9003291PMC
April 2022

Six-minute walk test and its predictability in outcome of COVID-19 patients.

J Educ Health Promot 2022 26;11:58. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Background: The world is worsely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Increased mortality has been observed in older adults with multiple comorbidities. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD) at admission can help us to guide the requirement of oxygen during hospital stay that can be used to determine which patient can be managed at home.

Materials And Methods: This study was a prospective observational study conducted on COVID-19 patients admitted at AIIMS, New Delhi, from October to December 2020. Patients aged more than 60 years were included in the study and underwent 6-min walk tests. Polypharmacy and multimorbidity were also assessed along with dyspnea which was measured on BORG scale. < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical software STATA (version 14.2) was used for all the analyses.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 68.76 (7.4). Oxygen saturation prior to the 6-MWT was normal and has significantly higher than the post test ( ≤ 0.001). 6MWD was significantly correlated with pre values of oxygen saturation. 6MWD was observed more in patients who did not require oxygen during hospital stay. Self-reported dyspnea, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with the patients who had an oxygen requirement during the hospital stay.

Conclusion: Self-reported dyspnea after 6MWT was found to be associated with oxygen requirement during hospital stay. Patients who have covered more distance in 6-min walk test have less oxygen requirement during hospital stay hence can be managed at home. This will reduce the health-care burden and will help to tackle the outburst during the ongoing pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_544_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8975019PMC
February 2022
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