Publications by authors named "Gaurav Sharma"

445 Publications

COVID-19: Asymptomatic Carrier: An Autopsy Case Report.

Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):120-124. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Forensic Medicine, BPS Government Medical College for Women, Sonipat, Haryana, India.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus- 2 (CoV-2) outbreak in Wuhan, China has now spread to many countries across the world including the India with an increasing death toll. On March 11, 2020, the new clinical condition COVID-19 (Corona-Virus-Disease-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Owing to its infectivity, high risk of transmission, and limited handling of dead bodies, published data on the course of diseases has been limited. Most patients with COVID-19 have a mild disease course and remain as asymptomatic carrier; however, few patients of older age and with co-morbidites develop severe disease leading on to fatality. If due to COVID-19 infection death occurs, an autopsy is unlikely. However in unnatural deaths the legal duty impels the proper performance of a full autopsy, to find out the cause and manner of death. The detailed autopsy examination along with histo-pathological findings in the organs of asymptomatic patient of COVID-19 and its comparison with microscopic findings in Aluminium Phosphide poisoning are discussed below. This will summarizes the research status for COVID-19 deaths, which will be important for evaluation of cause of death, prevention, control and clinical strategies of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_579_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061615PMC
April 2021

Antibiotic Safety and Effectiveness in Premature Infants With Complicated Intraabdominal Infections.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Jun;40(6):550-555

From the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Background: In premature infants, complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although universally prescribed, the safety and effectiveness of commonly used antibiotic regimens have not been established in this population.

Methods: Infants ≤33 weeks gestational age and <121 days postnatal age with cIAI were randomized to ≤10 days of ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole (group 1); ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin (group 2); or piperacillin-tazobactam and gentamicin (group 3) at doses stratified by postmenstrual age. Due to slow enrollment, a protocol amendment allowed eligible infants already receiving study regimens to enroll without randomization. The primary outcome was mortality within 30 days of study drug completion. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, outcomes of special interest, and therapeutic success (absence of death, negative cultures, and clinical cure score >4) 30 days after study drug completion.

Results: One hundred eighty infants [128 randomized (R), 52 nonrandomized (NR)] were enrolled: 63 in group 1 (45 R, 18 NR), 47 in group 2 (41 R, 6 NR), and 70 in group 3 (42 R, 28 NR). Thirty-day mortality was 8%, 7%, and 9% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There were no differences in safety outcomes between antibiotic regimens. After adjusting for treatment group and gestational age, mortality rates through end of follow-up were 4.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-12.13], 4.53 (95% CI: 1.21-15.50), and 4.07 (95% CI: 1.22-12.70) for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

Conclusions: Each of the antibiotic regimens are safe in premature infants with cIAI.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT0199499.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000003034DOI Listing
June 2021

Regioselective synthesis of functionalized pyrazole-chalcones a base mediated reaction of diazo compounds with pyrylium salts.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Medicinal & Process Chemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow-226031, India. and Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India.

A base-mediated reaction of triaryl/alkyl pyrylium tetrafluoroborate salts with α-diazo-phosphonates, sulfones and trifluoromethyl compounds affords the corresponding functionalized pyrazole-chalcones as 5-P-5 and 3-P-3 tautomeric mixture. The reaction proceeds through an initial nucleophilic addition of diazo substrates to pyrylium salts followed by a base-mediated pyrylium ring-opening and intramolecular 1,5-cyclization to afford formal 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition products. The products underwent a Nazarov-type cyclization upon hydride reduction followed by acidic-workup, furnishing the corresponding indenyl-pyrazoles in high yields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00274kDOI Listing
April 2021

Utilization of AgO-AlO-ZrO decorated onto rGO as adsorbent for the removal of Congo red from aqueous solution.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 15;197:111179. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Nanshan District Key Lab. for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518055, PR China.

The water resources contamination in an alarming concern for sustainable environment. This has led to development of new technologies and materials for waste water detoxification. In the present study, we have fabricated novel trimetallic based mixed oxides decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite using facile microwave method and utilized it as an adsorbent for the removal of congo red dye from aqueous solution. The final composite showed highly agglomerated metal oxides present on the rGO surface. The high surface area and activity of the synthesized adsorbent resulted in its high adsorption capacity of 333.32 mg/g for congo red. The Langmuir model better explained the isotherm data indicating the monolayer adsorption of congo red molecules onto AgO-AlO-ZrO/rGO surface. The grander adsorption ability of AgO-AlO-ZrO/rGO towards organic dye indicate its probable utilization in the removal of other dyes also from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111179DOI Listing
April 2021

Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Studies Funded Under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act.

Pediatrics 2021 May 12;147(5). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background And Objectives: The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) incentivizes the study of on-patent medicines in children and mandates that the National Institutes of Health sponsor research on off-patent drugs important to pediatric therapeutics. Failing to enroll cohorts that reflect the pediatric population at large restricts the generalizability of such studies. In this investigation, we evaluate racial and ethnic minority representation among participants enrolled in BPCA-sponsored studies.

Methods: Data were obtained for all participants enrolled in 33 federally funded studies of drugs and devices conducted from 2008 through June 2020. Observed racial and ethnic distributions were compared with expected distributions by sampling Census data at the same geographic frequency as in the studies. Racial and ethnic enrollment was examined by demography, geography, study type, study burden, and expected bias. Standard descriptive statistics, χ, generalized linear models, and linear regression were applied.

Results: A total of 10 918 participants (51% male, 6.6 ± 8.2 years) were enrolled across 46 US states and 4 countries. Studies ranged from treatment outcome reviews to randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Minority enrollment was comparable to, or higher than, expected (+0.1% to +2.6%) for all groups except Asian Americans (-3.7%, < .001). American Indian and Alaskan Native and multiracial enrollment significantly increased over the evaluation period ( < .01). There were no significant differences in racial distribution as a function of age or sex, although differences were observed on the basis of geography, study type, and study burden.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study revealed no evidence of racial and ethnic bias in enrollment for pediatric studies conducted with funding from BPCA, fulfilling the legislation's expectation to ensure adequate representation of all children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-042903DOI Listing
May 2021

GEORGE ®: A Pilot Study of a Smartphone Application for Huntington's Disease.

J Huntingtons Dis 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Center for Health+Technology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: Current Huntington's disease (HD) measures are limited to subjective, episodic assessments conducted in clinic. Smartphones can enable the collection of objective, real-world data but their use has not been extensively evaluated in HD.

Objective: Develop and evaluate a smartphone application to assess feasibility of use and key features of HD in clinic and at home.

Methods: We developed GEORGE ®, an Android smartphone application for HD which assesses voice, chorea, balance, gait, and finger tapping speed. We then conducted an observational pilot study of individuals with manifest HD, prodromal HD, and without a movement disorder. In clinic, participants performed standard clinical assessments and a battery of active tasks in GEORGE. At home, participants were instructed to complete the activities thrice daily for one month. Sensor data were used to measure chorea, tap rate, and step count. Audio data was not analyzed.

Results: Twenty-three participants (8 manifest HD, 5 prodromal HD, 10 controls) enrolled, and all but one completed the study. On average, participants used the application 2.1 times daily. We observed a significant difference in chorea score (HD: 19.5; prodromal HD: 4.5, p = 0.007; controls: 4.3, p = 0.001) and tap rate (HD: 2.5 taps/s; prodromal HD: 8.9 taps/s, p = 0.001; controls: 8.1 taps/s, p = 0.001) between individuals with and without manifest HD. Tap rate correlated strongly with the traditional UHDRS finger tapping score (left hand: r = -0.82, p = 0.022; right hand: r = -0.79, p = 0.03).

Conclusion: GEORGE is an acceptable and effective tool to differentiate individuals with and without manifest HD and measure key disease features. Refinement of the application's interface and activities will improve its usability and sensitivity and, ideally, make it useful for clinical care and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JHD-200452DOI Listing
March 2021

Robust magnetic ZnO-FeO Z-scheme hetereojunctions with in-built metal-redox for high performance photo-degradation of sulfamethoxazole and electrochemical dopamine detection.

Environ Res 2021 Mar 30;197:111074. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Advanced Materials Research Chair, Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This work reports synthesis of a dual-function facile heterojunction and investigation of role of the charge transfer dynamism between individual semiconductor components for superior photocatalytic and electrochemical sensing application. The bio-benevolent and sturdy ZnO/FeO heterojunctions were utilized for visible light facilitated photo-degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotic and electrochemical sensing of dopamine drug (DA). The fabricated heterojunction were characterized for structural, optical, and magnetic properties. Structural studies revealed the formation of nano heterojunction containing both phases. Magnetic studies confirmed the highly pure magnetic nature of photocatalysts. ZnO/30 wt%FeO heterojunction (S2) shows 95.2% SMX degradation under visible light and high retention of performance under solar light. The scavenging experiments infer that OH radicals are the active species responsible for degradation. A Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism was predicted for higher performance with protection of high potential VB of ZnO and CB of FeO for high generation of reactive oxygen species. LC-MS was employed to predict a plausible degradation route. The sample modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were used for electrochemical sensing of dopamine via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The S2 junction exhibited 0.18 μM limit of detection with concentration range of 1 μM-50 μM. The stability test was successfully carried out at room temperature for 15 days. In addition, the S2 modified electrodes were spiked in real urine samples and good results were obtained. DPV reveals that S2 modified electrode is best sensor for dopamine sensing among all synthesized heterojunctions. The detection mechanism was also discussed in detail. The in-built metal redox i.e Zn/Zn and Fe/Fe facilitate the Z-scheme transfer, improve the charge transfer capacity and reduce the recombination. This study is beneficial because it reports utilization of popular and well-tested semiconductor metal oxides to form heterojunctions with dual capabilities of environmental detoxification and cost-effective electrochemical detection of biomolecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111074DOI Listing
March 2021

Ultrasound guided injection of the rotator interval - Gaurav-Botchu technique.

J Ultrason 2021 8;21(84):77-79. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

Ultrasound-guided injection of the shoulder via the rotator interval can be challenging. The procedure is used for arthrograms, hydrodilatation and intra-articular glenohumeral joint injections. The conventional approach to the rotator interval is from lateral to medial. However, the placement of the needle in the target zone i.e. between the coracohumeral ligament and the long head of the biceps, can be difficult and challenging. Inadvertent injection performed with the needle in the long head of the biceps tendon can result in a biceps tendon rupture. We describe a new method (Gaurav-Botchu technique) to access the target zone (between the coracohumeral ligament and the long head of the biceps tendon) via a medial to lateral approach, which increases the target zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2021.0013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008194PMC
March 2021

Dorsal scapular nerve entrapment neuropathy managed by ultrasound-guided hydrodissection - a case report.

J Ultrason 2021 8;21(84):74-76. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

There are myriad causes for upper thoracic and interscapular pain which include pathologies involving the thoracic spine, costovertebral joints, facet joints and muscles (rhomboids and levator scapulae). Dorsal scapular nerve entrapment and the resulting neuropathy is a rare case of upper thoracic and medial scapular pain. The symptoms of dorsal scapular nerve entrapment neuropathy can be similar to other pathologies mentioned above. We report a rare case of dorsal scapular nerve entrapment managed successfully by ultrasound-guided hydrodissection, and describe the technique for the same. Awareness of this rare entity is advised while evaluating upper thoracic and interscapular pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2021.0012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008197PMC
March 2021

Pain medicine as a career.

Indian J Anaesth 2021 Jan 20;65(1):73-78. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, SMS Medical College and attached Hospitals, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Pain is one of the most common causes of seeking medical care. In the day to day clinical practice, incidence of pain of some origin is next only to common cold. The average life span of an Indian has also increased and this population is vulnerable to chronic and cancer pain. Anaesthesiologists are well-versed with the art and science of treating pain and their role as pain physician is a natural extension of the professional work. 'Pain Medicine' is growing as a speciality. Last two decades have seen an explosive growth in the scientific study of pain and anaesthesiologists taking up pain medicine as a career. Postgraduate students can certainly adopt this super speciality. This article highlights the merits and depicts various aspects of 'pain medicine' as a career.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ija.IJA_1598_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980244PMC
January 2021

Identification of novel interactions between host and non-structural protein 2C of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

J Gen Virol 2021 Mar 17;102(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

ICAR-Project Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease, Mukteswar, Uttarakhand, 263138, India.

The 2C protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is reported to play a critical role in the virus replication complex and modulating the host's immune response. However, the underlying molecular intricacies of subversion of cellular machinery remains poorly understood, thus emphasizing the need to study 2C-host interactions. In this study, we identified the host proteins interacting with the 2C using yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) approach, which is one of the most recognized, high-throughput tools to study protein-protein interactions. The FMDV-2C bait was characterized for auto-activation, toxicity, and expression and was found to be suitable for mating with cDNA library. On preliminary screening a total of 32 interacting host proteins were identified which were reduced to 22 on subsequent confirmation with alternative yeast based assays. Amongst these, NMI/2C interaction has been reported earlier by Wang (2012) and remaining 21 are novel interactions. The Reactome analysis has revealed the role of the identified host proteins in cellular pathways exploited by 2C during FMDV replication. We also confirmed interaction of MARCH7, an E3 ubiquitin ligase with 2C using mammalian two-hybrid system and co-immunoprecipitation. This study leads to the identification of novel 2C interacting host proteins which enhance our understanding of 2C-host interface and may provide checkpoints for development of potential therapeutics against FMDV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001577DOI Listing
March 2021

Identification of suitable reference genes in blood samples of carcinoma lung patients using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

J Carcinog 2020 20;19:11. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Introduction: Lung cancer (LC), among all other cancers, is the leading cause of death worldwide, while the third most common cancer-causing mortality in India. Several techniques of the assay for early detection of cancer that improve survival rates have been employed in tissues and cell lines. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) is one of the most common techniques employed for gene expression studies for the normalization of a target gene using a reference gene (RG). The present study used the three most common RGs: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-Actin, and 18s ribosomal ribonucleic acid (18s rRNA), which were assessed by qPCR to validate, as of which is a more effective RG in blood samples of LC patients.

Materials And Methods: A total of thirty participants with LC of non-small cell and small cell type were included along with twenty healthy controls. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was quantified, prepared for complementary deoxyribose nucleic acid synthesis, and analyzed for expression of three RG on RTqPCR.

Results: Expression levels as Ct values of studied RG were reported as mean ± standard deviation for GAPDH (26.97 ± 5.107), β-actin (20.5 ± 2.3), and 18s rRNA (25.10 ± 4.075). GAPDH showed the lowest expression, whereas β-actin showed the highest expression among the studied RG in subjects of LC. The expression of GAPDH and 18s rRNA were statistically significantly lower than β-actin ( < 0.0001), whereas expression levels of GAPDH and 18s rRNA were comparable. However, the expression level of only β-actin in LC patients was comparable with healthy controls with < 0.1611 at 95% confidence interval.

Conclusion: It is concluded that β -actin may be considered the most suitable RG isolated and studied from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using RT qPCR in LC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcar.JCar_18_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921775PMC
November 2020

Role of Phytomolecules in the Treatment of Obesity: Targets, Mechanisms and Limitations.

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Amity Institute of Neuropsychology & Neurosciences (AINN), Amity University UP, Sector -125, Noida 201303, India.

Obesity has become a worldwide health problem. It triggers additional co-morbidities like cardiovascular diseases, cancer, depression, sleep disorders, gastrointestinal problems and many more. Excess accumulation of fat in obesity could be caused by many factors like sedentary lifestyle, consumption of high fat diet, genetic predisposition, etc. Imbalanced energy metabolism i.e., greater energy consumption than utilisation, invariably underlies obesity. Considering the high prevalence and continuous, uncontrolled increase of this major public health issue, there is an urgent need to find appropriate therapeutic agents with minimal or no side effects. The high prevalence of obesity in recent years has led to a surge in the number of drugs available in the market that claim to control obesity. Although there is a long list of medicines and management strategies that are available, selecting the right therapeutic intervention and feasible management of obesity is a challenge. Several phytochemicals like hydroxycitric acid, flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanins, phytohaemagglutins, thymoquinone and epigallocatechin gallate have been shown to possess promising anti-obesity properties. However, studies providing information on how various phytochemicals exert their anti-obesity effects are inadequate. This calls for more experimentation in this less explored area of research. Additionally, the complication of obesity arises when it is a result of multiple factors and associated with a number of co-morbidities. In order to handle such complexities combinatorial therapeutic interventions become effective. In this review, we have described the medicinal chemistry of different highly effective phytochemicals which can be used in the effective treatment and management of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026621666210305101804DOI Listing
March 2021

Contemporary outcomes of a "snuffbox first" hemodialysis access approach in the United States.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.

Objective: The Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines for permanent hemodialysis (HD) access creation recommend prioritizing the most distal possible autogenous access to minimize complications and preserve more proximal options. The "snuffbox" arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the most distal radial artery-cephalic vein AVF. Despite the theoretical benefits of the snuffbox approach, recent trends have been toward upper arm access. Our study sought to investigate the feasibility of a snuffbox-first strategy for HD access in all anatomically appropriate candidates.

Methods: From January 2016 to August 2019, all patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or pre-ESRD under consideration for HD access were evaluated for a snuffbox-first approach by a team of vascular surgeons and nephrologists at a single, urban academic medical center in the United States. Data were collected prospectively and supplemented by medical record review. A survival analysis was performed to evaluate primary unassisted and secondary patency and clinical and functional maturation. Patients were censored if they had received a kidney transplant or had died. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the risk factors for prolonged clinical maturation and functional maturation.

Results: A total of 55 snuffbox AVFs were created. The median patient age was 60 years (interquartile range [IQR], 52-70 years), and 52.7% of the patients were men. The median follow-up was 369 days (IQR, 166-509 days). The median survival for primary unassisted patency was 90 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 79-111). Secondary patency at 1 year was 92.3% (95% CI, 85.3%-99.9%). The clinical maturation rate at 1 year was 83.7% (n = 55; 95% CI, 66.8%-91.9%), and the functional maturation rate at 1 year was 85.6% (n = 40; 95% CI, 63.3%-94.4%). Of the patients who were pre-ESRD at AVF creation and had initiated HD during the study period, 87.5% had successfully received incident HD with their snuffbox AVF. Twenty-four patients were receiving HD via a catheter at snuffbox creation. Of those patients, the functional maturation rate at 1 year was 82.5% (95% CI, 44.8%-94.4%). The patients had undergone a median of two interventions (IQR, zero to seven interventions) in the first year. Of these, 46.9% were percutaneous angioplasty and 31.2% were side-branch ligation. Diabetes was associated with slower AVF clinical maturation (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.82; P = .016). A larger artery diameter was associated with earlier AVF clinical maturation (multivariate hazard ratio, 6.64; 95% CI, 2.11-20.9).

Conclusions: A snuffbox-first approach to HD access is a viable option for distal access creation in a cohort of patients requiring HD in the United States. Subsequent ancillary interventions to facilitate access maturation were required for most patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.01.069DOI Listing
March 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Effect of Lesioning the Ventral Tegmental Area on Food Intake, Water Intake, Body Weight and Alcohol Consumption in Wistar Albino Rats.

Turk Neurosurg 2020 Aug 13. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Shri Vinoba Bhave Civil Hospital, Department of Physiology, Silvassa, Dadara and Nagar Haveli (UT), India.

Aim: This investigation aimed to study the effect of lesion of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on food intake, water intake, alcohol consumption, and alcohol preference in the post-lesion period.

Material And Methods: A group of 38 young adult healthy male Wistar albino rats was included in this experiment. The groups of rats were subjected to the bilateral electrolytic lesion of VTA, and the effect on water intake, food intake, alcohol consumption, and alcohol preference in the post-lesion period was analyzed. A sham lesioned control group was maintained for all experimental groups.

Results: There was no change observed in food intake and the body weight in lesioned animals (p 0.05). It was found that increased water intake was observed if only water was given. There was also increased alcohol intake when alcohol was only provided (p 0.05). However, two bottle-free choice tests for alcohol preference revealed that the rats preferred to consume water and not alcohol when the choice was given. There was an increase in the total volume consumed (p 0.05).

Conclusion: There was an increase in water intake and no notable changes in the food intake and body weight following the lesion. When offered alone, alcohol consumption was raised, but when a choice of alcohol and water was given in a two-bottle free-choice test, rats preferred to drink water. The present study suggests that VTA lesions may be associated with increased thirst and high fluid consumption, which may have implications in water balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.31074-20.2DOI Listing
August 2020

Etiology and pathophysiology of heart failure in people with HIV.

Heart Fail Rev 2021 May 22;26(3):497-505. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Section of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine and the Michael E. DeBakey VA Hospital, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

HIV-associated cardiomyopathy is a well-established sequela in people infected with HIV (PHIV). Despite significant advances in HIV management through the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), PHIV on HAART continue to have elevated risk of cardiomyopathy and heart failure, even when accounting for known cardiovascular risk factors. This review article will explore the proposed mechanisms by which chronic HIV infection induces cardiomyopathy and heart failure in the setting of HAART. Evaluation, work-up, and management of cardiomyopathy in PHIV will also be briefly discussed. The advent of HAART has altered the pathophysiology HIV-associated cardiomyopathy from a rapidly progressive cardiomyopathy, often with pericardial involvement, into a chronic process involving inflammation and persistent immune dysregulation. With the significant decrease in AIDS-related deaths, the prevalence of cardiomyopathy and the mortality associated with heart failure in PHIV have increased. Multiple immune-related and inflammatory mechanisms have been proposed, which may provide insight into evaluation and management of cardiomyopathy in PHIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10741-020-10048-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Peripheral Inflammatory Blood Markers in Diagnosis of Glioma and IDH Status.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2021 Jan 10;12(1):88-94. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sawai Man Singh Medical College Jaipur, Jaipur, India.

 Gliomas are the most common intracranial tumors. Histopathology and neuroimaging are the main modalities used for diagnosis and treatment response monitoring. However, both are expensive and insensitive methods and can cause neurological deterioration. This study aimed to develop a minimally invasive peripheral inflammatory biomarker for diagnosis of glioma, its grade, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) status.  Patients undergoing surgery for glioma, acoustic neuroma, and meningioma between January 2019 and December 2019 were included. Preoperative neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), eosinophil/lymphocyte ratio (ELR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were calculated. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining were done postoperatively.  A total of 154 patients of glioma, 36 patients of acoustic neuroma, 58 patients of meningioma, and 107 healthy controls were included. dNLR showed the maximum area under the curve (AUC) (0.656639) for diagnosis of glioma from other tumors and among combinations. dNLR +NLR showed the maximum AUC (0.647865). Maximum AUC for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) versus other grades and among combinations was shown by NLR (0.83926). NLR + dNLR had the maximum AUC (0.764794). NLR showed significant value in differentiating IDH wild from IDH mutant GBM.  dNLR has the maximum diagnostic value in diagnosing glioma from other tumors. NLR (AUC = 0.83926) showed the highest accuracy for GBM diagnosis and may be a parameter in predicting the grade of glioma; also, it has maximum diagnostic value in differentiating IDH wild GBM from IDH mutant GBM. These peripheral inflammatory parameters may prove to be sensitive and cost-effective markers for glioma diagnosis, predicting grade of glioma, monitoring of treatment response, and in predicting recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1721166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857957PMC
January 2021

Atomic simulation of adsorption of SO pollutant by metal (Zn, Be)-oxide and Ni-decorated graphene: a first-principles study.

J Mol Model 2021 Feb 4;27(3):70. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, School of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Due to the impact of toxic gases on human health, considerable interest has been shown in detecting noxious air pollutants, particularly sulfur dioxide (SO), both experimentally and theoretically. This work provides new insights into the adsorbing (SO) molecules on the surface of metal-oxide graphitic structures, i.e., Beryllium-Oxide (BeO), Zinc-Oxide (ZnO), and Ni-decorated graphene applying a first-principles study. Computational analyses suggest that the type of binding of SO molecule on BeO and ZnO sheets is physisorption so that binding energies of -0.405 and -0.154 eV were assigned to ZnO and BeO nanosheets in that order. The adsorption energy of SO on metal oxide sheets was much higher than the pristine graphene. Taking pristine graphene as an adsorbent for SO molecule, it was found that such nanomaterial is not an efficient adsorbent due to the weak interactions (-0.157 eV) and low electron charge transfer (0.042 e) present in SO/graphene complex. To overcome this issue, graphene nanosheets decorated with nickel atoms were studied for interaction with SO2 molecules; the results indicate that the SO molecules were chemisorbed on Ni-decorated graphene sheets with an adsorption energy of -2.297 eV. Chemisorption of SO molecules on Ni-decorated graphene sheets was proven by the strong orbital hybridization between Ni 3d and sulfur 3p orbitals in the Projected Density of States (PDOS) plot. This work provides useful information about SO adsorption on Ni-decorated graphene sheets in order to develop a new class of gas sensing devices. Superior chemisorption of SO on Ni-decorated graphene sheets compared to the physical adsorption on BeO and ZnO sheets makes Ni-decorated graphene a potential candidate for detecting SO molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-021-04691-7DOI Listing
February 2021

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Lateral Process of Talus Involving the Subtalar Joint: An Unusual Case.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Oct 7. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Associate, Sir H N Reliance Foundation Hospital, Mumbai, MH, India.

Osteochondritis dissecans is a fairly recognized entity affecting the talus dome but subtalar joint involvement is not that common. We report a case of a 34-year-old male with osteochondritis dissecans of lateral process talus which was missed on imaging studies and identified intraoperatively. The patient was treated with curettage of the subchondral cyst at talus, followed by bone grafting and fixation of the osteochondral lesion with a 4-mm partially threaded cancellous screw. At the 1-year follow-up evaluation, there were no signs of recurrence and the patient resumed his complete activities including sports. We believe that the threshold for diagnosing these lesions should be low in cases with nonspecific chronic ankle pain, and surgeons are encouraged to consider this diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2020.08.034DOI Listing
October 2020

Bupropion and Naltrexone in Methamphetamine Use Disorder.

N Engl J Med 2021 01;384(2):140-153

From the Peter O'Donnell Jr. Brain Institute at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (M.H.T.) and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (R.W., A.C., T.C., M.K., K.S.-W., S.W.), Dallas, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (J.S.), and Texas Tech University, Permian Basin, Odessa (A.J.R.); the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (W.L., S. Shoptaw); the Emmes Company, Rockville (G.S., A.W.), and the National Institute on Drug Abuse Center for the Clinical Trials Network (U.E.G., S. Sparenborg [retired]), Rockville - both in Maryland; the San Francisco Department of Public Health and the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (P.C.); CODA, Portland, OR (K.W.); Hennepin Healthcare, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (G.B.); Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (S.C.S.); Duke-National University of Singapore, Singapore (A.J.R.); Duke Medical School, Durham, NC (A.J.R.); and Columbia University, New York (E.V.N.).

Background: The use of naltrexone plus bupropion to treat methamphetamine use disorder has not been well studied.

Methods: We conducted this multisite, double-blind, two-stage, placebo-controlled trial with the use of a sequential parallel comparison design to evaluate the efficacy and safety of extended-release injectable naltrexone (380 mg every 3 weeks) plus oral extended-release bupropion (450 mg per day) in adults with moderate or severe methamphetamine use disorder. In the first stage of the trial, participants were randomly assigned in a 0.26:0.74 ratio to receive naltrexone-bupropion or matching injectable and oral placebo for 6 weeks. Those in the placebo group who did not have a response in stage 1 underwent rerandomization in stage 2 and were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive naltrexone-bupropion or placebo for an additional 6 weeks. Urine samples were obtained from participants twice weekly. The primary outcome was a response, defined as at least three methamphetamine-negative urine samples out of four samples obtained at the end of stage 1 or stage 2, and the weighted average of the responses in the two stages is reported. The treatment effect was defined as the between-group difference in the overall weighted responses.

Results: A total of 403 participants were enrolled in stage 1, and 225 in stage 2. In the first stage, 18 of 109 participants (16.5%) in the naltrexone-bupropion group and 10 of 294 (3.4%) in the placebo group had a response. In the second stage, 13 of 114 (11.4%) in the naltrexone-bupropion group and 2 of 111 (1.8%) in the placebo group had a response. The weighted average response across the two stages was 13.6% with naltrexone-bupropion and 2.5% with placebo, for an overall treatment effect of 11.1 percentage points (Wald z-test statistic, 4.53; P<0.001). Adverse events with naltrexone-bupropion included gastrointestinal disorders, tremor, malaise, hyperhidrosis, and anorexia. Serious adverse events occurred in 8 of 223 participants (3.6%) who received naltrexone-bupropion during the trial.

Conclusions: Among adults with methamphetamine use disorder, the response over a period of 12 weeks among participants who received extended-release injectable naltrexone plus oral extended-release bupropion was low but was higher than that among participants who received placebo. (Funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and others; ADAPT-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03078075.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2020214DOI Listing
January 2021

Dynamics of Anthracene Excimer Formation within a Water-Soluble Nanocavity at Room Temperature.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 02 20;143(4):2025-2036. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208 016, India.

Excited anthracene is well-known to photodimerize and not to exhibit excimer emission in isotropic organic solvents. Anthracene (AN) forms two types of supramolecular host-guest complexes (2:1 and 2:2, H:G) with the synthetic host octa acid in aqueous medium. Excitation of the 2:2 complex results in intense excimer emission, as reported previously, while the 2:1 complex, as expected, yields only monomer emission. This study includes confirming of host-guest complexation by NMR, probing the host-guest structure by molecular dynamics simulation, following the dynamics AN molecules in the excited state by ultrafast time-resolved experiments, and mapping of the excited surface through quantum chemical calculations (QM/MM-TDDFT method). Importantly, time-resolved emission experiments revealed the excimer emission maximum to be time dependent. This observation is unique and is not in line with the textbook examples of time-independent monomer-excimer emission maxima of aromatics in solution. The presence of at least one intermediate between the monomer and the excimer is inferred from time-resolved area normalized emission spectra. Potential energy curves calculated for the ground and excited states of two adjacent anthracene molecules via the QM/MM-TDDFT method support the model proposed on the basis of time-resolved experiments. The results presented here on the excited-state behavior of a well-investigated aromatic molecule, namely the parent anthracene, establish that the behavior of a molecule drastically changes under confinement. The results presented here have implications on the behavior of molecules in biological systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c12169DOI Listing
February 2021

Effectiveness of curcumin mouthwash on radiation-induced oral mucositis among head and neck cancer patients: A triple-blind, pilot randomised controlled trial.

Indian J Dent Res 2020 Sep-Oct;31(5):718-727

Department of Oral Medicine & Radiology, S.C.B Dental College, Cuttack, Odisha, India.

Introduction: Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is considered the most severe non-haematological complication affecting almost every head and neck cancer patient during the course of radiotherapy (RT). Curcumin, a herbal agent present in Indian spice 'Turmeric' has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation and wound healing properties. The objective of this pilot randomised controlled clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness and safety of 0.1% curcumin (freshly prepared using nanoparticles) and 0.15% benzydamine mouthwash on RIOM among 74 head and neck cancer patients scheduled to receive RT.

Materials And Methods: Assessment of RIOM was carried out using WHO criteria once in a week for 6 weeks. Both modified intention to treat (MIT) and per protocol (PP) analysis were carried out to test the null hypothesis of equal effectiveness on prevention and severity of RIOM.

Results: As far as the onset of RIOM is concerned, MIT analysis showed that the instantaneous risk of getting the onset of RIOM was 50% lower (hazard ratio 0.5) in curcumin. Onset of RIOM was also significantly delayed (mean = 19.56, median = 21) in the test group by 2 weeks. But in 'PP' analysis, no significant difference was observed between two preparations and almost all patients experienced the onset. Both the mouthwashes were equally effective in preventing the occurrence of severe form of RIOM in PP analysis after dichotomisation of severity score (≥3 and ≤2).

Conclusion: Though both the mouthwashes were not able to completely prevent the onset of RIOM and reduce the severity of RIOM, use of 0.1% curcumin mouthwash was able to significantly delay the onset of RIOM (Clinical trial registration no. CTRI/2018/04/013362).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_822_18DOI Listing
January 2021

A Comprehensive Toxicological Assessment of Fulvic Acid.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 16;2020:8899244. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China.

Fulvic acid (FA), a humic substance, has several nutraceutical properties, including anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, and immune regulation abilities. However, systematic safety assessment remains insufficient. In the present study, a battery of toxicological studies was conducted per internationally accepted standards to investigate the genotoxicity and repeated-dose oral toxicity of FA. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats or ICR mice were used. Compared to the control group, there were no significant changes (all > 0.05) in all FA treatment groups in the bacterial reverse mutation test, mammalian chromosome aberration test, sperm shape abnormality assay, and mouse micronucleus assay. The acute toxicity test showed that no mortality or toxic effect was observed following oral administration of the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg BW/day to mice or rats. A 60-day subchronic study was conducted at 0 (control), 200, 1,000, and 5,000 mg/kg/day. Compared to the control group, there were no significant changes (all > 0.05) in the body weights, feed consumption, clinical signs, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, or histopathology examinations. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of FA supplementation from the 60-day study was determined to be 5,000 mg/kg body weight/day, the highest dose tested. Our findings suggest that the oral administration of FA may have higher safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8899244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758121PMC
December 2020

Experimental Setup for Investigating the Efficient Load Balancing Algorithms on Virtual Cloud.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Dec 21;20(24). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Artificial Intelligence and Information Systems Research Group, School of Computing, Engineering and Digital Technologies, Teesside University, Middlesbrough TS1 3BX, UK.

Cloud computing has emerged as the primary choice for developers in developing applications that require high-performance computing. Virtualization technology has helped in the distribution of resources to multiple users. Increased use of cloud infrastructure has led to the challenge of developing a load balancing mechanism to provide optimized use of resources and better performance. Round robin and least connections load balancing algorithms have been developed to allocate user requests across a cluster of servers in the cloud in a time-bound manner. In this paper, we have applied the round robin and least connections approach of load balancing to HAProxy, virtual machine clusters and web servers. The experimental results are visualized and summarized using Apache Jmeter and a further comparative study of round robin and least connections is also depicted. Experimental setup and results show that the round robin algorithm performs better as compared to the least connections algorithm in all measuring parameters of load balancer in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20247342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767358PMC
December 2020

Dynamic tracking of variant frequencies depicts the evolution of mutation sites amongst SARS-CoV-2 genomes from India.

J Med Virol 2021 04 29;93(4):2534-2537. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology (IBAB), Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

With the exponential spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic across the world within the 12 months, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains are continuously trying to adapt themselves to the host environment by random mutations. When doing so, some variants with evolutionary advantages such as better human to human transmissibility potential might get naturally selected. This short communication demonstrates how the mutation frequency patterns are evolving in 2457 SAR-CoV-2 strains isolated from COVID-19 patients across diverse Indian states. We have identified 19 such variants showing contrasting mutational probabilities in the span of 7 months. Out of these, 14 variants are showing increasing mutational probabilities suggesting their propagation with time due to their unexplored evolutionary advantages. However, the mutational probabilities of five variants have significantly decreased in June onward as compared to March/April, suggesting their termination with time. Further in-depth investigation of these identified variants will provide valuable knowledge about the evolution, infection strategies, transmission rates, and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26756DOI Listing
April 2021

Additions to the knowledge of the Tribe Alyssontini (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae: Bembicinae) in India with description of two new species of the genus Alysson Panzer.

Zootaxa 2020 Oct 16;4861(2):zootaxa.4861.2.7. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Western Ghats Regional Centre, Zoological Survey of India, Eranhipalam, Kozhikode, Kerala-673006, India..

Two new species of the genus Alysson Panzer, namely, A. bengalensis Girish Kumar sp. nov. and A. himachalensis Girish Kumar sp. nov. are described from the Indian Himalayas. Alysson triangularis Krombein, 1985 is reported here for the first time from India. Analysson rufescens Krombein, 1985 is reported here for the first time from Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. A key to species of Alysson of the Indian subcontinent is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4861.2.7DOI Listing
October 2020

Global gene expression analysis of the Myxococcus xanthus developmental time course.

Genomics 2021 Jan 1;113(1 Pt 1):120-134. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California - Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States of America. Electronic address:

To accurately identify the genes and pathways involved in the initiation of the Myxococcus xanthus multicellular developmental program, we have previously reported a method of growing vegetative populations as biofilms within a controllable environment. Using a modified approach to remove up to ~90% rRNAs, we report a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of the M. xanthus developmental cycle while comparing it with the vegetative biofilms grown in rich and poor nutrients. This study identified 1522 differentially regulated genes distributed within eight clusters during development. It also provided a comprehensive overview of genes expressed during a nutrient-stress response, specific development time points, and during development initiation and regulation. We identified several differentially expressed genes involved in key central metabolic pathways suggesting their role in regulating myxobacterial development. Overall, this study will prove an important resource for myxobacterial researchers to delineate the regulatory and functional pathways responsible for development from those of the general nutrient stress response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.11.030DOI Listing
January 2021

Silicate glass matrix@CuO/CuVO p-n heterojunction for enhanced visible light photo-degradation of sulfamethoxazole: High charge separation and interfacial transfer.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 29;402:123790. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Polymer Science and Technology, Guangdong Research Center for Interfacial Engineering of Functional Materials, Nanshan District Key Laboratory for Biopolymers and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518055, PR China. Electronic address:

Focusing on the treatment of pharmaceuticals contaminated water by advanced oxidation processes, a novel three dimensional silicate glass matrix (3-DG) coupled CuO/CuVO p-n heterojunction was constructed by in-situ hydrothermal technique. The optimal CuO/CuVO with 30 wt % CuVO (CV-30) degrades 90.1 % sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in 60 min and nearly 100 % removal in 45 min via coupling with 3-DG. Under natural sunlight ∼ 80 % SMX removal was observed. The internal electric field of the p-n junction facilitates the electron flow via the interface. 3-D silicate glass increases the visible light absorption dramatically via internal reflection which facilitates higher exposure for the junction and shortens the diffusion length of charge carriers. The effect of reaction parameters suggests that HCO and CO ions substantially escalate the SMX removal rate. Scavenging experiments and ESR probe suggest O as the main active species followed by OH radicals. The degradation products were detected by LC-MS analysis and a degradation mechanism was also predicted. The photocatalytic mechanism was explained in terms of the electron transfer facilitated by conventional transfer and Z-scheme. This strategy to construct such highly visible and solar active p-n heterojunctions will pave way for future opportunities for the degradation of recalcitrant pharmaceutical pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123790DOI Listing
January 2021

Dual Modulated QR Codes for Proximal Privacy and Security.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 4;30:657-669. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

The ubiquitous presence of surveillance cameras severely compromises the security of private information (e.g. passwords) entered via a conventional keyboard interface in public places. We address this problem by proposing dual modulated QR (DMQR) codes, a novel QR code extension via which users can securely communicate private information in public places using their smartphones and a camera interface. Dual modulated QR codes use the same synchronization patterns and module geometry as conventional monochrome QR codes. Within each module, primary data is embedded using intensity modulation compatible with conventional QR code decoding. Specifically, depending on the bit to be embedded, a module is either left white or an elliptical black dot is placed within it. Additionally, for each module containing an elliptical dot, secondary data is embedded by orientation modulation; that is, by using different orientations for the elliptical dots. Because the orientation of the elliptical dots can only be reliably assessed when the barcodes are captured from a close distance, the secondary data provides "proximal privacy" and can be effectively used to communicate private information securely in public settings. Tests conducted using several alternative parameter settings demonstrate that the proposed DMQR codes are effective in meeting their objective- the secondary data can be accurately decoded for short capture distances (6 in.) but cannot be recovered from images captured over long distances (>12 in.). Furthermore, the proximal privacy can be adapted to application needs by varying the eccentricity of the elliptical dots used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3037524DOI Listing
December 2020