Publications by authors named "Gary Schiller"

122 Publications

Beyond steroids: A systematic review and proposed solutions to managing acute graft-versus-host disease in adolescents and young adults.

Blood Rev 2021 Sep 2:100886. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Ave, 42-121 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

The outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematologic malignancies have been shown to be poorer when compared to results in children, due to a combination of higher relapse rates and greater treatment-related mortality (TRM). Although differences in relapse risk have been studied extensively, toxicity has been examined and reported less often. In this systematic review, we summarize recently published studies that have examined the differences in rates of TRM and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in AYAs and children with hematologic malignancies, and attempt to explain why these disparities exist and how they impact outcomes. In addition, we present best practices for management of steroid-refractory GVHD that are likely to improve survival in this patient population. Further, we propose the development of personalized, risk-based approaches for the prevention and treatment of GVHD that incorporate novel platforms and interventions. We believe this individualized approach is likely to reduce toxicity and greatly improve outcomes for this vulnerable population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2021.100886DOI Listing
September 2021

Quality of life analyses in patients with multiple myeloma: results from the Selinexor (KPT-330) Treatment of Refractory Myeloma (STORM) phase 2b study.

BMC Cancer 2021 Sep 6;21(1):993. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.

Background: Selinexor is an oral, selective nuclear export inhibitor. STORM was a phase 2b, single-arm, open-label, multicenter trial of selinexor with low dose dexamethasone in patients with penta-exposed relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) that met its primary endpoint, with overall response of 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19 to 35%). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was a secondary endpoint measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Multiple Myeloma (FACT-MM). This study examines impact of selinexor treatment on HRQoL of patients treated in STORM and reports two approaches to calculate minimal clinically important differences for the FACT-MM.

Methods: FACT-MM data were collected at baseline, on day 1 of each 4-week treatment cycle, and at end of treatment (EOT). Changes from baseline were analyzed for the FACT-MM total score, FACT-trial outcome index (TOI), FACT-General (FACT-G), and the MM-specific domain using mixed-effects regression models. Two approaches for evaluating minimal clinically important differences were explored: the first defined as 10% of the instrument range, and the second based on estimated mean baseline differences between Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) scores. Post-hoc difference analysis compared change in scores from baseline to EOT for treatment responders and non-responders.

Results: Eighty patients were included in the analysis; the mean number of prior therapies was 7.9 (standard deviation [SD] 3.1), and mean duration of myeloma was 7.6 years (SD 3.4). Each exploratory minimal clinically important difference threshold yielded consistent results whereby most patients did not experience HRQoL decline during the first six cycles of treatment (range: 53.9 to 75.7% for the first approach; range: 52.6 to 72.9% for the second). Treatment responders experienced less decline in HRQoL from baseline to EOT than non-responders, which was significant for the FACT-G, but not for other scores.

Conclusion: The majority of patients did not experience decline in HRQoL based on minimal clinically important differences during early cycles of treatment with selinexor and dexamethasone in the STORM trial. An anchor-based approach utilizing patient-level data (ECOG PS score) to define minimal clinically important differences for the FACT-MM gave consistent results with a distribution-based approach.

Trial Registration: This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov under the trial-ID NCT02336815 on January 8, 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08453-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419947PMC
September 2021

Results of a randomized phase 3 study of oral sapacitabine in elderly patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (SEAMLESS).

Cancer 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Cyclacel Limited, Dundee, United Kingdom.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is fatal in elderly patients who are unfit for standard induction chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival benefit of administering sapacitabine, an oral nucleoside analogue, in alternating cycles with decitabine, a low-intensity therapy, to elderly patients with newly diagnosed AML.

Methods: This randomized, open-label, phase 3 study (SEAMLESS) was conducted at 87 sites in 11 countries. Patients aged ≥70 years who were not candidates for or chose not to receive standard induction chemotherapy were randomized 1:1 to arm A (decitabine in alternating cycles with sapacitabine) received 1-hour intravenous infusions of decitabine 20 mg/m once daily for 5 consecutive days every 8 weeks (first cycle and subsequent odd cycles) and sapacitabine 300 mg twice daily on 3 consecutive days per week for 2 weeks every 8 weeks (second cycle and subsequent even cycles) or to control arm C who received 1-hour infusions of decitabine 20 mg/m once daily for 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks. Prior hypomethylating agent therapy for preexisting myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative neoplasms was an exclusion criterion. Randomization was stratified by antecedent myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative neoplasms, white blood cell count (<10 × 10 /L and ≥10 × 10 /L), and bone marrow blast percentage (≥50% vs <50%). The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points were the rates of complete remission (CR), CR with incomplete platelet count recovery, partial remission, hematologic improvement, and stable disease along with the corresponding durations, transfusion requirements, number of hospitalized days, and 1-year survival. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01303796).

Results: Between October 2011 and December 2014, 482 patients were enrolled and randomized to receive decitabine administered in alternating cycles with sapacitabine (study arm, n = 241) or decitabine monotherapy (control arm, n = 241). The median OS was 5.9 months on the study arm versus 5.7 months on the control arm (P = .8902). The CR rate was 16.6% on the study arm and 10.8% on the control arm (P = .1468). In patients with white blood cell counts <10 × 10 /L (n = 321), the median OS was higher on the study arm versus the control arm (8.0 vs 5.8 months; P = .145), as was the CR rate (21.5% vs 8.6%; P = .0017).

Conclusions: The regimen of decitabine administered in alternating cycles with sapacitabine was active but did not significantly improve OS compared with decitabine monotherapy. Subgroup analyses suggest that patients with baseline white blood cell counts <10 × 10 /L might benefit from decitabine alternating with sapacitabine, with an improved CR rate and the convenience of an oral drug. These findings should be prospectively confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33828DOI Listing
August 2021

A slow-go prognosis for older patients with newly diagnosed AML.

Authors:
Gary Schiller

Blood 2021 Aug;138(7):501-502

UCLA Health Sciences.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021012456DOI Listing
August 2021

Real-World Experience of Axicabtagene Ciloleucel and Tisagenlecleucel for Relapsed or Refractory Aggressive B-cell Lymphomas: A Single-Institution Experience.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

UCLA Medical Center, Hematology Oncology, Los Angeles CA.

Background: CD19-directed chimeric antigen T-cell receptor (CAR-T) therapies have revolutionized the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) aggressive B-cell lymphomas (aBCL). The results of the landmark ZUMA-1 and JULIET trials have been reproducible in real-world settings across multiple institutions, and patients with double (DHL) or triple (THL) hit lymphomas have demonstrated non-inferior outcomes compared to non-DHL/THL counterparts.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 53 patients with R/R aBCL who received CAR-T from October 2017 to June 2020 at the University of California, Los Angeles. Patient characteristics, lymphoma-related variables and outcomes of interest were summarized using descriptive statistics and compared between groups by Fisher's exact test. Kaplan-Meier methods were used for analysis of OS, progression free survival (PFS), and duration of response (DOR). Univariate and multivariate cox regression analysis were performed to evaluate for significant prognostic variables.

Results: With a median follow-up of 15.2 months, this cohort demonstrated overall response rate and complete response rate of 72% and 64% (n = 34), respectively. The median DOR, PFS and OS were not reached, 7.9 and 17.7 months, respectively. By univariate analysis, DHL/THL status was the only clinical feature significantly associated with relapse post-CAR-T (OR 5.9, P = .015).

Conclusions: Our single-institution, real-world cohort of R/R aBCL patients demonstrated similar efficacy outcomes to those of the ZUMA-1 and JULIET trials and published real-world studies. Our findings suggest DHL/THL patients may benefit from novel CAR-T constructs, maintenance strategies with immunomodulatory agents or allogeneic-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.07.002DOI Listing
July 2021

Vaccine-Associated Measles in a Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipient: Case Report and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Aug 28;8(8):ofab326. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Measles is a worldwide viral disease that can cause fatal complications in immunocompromised hosts such as hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. The live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is generally contraindicated post-HCT due to the risk for vaccine-associated measles. This, combined with decreasing vaccination rates due to vaccine hesitancy and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, raises significant concerns for a measles resurgence that could portend devastating consequences for immunocompromised hosts. Multiple guidelines have included criteria to determine which HCT recipients can safely receive the MMR vaccine. Here, we report a case of vaccine-associated measles in a HCT recipient who met guideline-recommended criteria for MMR vaccination. The objective of this article is to query these criteria, highlight the importance of MMR vaccination, and comprehensively review the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339276PMC
August 2021

Personal Narrative About COVID-19 Research.

Authors:
Gary Schiller

Narrat Inq Bioeth 2021 ;11(1):7-8

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/nib.2021.0002DOI Listing
August 2021

CPX-351 versus 7+3 cytarabine and daunorubicin chemotherapy in older adults with newly diagnosed high-risk or secondary acute myeloid leukaemia: 5-year results of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Jul;8(7):e481-e491

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; Georgia Cancer Center, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Background: Daunorubicin and cytarabine are used as standard induction chemotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. CPX-351 is a dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of daunorubicin and cytarabine in a synergistic 1:5 molar ratio. Primary analysis of the phase 3 trial in adults aged 60-75 years with newly diagnosed high-risk or secondary acute myeloid leukaemia provided support for approval of CPX-351 by the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. We describe the prospectively planned final 5-year follow-up results.

Methods: This randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial was done across 39 academic and regional cancer centres in the USA and Canada. Eligible patients were aged 60-75 years and had a pathological diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia according to WHO 2008 criteria, no previous induction therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 (stratified by age and acute myeloid leukaemia subtype) to receive up to two induction cycles of CPX-351 (100 units/m administered as a 90-min intravenous infusion on days 1, 3, and 5; on days 1 and 3 for the second induction) or standard chemotherapy (cytarabine 100 mg/m per day continuous intravenous infusion for 7 days plus intravenous daunorubicin 60 mg/m on days 1, 2, and 3 [7+3]; cytarabine for 5 days and daunorubicin on days 1 and 2 for the second induction [5+2]). Patients with complete remission or complete remission with incomplete neutrophil or platelet recovery could receive up to tw cycles of consolidation therapy with CPX-351 (65 units/m 90-min infusion on days 1 and 3) or chemotherapy (5+2, same dosage as in the second induction cycle). The primary outcome was overall survival analysed in all randomly assigned patients. No additional adverse events were collected with long-term follow-up, except data for deaths. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01696084, and is complete.

Findings: Between Dec 20, 2012, and Nov 11, 2014, 309 patients with newly diagnosed high-risk or secondary acute myeloid leukaemia were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive CPX-351 (153 patients) or 7+3 (156 patients). At a median follow-up of 60·91 months (IQR 60·06-62·98) in the CPX-351 group and 59·93 months (59·73-60·50) in the 7+3 group, median overall survival was 9·33 months (95% CI 6·37-11·86) with CPX-351 and 5·95 months (4·99-7·75) with 7+3 (HR 0·70, 95% CI 0·55-0·91). 5-year overall survival was 18% (95% CI 12-25%) in the CPX-351 group and 8% (4-13%) in the 7+3 group. The most common cause of death in both groups was progressive leukaemia (70 [56%] of 124 deaths in the CPX-351 group and 74 [53%] of 140 deaths in the 7+3 group). Six (5%) of 124 deaths in the CPX-351 group and seven (5%) of 140 deaths in the 7+3 group were considered related to study treatment.

Interpretation: After 5 years of follow-up, the improved overall survival with CPX-351 versus 7+3 was maintained, which supports the previous evidence that CPX-351 can contribute to long-term remission and improved overall survival in patients aged 60-75 years with newly diagnosed high-risk or secondary acute myeloid leukaemia.

Funding: Jazz Pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00134-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Omidubicel vs standard myeloablative umbilical cord blood transplantation: results of a phase 3 randomized study.

Blood 2021 Oct;138(16):1429-1440

Hematology Department, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Omidubicel is an ex vivo expanded hematopoietic progenitor cell and nonexpanded myeloid and lymphoid cell product derived from a single umbilical cord blood unit. We report results of a phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy of omidubicel compared with standard umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Between January 2017 and January 2020, 125 patients age 13 to 65 years with hematologic malignancies were randomly assigned to omidubicel vs standard UCBT. Patients received myeloablative conditioning and prophylaxis with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The primary end point was time to neutrophil engraftment. The treatment arms were well balanced and racially diverse. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-14 days) for the omidubicel arm and 22 days (95% CI, 19-25 days) for the control arm (P < .001). The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 96% for patients receiving omidubicel and 89% for patients receiving control transplants. The omidubicel arm had faster platelet recovery (55% vs 35% recovery by 42 days; P = .028), had a lower incidence of first grade 2 to 3 bacterial or invasive fungal infection (37% vs 57%; P = .027), and spent more time out of hospital during the first 100 days after transplant (median, 61 vs 48 days; P = .005) than controls. Differences in GVHD and survival between the 2 arms were not statistically significant. Transplantation with omidubicel results in faster hematopoietic recovery and reduces early transplant-related complications compared with standard UCBT. The results suggest that omidubicel may be considered as a new standard of care for adult patients eligible for UCBT. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02730299.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011719DOI Listing
October 2021

Open-Label Phase II Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study of Romyelocel-L Myeloid Progenitor Cells to Reduce Infection During Induction Chemotherapy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Oct 22;39(29):3261-3272. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Cellerant Therapeutics, San Carlos, CA.

Purpose: Standard cytotoxic induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results in prolonged neutropenia and risk of infection. Romyelocel-L is a universal, allogeneic myeloid progenitor cell product being studied to reduce infection during induction chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: One hundred sixty-three patients with de novo AML (age ≥ 55 years) receiving induction chemotherapy were randomly assigned on day 0 (d0), of whom 120 were evaluable. Subjects received either romyelocel-L infusion on d9 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) starting daily d14 (treatment group) or G-CSF daily alone on d14 (control) until absolute neutrophil count recovery to 500/µL. End points included days in febrile episode, microbiologically defined infections, clinically diagnosed infection, and days in hospital.

Results: Mean days in febrile episode was shorter in the treatment arm from d15 through d28 (2.36 3.90; = .02). Similarly, a trend toward decreased microbiologically defined infections and clinically diagnosed infection in the treatment arm was observed from d9 to d28 (35.6% 47.5%; = .09), reaching a statistically significant difference from d15 to d28 (6.8% 27.9%; = .002). Because of this, antibacterial or antifungal use for treatment of an infection was significantly less in the treatment group (d9-d28: 44.1% 63.9%; = .01). Significantly fewer patients in the treatment arm received empiric antifungals from d9 tod28 (42.4% 63.9%; = .02) and d15-d28 (42.4% 62.3%; = .02). Patients in the treatment arm also had 3.2 fewer hospital days compared with control (25.5 28.7; = .001). Remission rates and days to absolute neutrophil count recovery were similar in the two groups. No patients in the romyelocel-L plus G-CSF group died because of infection compared with two patients in the control arm. No graft-versus-host disease was observed.

Conclusion: Subjects receiving romyelocel-L showed a decreased incidence of infections, antimicrobial use, and hospitalization, suggesting that romyelocel-L may provide a new option to reduce infections in patients with AML undergoing induction therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500663PMC
October 2021

KTE-X19 for relapsed or refractory adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: phase 2 results of the single-arm, open-label, multicentre ZUMA-3 study.

Lancet 2021 08 4;398(10299):491-502. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Kite, a Gilead Company, Santa Monica, CA, USA.

Background: Despite treatment with novel therapies and allogeneic stem-cell transplant (allo-SCT) consolidation, outcomes in adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia remain poor, underlining the need for more effective therapies.

Methods: We report the pivotal phase 2 results of ZUMA-3, an international, multicentre, single-arm, open-label study evaluating the efficacy and safety of the autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy KTE-X19 in adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Patients were enrolled at 25 sites in the USA, Canada, and Europe. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and morphological disease in the bone marrow (>5% blasts). After leukapheresis and conditioning chemotherapy, patients received a single KTE-X19 infusion (1 × 10 CAR T cells per kg bodyweight). The primary endpoint was the rate of overall complete remission or complete remission with incomplete haematological recovery by central assessment. Duration of remission and relapse-free survival, overall survival, minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity rate, and allo-SCT rate were assessed as secondary endpoints. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in the treated population (all patients who received a dose of KTE-X19). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02614066.

Findings: Between Oct 1, 2018, and Oct 9, 2019, 71 patients were enrolled and underwent leukapheresis. KTE-X19 was successfully manufactured for 65 (92%) patients and administered to 55 (77%). The median age of treated patients was 40 years (IQR 28-52). At the median follow-up of 16·4 months (13·8-19·6), 39 patients (71%; 95% CI 57-82, p<0·0001) had complete remission or complete remission with incomplete haematological recovery, with 31 (56%) patients reaching complete remission. Median duration of remission was 12·8 months (95% CI 8·7-not estimable), median relapse-free survival was 11·6 months (2·7-15·5), and median overall survival was 18·2 months (15·9-not estimable). Among responders, the median overall survival was not reached, and 38 (97%) patients had MRD negativity. Ten (18%) patients received allo-SCT consolidation after KTE-X19 infusion. The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were anaemia (27 [49%] patients) and pyrexia (20 [36%] patients). 14 (25%) patients had infections of grade 3 or higher. Two grade 5 KTE-X19-related events occurred (brain herniation and septic shock). Cytokine release syndrome of grade 3 or higher occurred in 13 (24%) patients and neurological events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 14 (25%) patients.

Interpretation: KTE-X19 showed a high rate of complete remission or complete remission with incomplete haematological recovery in adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, with the median overall survival not reached in responding patients, and a manageable safety profile. These findings indicate that KTE-X19 has the potential to confer long-term clinical benefit to these patients.

Funding: Kite, a Gilead Company.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01222-8DOI Listing
August 2021

Return to Work Among Young Adult Survivors of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the United States.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08 22;27(8):679.e1-679.e8. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Young adult (YA) survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at risk for late psychosocial challenges, including the inability to return to work post-HCT. Work-related outcomes in this population remain understudied, however. We conducted this study to assess the post-HCT work status of survivors of allogeneic HCT who underwent HCT as YAs and to analyze the patient-, disease-, and HCT-related factors associated with their work status at 1 year post-HCT. Using Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data, we evaluated the post-HCT work status (full-time, part-time work, unemployed, or medical disability) of 1365 YA HCT survivors who underwent HCT between 2008 and 2015. Percentages of work status categories were reported at 4 time points: 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-HCT. Percentages of post-HCT work status categories at the 1-year time point were also described in relation to survivors' pre-HCT work status categories. Factors associated with 1-year post-HCT work status (full-time or part-time work) were examined using logistic regression. From 6 months to 3 years post-HCT, the percentage of survivors working full-time increased from 18.3% to 50.7% and the percentage working part-time increased from 6.9% to 10.5%. Of patients in full-time work pre-HCT, 50% were unemployed or on medical disability at 1 year post-HCT. Female sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.77), HCT Comorbidity Index score ≥3 (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.82), pre-HCT unemployment (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.56), medical disability (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.70), development of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.80), and relapse within 1 year post-HCT (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.56) were associated with a lower likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Compared with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) with total body irradiation (TBI), MAC without TBI (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.53) was associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Graduate school-level education (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.10) was also associated with a greater likelihood of employment at 1 year post-HCT. Although the work status among YA HCT survivors continued to improve over time, a substantial subset became or remained unemployed or on medical disability. These findings underscore the need for effective interventions to support return to work in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425287PMC
August 2021

KTE-X19 anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy in adult relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: ZUMA-3 phase 1 results.

Blood 2021 07;138(1):11-22

Division of Cancer Medicine, Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

ZUMA-3 is a phase 1/2 study evaluating KTE-X19, an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, in adult relapsed/refractory (R/R) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). We report the phase 1 results. After fludarabine-cyclophosphamide lymphodepletion, patients received a single infusion of KTE-X19 at 2 × 106, 1 × 106, or 0.5 × 106 cells per kg. The rate of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) within 28 days after KTE-X19 infusion was the primary end point. KTE-X19 was manufactured for 54 enrolled patients and administered to 45 (median age, 46 years; range, 18-77 years). No DLTs occurred in the DLT-evaluable cohort. Grade ≥3 cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic events (NEs) occurred in 31% and 38% of patients, respectively. To optimize the risk-benefit ratio, revised adverse event (AE) management for CRS and NEs (earlier steroid use for NEs and tocilizumab only for CRS) was evaluated at 1 × 106 cells per kg KTE-X19. In the 9 patients treated under revised AE management, 33% had grade 3 CRS and 11% had grade 3 NEs, with no grade 4 or 5 NEs. The overall complete remission rate correlated with CAR T-cell expansion and was 83% in patients treated with 1 × 106 cells per kg and 69% in all patients. Minimal residual disease was undetectable in all responding patients. At a median follow-up of 22.1 months (range, 7.1-36.1 months), the median duration of remission was 17.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8-17.6 months) in patients treated with 1 × 106 cells per kg and 14.5 months (95% CI, 5.8-18.1 months) in all patients. KTE-X19 treatment provided a high response rate and tolerable safety in adults with R/R B-ALL. Phase 2 is ongoing at 1 × 106 cells per kg with revised AE management. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02614066.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009098DOI Listing
July 2021

Older adults with newly diagnosed high-risk/secondary AML who achieved remission with CPX-351: phase 3 post hoc analyses.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(6):1719-1728

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL.

CPX-351, a dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of daunorubicin/cytarabine in a synergistic 1:5 molar ratio, is approved for the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed, therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC). In a pivotal phase 3 study, patients aged 60 to 75 years with newly diagnosed, high-risk/secondary AML were randomized to receive CPX-351 or conventional 7+3 chemotherapy. In the primary endpoint analysis, CPX-351 demonstrated significantly prolonged median overall survival (OS) vs 7+3. These exploratory post hoc subgroup analyses evaluated the impact of achieving complete remission (CR) or CR with incomplete neutrophil or platelet recovery (CRi) with CPX-351 (73/153 [48%]) vs conventional 7+3 (52/56 [33%]) on outcomes. CPX-351 improved median OS vs 7+3 in patients who achieved CR or CRi (25.43 vs 10.41 months; hazard ratio = 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.31, 0.77). Improved median OS was seen across AML subtypes (t-AML, AML-MRC), age subgroups (60 to 69 vs 70 to 75 years), patients with prior hypomethylating agent exposure, and patients who did not undergo transplantation. Patients who achieved CR or CRi with CPX-351 also had a higher rate of transplantation, a longer median OS landmarked from the date of transplantation (not reached vs 11.65 months; hazard ratio = 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.21, 0.89), and a safety profile that was consistent with the known safety profile of 7+3. These results suggest deeper remissions may be achieved with CPX-351, leading to improved OS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01696084.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993093PMC
March 2021

Precision medicine treatment in acute myeloid leukemia using prospective genomic profiling: feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the Beat AML Master Trial.

Nat Med 2020 12 26;26(12):1852-1858. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common diagnosed leukemia. In older adults, AML confers an adverse outcome. AML originates from a dominant mutation, then acquires collaborative transformative mutations leading to myeloid transformation and clinical/biological heterogeneity. Currently, AML treatment is initiated rapidly, precluding the ability to consider the mutational profile of a patient's leukemia for treatment decisions. Untreated patients with AML ≥ 60 years were prospectively enrolled on the ongoing Beat AML trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03013998 ), which aims to provide cytogenetic and mutational data within 7 days (d) from sample receipt and before treatment selection, followed by treatment assignment to a sub-study based on the dominant clone. A total of 487 patients with suspected AML were enrolled; 395 were eligible. Median age was 72 years (range 60-92 years; 38% ≥75 years); 374 patients (94.7%) had genetic and cytogenetic analysis completed within 7 d and were centrally assigned to a Beat AML sub-study; 224 (56.7%) were enrolled on a Beat AML sub-study. The remaining 171 patients elected standard of care (SOC) (103), investigational therapy (28) or palliative care (40); 9 died before treatment assignment. Demographic, laboratory and molecular characteristics were not significantly different between patients on the Beat AML sub-studies and those receiving SOC (induction with cytarabine + daunorubicin (7 + 3 or equivalent) or hypomethylation agent). Thirty-day mortality was less frequent and overall survival was significantly longer for patients enrolled on the Beat AML sub-studies versus those who elected SOC. A precision medicine therapy strategy in AML is feasible within 7 d, allowing patients and physicians to rapidly incorporate genomic data into treatment decisions without increasing early death or adversely impacting overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1089-8DOI Listing
December 2020

A Phase Ib Study of Onvansertib, a Novel Oral PLK1 Inhibitor, in Combination Therapy for Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 12 30;26(23):6132-6140. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, New York.

Purpose: The Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a master regulator of mitosis and overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted a phase Ib study of the PLK1 inhibitor, onvansertib, in combination with either low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) or decitabine in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) AML.

Patients And Methods: Onvansertib was administered orally, in escalating doses, on days 1-5 in combination with either LDAC (20 mg/m; days 1-10) or decitabine (20 mg/m; days 1-5) in a 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was to evaluate first-cycle dose-limiting toxicities and the MTD. Secondary and exploratory endpoints included safety, pharmacokinetics, antileukemic activity, and response biomarkers.

Results: Forty patients were treated with onvansertib (12-90 mg/m) in combination with LDAC ( = 17) or decitabine ( = 23). Onvansertib was well tolerated with most grades 3 and 4 adverse events related to myelosuppression. In the decitabine arm, the MTD was established at 60 mg/m, and 5 (24%) of the 21 evaluable patients achieved complete remission with or without hematologic count recovery. Decrease in mutant circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) during the first cycle of therapy was associated with clinical response. Engagement of the PLK1 target, TCTP, was measured in circulating blasts and was associated with greater decrease in bone marrow blasts.

Conclusions: The onvansertib and decitabine combination was well tolerated and had antileukemic activity particularly in patients with target engagement and decreased mutant ctDNA following treatment. This combination will be further investigated in the ongoing phase II trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2586DOI Listing
December 2020

Pomalidomide, dexamethasone, and daratumumab in relapsed refractory multiple myeloma after lenalidomide treatment.

Leukemia 2020 12 6;34(12):3286-3297. Epub 2020 May 6.

Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Patients with multiple myeloma who have relapsed after or become refractory to lenalidomide in early treatment lines represent a clinically important population in need of effective therapies. The safety and efficacy of pomalidomide, low-dose dexamethasone, and daratumumab was evaluated in lenalidomide-pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) after one to two prior treatment lines in the phase 2 MM-014 study. Patients received pomalidomide 4 mg daily from days 1-21 and dexamethasone 40 mg weekly (28-day cycles). Daratumumab 16 mg/kg was administered per label. Primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR); secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. Per protocol, all patients (N = 112) had received lenalidomide in their most recent prior regimen (75.0% lenalidomide refractory). ORR was 77.7% (76.2% in lenalidomide-refractory patients); median follow-up was 17.2 months. Median PFS was not reached (1-year PFS rate 75.1%). The most common hematologic grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event was neutropenia (62.5%). Grade 3/4 infections were reported in 31.3% of patients, including 13.4% with grade 3/4 pneumonia. These results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of pomalidomide-based therapy as early as second line in patients with RRMM, even immediately after lenalidomide failure, indicating that switching from the immunomodulatory agent class is not necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0813-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685974PMC
December 2020

A phase 1 trial of itacitinib, a selective JAK1 inhibitor, in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(8):1656-1669

Division of Oncology, Section of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Leukemia, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a primary cause of nonrelapse mortality and a major barrier to successful transplant outcomes. Itacitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK)1-selective inhibitor that has demonstrated efficacy in preclinical models of aGVHD. We report results from the first registered study of a JAK inhibitor in patients with aGVHD. This was an open-label phase 1 study enrolling patients aged ≥18 years with first HCT from any source who developed grade IIB to IVD aGVHD. Patients with steroid-naive or steroid-refractory aGVHD were randomized 1:1 to itacitinib 200 mg or 300 mg once daily plus corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability; day 28 overall response rate (ORR) was the main secondary endpoint. Twenty-nine patients (200 mg, n = 14; 300 mg, n = 15) received ≥1 dose of itacitinib and were included in safety and efficacy assessments. One dose-limiting toxicity was reported (grade 3 thrombocytopenia attributed to GVHD progression in a patient receiving 300 mg itacitinib with preexisting thrombocytopenia). The most common nonhematologic treatment-emergent adverse event was diarrhea (48.3%, n = 14); anemia occurred in 11 patients (38%). ORR on day 28 for all patients in the 200-mg and 300-mg groups was 78.6% and 66.7%, respectively. Day 28 ORR was 75.0% for patients with treatment-naive aGVHD and 70.6% in those with steroid-refractory aGVHD. All patients receiving itacitinib decreased corticosteroid use over time. In summary, itacitinib was well tolerated and demonstrated encouraging efficacy in patients with steroid-naive or steroid-refractory aGVHD, warranting continued clinical investigations. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02614612.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189299PMC
April 2020

Durable Survival Outcomes in Primary and Secondary Central Nervous System Lymphoma After High-dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Using a Thiotepa, Busulfan, and Cyclophosphamide Conditioning Regimen.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2020 07 20;20(7):468-479. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been investigated in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with CNS involvement and has shown promising results.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of 48 consecutive patients who had undergone HDC/ASCT with TBC (thiotepa, busulfan, cyclophosphamide) conditioning for PCNSL (27 patients), secondary CNS lymphoma (SCNSL) (8 patients), or relapsed disease with CNS involvement (13 patients) from July 2006 to December 2017. Of the 27 patients with PCNSL, 21 had undergone ASCT at first complete remission (CR1).

Results: The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 80.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69.9-92.9) and the 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 80.1% (95% CI, 69.2%-92.7%) among all patients. The 2-year PFS and OS rate for patients with PCNSL in CR1 was 95.2% (95% CI, 86.6%-100%) and 95.2% (95% CI, 86.6%-100%), respectively. On univariate analysis of the patients with PCNSL, ASCT in CR1 was the only variable statistically significant for outcome (P = .007 for PFS; P = .008 for OS). Among patients with SCNSL or CNS relapse, the 2-year PFS and OS rate were comparable at 75.9% (95% CI, 59.5%-96.8%) and 75.3% (95% CI, 58.6%-98.6%), respectively. The most common side effects were febrile neutropenia (89.6%; of which 66.7% had an infectious etiology identified), nausea/vomiting (85.4%), diarrhea (93.8%), mucositis (89.6%), and electrolyte abnormalities (89.6%). Four patients (8.3%) died of treatment-related overwhelming infection; of these patients, 3 had SCNSL.

Conclusion: HDC and ASCT using TBC conditioning for both PCNSL and secondary CNS NHL appears to have encouraging long-term efficacy with manageable side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138188PMC
July 2020

Addressing the Measles-Mumps-Rubella Revaccination Guidelines for Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant Patients: A Response to the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy 2019 Position Statement.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 07 21;26(7):e171-e172. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.03.017DOI Listing
July 2020

Final safety and efficacy results from the CPX-351 early access program for older patients with high-risk or secondary acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 05 26;61(5):1188-1194. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

CPX-351, a dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of cytarabine and daunorubicin at a synergistic 5:1 molar drug ratio, achieved superior efficacy compared with conventional chemotherapy in older adults with newly diagnosed, high-risk/secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in phase 2 and 3 studies. Prior to CPX-351 commercialization, an expanded access program (EAP) provided CPX-351 access for this population in the United States. In this phase 4, single-arm, open-label study (NCT02533115), 52 patients were treated with CPX-351 for 1-2 induction cycles and ≤4 consolidation cycles. The primary endpoint was safety. The most common serious adverse events were febrile neutropenia (19%), pneumonia (10%), and infection (8%). The 30- and 60-d mortality rates were 0% and 6%, respectively. Remission was achieved by 44% of patients; 90% of patients were alive at study completion. Overall, these results support outcomes from prior studies and the use of CPX-351 in older adults with newly diagnosed, high-risk/secondary AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1725503DOI Listing
May 2020

Venetoclax combination therapy in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia: A single institution experience.

Leuk Res 2020 03 30;90:106314. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Venetoclax (VEN) is a selective BCL-2 inhibitor that has been shown to be effective when used in combination with hypomethylating agents (HMAs) or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) for treatment-naïve, elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy. Data on its use in the relapsed/refractory setting are limited. A retrospective analysis was performed among 14 patients with relapsed or refractory AML treated with VEN combination therapy at the University of California Los Angeles from 2018-2019. Eight patients received VEN in combination with azacitidine, 5 patients with decitabine, and 1 patient with LDAC. The majority (10 patients, 71.4%) had adverse cytogenetics. Three patients (21.4%) had undergone an allogeneic stem cell transplant prior to VEN therapy, and 5 patients (35.7%) had leukemia that failed HMA therapy prior. The objective response rate (ORR) was 35.7% (3 patients achieved complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery and 2 patients achieved partial remission). Three patients (21.4%) were successfully transitioned to either allogeneic bone marrow transplant (2 patients) or donor lymphocyte infusion (1 patient). Seven patients (50.0%) developed a grade 3 or greater infection following VEN therapy, and 3 patients (21.4%) developed a grade 3 or greater intracranial hemorrhage. Three patients experienced early death within 30 days of therapy (2 from infection, 1 from bleeding). The median overall survival (OS) was 4.7 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 23.6% (95% CI 4.4-51.2) for the entire patient cohort. Overall, the response rate was not inferior to that with conventional salvage chemotherapy, but there were notable complications as a result of prolonged cytopenias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2020.106314DOI Listing
March 2020

A Phase 1B Clinical Study of Combretastatin A1 Diphosphate (OXi4503) and Cytarabine (ARA-C) in Combination (OXA) for Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Dec 26;12(1). Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Combretastatin A1 (OXi4503) is a dual-function drug with vascular disrupting and cytotoxic properties that has exhibited single-agent anti-leukemia activity in murine xenograft models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in a prior Phase 1A clinical study for relapsed/refractory (R/R) AML. The purpose of the present multicenter Phase 1B study was to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and safety profile of OXi4503 and cytarabine (ARA-C) administered in combination (OXA). At four centers, 29 patients with R/R AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with OXA. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were febrile neutropenia (28%), hypertension (17%), thrombocytopenia (17%), and anemia (14%). There were no treatment-emergent grade 5 AEs. Drug-related serious adverse events (SAEs) developed in 4/29 patients (14%) and included febrile neutropenia ( = 2), pneumonia/acute respiratory failure ( = 1), and hypotension ( = 1). 9.76 mg/m was defined as the MTD of OXi4503 when administered in combination with 1 g/m ARA-C. In 26 evaluable AML patients, there were 2 complete remissions (CR), 2 complete remissions with incomplete count recovery (CRi) and one partial response (PR), for an overall response rate (ORR) of 19%. The median overall survival (OS) time for the four patients who achieved a CR/CRi was 528 days (95% CI: 434-NA), which was significantly longer than the median OS time of 113 days (95% CI: 77-172) for the remaining 22 patients who did not achieve a CR/CRi (Log Rank Chi Square = 11.8, -value = 0.0006). The safety and early evidence of efficacy of the OXA regimen in R/R AML patients warrant further investigation in a Phase 2 clinical study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016810PMC
December 2019

How to address second and therapy-related acute myelogenous leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2020 01;188(1):116-128

David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Secondary acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), as compared to de novo AML, occurs in the more elderly population, is independently more resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy, has a higher relapse rate, and a worse prognosis. Secondary AML (sAML) is a heterogeneous disease, both biologically and clinically, even within the World Health Organization subgroups of sAML. Outcomes are the poorest in subgroups with sAML arising from an antecedent haematologic disorder which has been previously treated (ts-AML), and sAML in patients <55 years of age. This review describes the suboptimal outcomes of contemporary therapy, to support the notion of an unmet need for innovative treatment strategies in sAML. Despite the recent approval of CPX-351, long-term outcomes for this high-risk disease remain dismal. Resistance mechanisms to intensive chemotherapy contribute to relapse. Targeted immune therapy may avoid multidrug resistance mechanisms, but are unlikely to provide long-term remission due to a complex and rapidly evolving clonal disease profile. Advances for sAML will likely be accomplished by CAR T cell therapy or bispecific antibodies providing a bridge to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Therefore, focus should be placed on novel strategies that can augment the untargeted effector function of allogeneic grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16354DOI Listing
January 2020

Disease characteristics of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma predicting relapse and survival after autologous stem cell transplantation: A single institution experience.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Feb 3;38(1):38-50. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

While various tools such as the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and its derivatives exist for risk-stratification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) at diagnosis, patient and disease characteristics capable of predicting outcome after high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT) are not clearly defined. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 111 DLBCL patients (78 relapsed and 33 refractory) who underwent HDC/ASCT at our institution from 2010-2015. After a median follow-up time of 4.6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2.2-8.1), the likelihood of 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 62.2% (95% CI, 53.4%-72.4%) and the likelihood of 5-year overall survival (OS) was 68.9% (95% CI, 60.7%-78.2%). More than three chemotherapy regimens prior to ASCT was the only variable associated with lower likelihood of PFS (P = .004) and OS (P = 0.026). Male gender and high IPI score at time of ASCT were also associated with lower likelihood of PFS (P = .043; P = .013). NCCN IPI and age-adjusted IPI at time of ASCT were not predictive of outcome following ASCT. Patients with refractory and relapsed disease had similar outcomes post-ASCT (P = .207 for PFS, P = .073 for OS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2690DOI Listing
February 2020

Chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells require cell-autonomous pleiotrophin signaling.

J Clin Invest 2020 01;130(1):315-328

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) induce molecular remission in the majority of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), but the persistence of CML stem cells hinders cure and necessitates indefinite TKI therapy. We report that CML stem cells upregulate the expression of pleiotrophin (PTN) and require cell-autonomous PTN signaling for CML pathogenesis in BCR/ABL+ mice. Constitutive PTN deletion substantially reduced the numbers of CML stem cells capable of initiating CML in vivo. Hematopoietic cell-specific deletion of PTN suppressed CML development in BCR/ABL+ mice, suggesting that cell-autonomous PTN signaling was necessary for CML disease evolution. Mechanistically, PTN promoted CML stem cell survival and TKI resistance via induction of Jun and the unfolded protein response. Human CML cells were also dependent on cell-autonomous PTN signaling, and anti-PTN antibody suppressed human CML colony formation and CML repopulation in vivo. Our results suggest that targeted inhibition of PTN has therapeutic potential to eradicate CML stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI129061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934217PMC
January 2020

Pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in relapsed refractory multiple myeloma after lenalidomide treatment failure.

Br J Haematol 2020 02 6;188(4):501-510. Epub 2019 Oct 6.

University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) for whom the benefits of lenalidomide have been exhausted in early treatment lines need effective therapies. In cohort A of the phase 2 MM-014 trial, we examined the safety and efficacy of pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone immediately after lenalidomide-based treatment failure in patients with RRMM and two prior lines of therapy. Pomalidomide 4 mg was given on days 1 to 21 of 28-day cycles. Dexamethasone 40 mg (20 mg for patients aged >75 years) was given on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of 28-day cycles. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), and secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. The intention-to-treat population comprised 56 patients; all received prior lenalidomide (87·5% lenalidomide refractory) and 39 (69·6%) received prior bortezomib. ORR was 32·1% (28·2% in the prior-bortezomib subgroup). Median PFS was 12·2 months (7·9 months in the prior-bortezomib subgroup). Median OS was 41·7 months (38·6 months in the prior-bortezomib subgroup). The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events were anaemia (25·0%), pneumonia (14·3%) and fatigue (14·3%). These findings support earlier sequencing of pomalidomide-based therapy in lenalidomide-pretreated patients with RRMM, including those who have become refractory to lenalidomide. Trial registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01946477.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027539PMC
February 2020

Oral Selinexor-Dexamethasone for Triple-Class Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

N Engl J Med 2019 08;381(8):727-738

From the Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (A.C., S.P., S.J.), and New York University Langone Medical Center (D.K.) - both in New York; the Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (D.T.V.); the School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (M.G., M. Dimopoulos); the Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta (A.K.N., S.L.); Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center (A.J.Y.), Tufts Medical Center (R.L.C.), and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (P.G.R.), Boston, and Karyopharm Therapeutics, Newton (M.G.K., S.S., L.L., S. Tang, C.P., J.-R.S.-M., M.C., H.C., Y.L., J.S.) - all in Massachusetts; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (C.A.H.); the University of Nantes, Nantes (P.M.), Hôpital Necker (L.F.), Hôpital Saint-Antoine (M.M.), and La Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (S.C.), Paris, University Hospital, Lille (T.F.), Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Benite (L.K.), and Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, Nancy (A.P.) - all in France; the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (D.D.); the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (C.C.); the Mayo Clinic of Arizona, Phoenix (A.K.S.); Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ (J.R.); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (R.V.); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (S. Tuchman); the University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (M.S.R.), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (K.C.W.), the University of Tübingen, Tübingen (K.C.W.), University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg (M.S.), the University of Freiburg, Freiburg (M.E.), and Gemeinschaftspraxis Hämatologie-Onkologie, Dresden (T.I.) - all in Germany; the University of Leuven, Leuven (M. Delforge), Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (N.M.), University Hospital Ghent, Ghent (P.V.), and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Université Catholique de Louvain Namur, Yvoir (C.D.) - all in Belgium; Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (R.F.C.); Sylvester Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami (J.E.H.); the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (L.J.C.); Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (T.L.P.); Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas (M.L.); the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (G.S.); and University Hospital Krems, Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, Krems an der Donau, Austria (K.P.).

Background: Selinexor, a selective inhibitor of nuclear export compound that blocks exportin 1 (XPO1) and forces nuclear accumulation and activation of tumor suppressor proteins, inhibits nuclear factor κB, and reduces oncoprotein messenger RNA translation, is a potential novel treatment for myeloma that is refractory to current therapeutic options.

Methods: We administered oral selinexor (80 mg) plus dexamethasone (20 mg) twice weekly to patients with myeloma who had previous exposure to bortezomib, carfilzomib, lenalidomide, pomalidomide, daratumumab, and an alkylating agent and had disease refractory to at least one proteasome inhibitor, one immunomodulatory agent, and daratumumab (triple-class refractory). The primary end point was overall response, defined as a partial response or better, with response assessed by an independent review committee. Clinical benefit, defined as a minimal response or better, was a secondary end point.

Results: A total of 122 patients in the United States and Europe were included in the modified intention-to-treat population (primary analysis), and 123 were included in the safety population. The median age was 65 years, and the median number of previous regimens was 7; a total of 53% of the patients had high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. A partial response or better was observed in 26% of patients (95% confidence interval, 19 to 35), including two stringent complete responses; 39% of patients had a minimal response or better. The median duration of response was 4.4 months, median progression-free survival was 3.7 months, and median overall survival was 8.6 months. Fatigue, nausea, and decreased appetite were common and were typically grade 1 or 2 (grade 3 events were noted in up to 25% of patients, and no grade 4 events were reported). Thrombocytopenia occurred in 73% of the patients (grade 3 in 25% and grade 4 in 33%). Thrombocytopenia led to bleeding events of grade 3 or higher in 6 patients.

Conclusions: Selinexor-dexamethasone resulted in objective treatment responses in patients with myeloma refractory to currently available therapies. (Funded by Karyopharm Therapeutics; STORM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02336815.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1903455DOI Listing
August 2019

Identifying risk factors associated with worse outcomes in adolescents and young adults undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 12 20;66(12):e27940. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have unique risk factors and poor outcomes when compared to children, but this population has not been well studied. A hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) has been developed in adults to help predict outcomes, yet this index does not seem suitable for a younger population. Therefore, we sought to examine the prevalence of various risk factors in AYAs undergoing allogeneic HSCT and determine which factors had the greatest impact on overall survival (OS) and treatment-related mortality (TRM).

Procedures: This was accomplished by retrospectively collecting data on 241 patients who received their first allogeneic HSCT at UCLA between 2005 and 2015. We investigated the effect of multiple predictors using the Cox proportional hazards model and Fine and Gray competing risk model for OS and TRM, respectively.

Results: Our results showed that AYAs undergoing allogeneic HSCT had poor outcomes, with 5-year OS and NRM of 48% and 30%, respectively. We demonstrated that compared to a baseline model, the addition of the HCT-CI did not improve its ability to predict OS, while substituting individual comorbidities, that is, an unweighted comorbidity score, resulted in significant improvement in model performance. The factors associated with inferior outcomes were used to develop an AYA-specific risk score.

Conclusions: The comorbidities included in the HCT-CI as well as additional risk factors seen in younger populations need to be studied in prospective studies with the goal of validating and refining a risk score specific to AYA patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27940DOI Listing
December 2019
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