Publications by authors named "Gary J Kirkpatrick"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HABscope: A tool for use by citizen scientists to facilitate early warning of respiratory irritation caused by toxic blooms of Karenia brevis.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(6):e0218489. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research, Beaufort, North Carolina, United States of America.

Blooms of the toxic microalga Karenia brevis occur seasonally in Florida, Texas and other portions of the Gulf of Mexico. Brevetoxins produced during Karenia blooms can cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in humans, massive fish kills, and the death of marine mammals and birds. Brevetoxin-containing aerosols are an additional problem, having a severe impact on beachgoers, triggering coughing, eye and throat irritation in healthy individuals, and more serious respiratory distress in those with asthma or other breathing disorders. The blooms and associated aerosol impacts are patchy in nature, often affecting one beach but having no impact on an adjacent beach. To provide timely information to visitors about which beaches are low-risk, we developed HABscope; a low cost (~$400) microscope system that can be used in the field by citizen scientists with cell phones to enumerate K. brevis cell concentrations in the water along each beach. The HABscope system operates by capturing short videos of collected water samples and uploading them to a central server for rapid enumeration of K. brevis cells using calibrated recognition software. The HABscope has a detection threshold of about 100,000 cells, which is the point when respiratory risk becomes evident. Higher concentrations are reliably estimated up to 10 million cells L-1. When deployed by volunteer citizen scientists, the HABscope consistently distinguished low, medium, and high concentrations of cells in the water. The volunteers were able to collect data on most days during a severe bloom. This indicates that the HABscope can provide an effective capability to significantly increase the sampling coverage during Karenia brevis blooms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218489PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586399PMC
February 2020

Use of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance for detection and assessment of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis.

Appl Opt 2006 Jul;45(21):5414-25

Departmetn of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, MS 39529, USA.

We applied two numerical methods to in situ hyperspectral measurements of remote sensing reflectance Rrs to assess the feasibility of remote detection and monitoring of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, which has been shown to exhibit unique absorption properties. First, an existing quasi-analytical algorithm was used to invert remote sensing reflectance spectra, Rrs(lambda), to derive phytoplankton absorption spectra, a(phi)Rrs(lambda). Second, the fourth derivatives of the a(phi)Rrs(lambda) spectra were compared to the fourth derivative of a reference K. brevis absorption spectrum by means of a similarity index (SI) analysis. Comparison of reflectance-derived a(phi) with filter pad measured a(phi) found them to agree well (R2=0.891; average percentage difference, 22.8%). A strong correlation (R2=0.743) between surface cell concentration and the SI was observed, showing the potential utility of SI magnitude as an indicator of bloom strength. A sensitivity analysis conducted to investigate the effects of varying levels of cell concentrations and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on the efficacy of the quasi-analytical algorithm and SI found that a(phi)Rrs(lambda) could not be derived for very low cell concentrations and that, although it is possible to derive a(phi)Rrs(lambda) in the presence of high CDOM concentrations, CDOM levels influence the a(phi)Rrs(lambda) amplitude and shape. Results suggest that detection and mapping of K. brevis blooms based on hyperspectral measurements of Rrs are feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.45.005414DOI Listing
July 2006

Continuous hyperspectral absorption measurements of colored dissolved organic material in aquatic systems.

Appl Opt 2003 Nov;42(33):6564-8

Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, Florida 34236, USA.

The majority of organic carbon in the oceans is present as dissolved organic matter (DOM); therefore understanding the distribution and dynamics of DOM is central to understanding global carbon cycles. Describing the time-space variability in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has been difficult, as standard spectrophotometric methods for CDOM determination are laborious and susceptible to methodological biases. Previously, measurements of CDOM absorption in discrete water samples by use of a liquid-waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) compared favorably with measurements made with a benchtop spectrophotometer. Given this, we focused on automating the LWCC technique to improve our spatial and temporal sampling capabilities for CDOM. We found strong correlations between CDOM absorption spectra collected from discrete water samples using standard methods and selected corresponding CDOM spectra collected by the automated LWCC system. The near-continuous measurements by the LWCC system made it possible to map the temporal, spatial, and spectral variability of CDOM absorption along the ship track.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.42.006564DOI Listing
November 2003

Harmful algal blooms: causes, impacts and detection.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2003 Jul 30;30(7):383-406. Epub 2003 Jul 30.

Chesapeake Research Consortium, 645 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD 21037, USA.

Blooms of autotrophic algae and some heterotrophic protists are increasingly frequent in coastal waters around the world and are collectively grouped as harmful algal blooms (HABs). Blooms of these organisms are attributed to two primary factors: natural processes such as circulation, upwelling relaxation, and river flow; and, anthropogenic loadings leading to eutrophication. Unfortunately, the latter is commonly assumed to be the primary cause of all blooms, which is not the case in many instances. Moreover, although it is generally acknowledged that occurrences of these phenomena are increasing throughout the world's oceans, the reasons for this apparent increase remain debated and include not only eutrophication but increased observation efforts in coastal zones of the world. There is a rapidly advancing monitoring effort resulting from the perception of increased impacts from these HABs, manifested as expanding routine coastal monitoring programs, rapid development and deployment of new detection methods for individual species, toxins, and toxicities, and expansion of coastal modeling activities towards observational forecasts of bloom landfall and eventually bloom prediction. Together, these many efforts will provide resource managers with the tools needed to develop effective strategies for the management and mitigation of HABs and their frequently devastating impacts on the coastal environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-003-0074-9DOI Listing
July 2003
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