Publications by authors named "Garima Arora"

84 Publications

Oral health clinical training and dental referral program for nurses: An interprofessional collaborative project.

Geriatr Nurs 2021 Jun 2;42(4):880-886. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Nursing, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States.

Introduction: The overall objective of this study was to establish an interprofessional oral health training program for nursing personnel at Oregon Health & Science University.

Methods: Fifteen registered nurses participated in didactic and clinical training and screened the oral health of patients. Nurses completed confidence assessments and patients completed satisfaction surveys. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests for comparisons of mean scores.

Results: Pre- and post-training surveys demonstrated significant increases in nurses' knowledge, confidence in discussing dental problems, performing dental screenings, and referring patients to dentists (p < 0.05). Patient satisfaction surveys (n = 89) denoted satisfaction with oral screenings and willingness for nurses to perform them.

Conclusions: Nurses participating in oral health and clinical screening training programs supervised by dentists significantly increased their confidence in providing dental referrals. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the impact of such training programs on patient health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2021.04.015DOI Listing
June 2021

A retrospective cohort study of 12,306 pediatric COVID-19 patients in the United States.

Sci Rep 2021 05 13;11(1):10231. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall B140, Birmingham, AL, 35294-0019, USA.

Children and adolescents account for ~ 13% of total COVID-19 cases in the United States. However, little is known about the nature of the illness in children. The reopening of schools underlines the importance of understanding the epidemiology of pediatric COVID-19 infections. We sought to assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes in pediatric COVID-19 patients. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of pediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from healthcare organizations in the United States. The study outcomes (hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, critical care) were assessed using logistic regression. The subgroups of sex and race were compared after propensity score matching. Among 12,306 children with lab-confirmed COVID-19, 16.5% presented with respiratory symptoms (cough, dyspnea), 13.9% had gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain), 8.1% had dermatological symptoms (rash), 4.8% had neurological (headache), and 18.8% had other non-specific symptoms (fever, malaise, myalgia, arthralgia and disturbances of smell or taste). In the study cohort, the hospitalization frequency was 5.3%, with 17.6% needing critical care services and 4.1% requiring mechanical ventilation. Following propensity score matching, the risk of all outcomes was similar between males and females. Following propensity score matching, the risk of hospitalization was greater in non-Hispanic Black (RR 1.97 [95% CI 1.49-2.61]) and Hispanic children (RR 1.31 [95% CI 1.03-1.78]) compared with non-Hispanic Whites. In the pediatric population infected with COVID-19, a substantial proportion were hospitalized due to the illness and developed adverse clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89553-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8119690PMC
May 2021

Chronobiology of Natriuretic Peptides and Blood Pressure in Lean and Obese Individuals.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 May;77(18):2291-2303

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Diurnal variation of natriuretic peptide (NP) levels and its relationship with 24-h blood pressure (BP) rhythm has not been established. Obese individuals have a relative NP deficiency and disturbed BP rhythmicity.

Objectives: This clinical trial evaluated the diurnal rhythmicity of NPs (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP], mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP], N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) and the relationship of NP rhythm with 24-h BP rhythm in healthy lean and obese individuals.

Methods: On the background of a standardized diet, healthy, normotensive, lean (body mass index 18.5 to 25 kg/m) and obese (body mass index 30 to 45 kg/m) individuals, age 18 to 40 years, underwent 24-h inpatient protocol involving ambulatory BP monitoring starting 24 h prior to the visit, controlled light intensity, and repeated blood draws for assessment of analytes. Cosinor analysis of normalized NP levels (normalized to 24-h mean value) was conducted to assess the diurnal NP rhythm and its relationship with systolic BP.

Results: Among 52 participants screened, 40 participants (18 lean, 22 obese; 50% women; 65% Black) completed the study. The median range spread (percentage difference between the minimum and maximum values) over 24 h for MR-proANP, BNP, and NT-proBNP levels was 72.0% (interquartile range [IQR]: 50.9% to 119.6%), 75.5% (IQR: 50.7% to 106.8%), and 135.0% (IQR: 66.3% to 270.4%), respectively. A cosine wave-shaped 24-h oscillation of normalized NP levels (BNP, MR-proANP, and NT-proBNP) was noted both in lean and obese individuals (p <0.05 for all). A larger phase difference between MR-proANP BP rhythm (-4.9 h vs. -0.7 h) and BNP BP rhythm (-3.3 h vs. -0.9 h) was seen in obese compared with lean individuals.

Conclusions: This human physiological trial elucidates evidence of diurnal NP rhythmicity and the presence of an NP-BP rhythm axis. There exists a misalignment of the NP-BP diurnal rhythm in the obese, which may contribute to the disturbed diurnal BP pattern observed among obese individuals. (The Diurnal Rhythm in Natriuretic Peptide Levels; NCT03834168).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.03.291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138944PMC
May 2021

Increased awareness, inadequate treatment, and poor control of cardiovascular risk factors in American young adults: 2005-2016.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(3):304-312

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.

Introduction: There are little contemporary data about cardiovascular risk factors among young adults. We defined trends in diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia in American adults aged 18-44 years.

Methods: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Study serial cross-sectional surveys were used to define three time periods: 2005-2008, 2009-2012, and 2013-2016. Age-adjusted weighted trends of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of DM, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were calculated by linear regression modelling in the overall sample, males, and females. Trends were calculated after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, education attainment, income, insurance status, and number of healthcare visits.

Results: From 2005-2008 to 2013-2016, 15,171 participants were identified. DM prevalence was stable ∼3%, hypertension prevalence was stable ∼11.0%, and hypercholesterolemia prevalence declined from 11.5% to 9.0% (ptrend = 0.02). DM awareness stayed stable between 61.1 and 74.1%, hypertension awareness increased from 68.7 to 77.7% (ptrend = 0.05), and hypercholesterolemia awareness was stable between 46.8 and 54.1%. DM and hypertension treatment improved markedly (ptrend < 0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but the hypercholesterolemia treatment was stable ∼30%. DM control improved across survey periods (7.7-17.4%, ptrend = 0.04) but hypertension control (∼50%) and hypercholesterolemia control (∼13%) remained stable. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control trends also differed between males and females.

Conclusions: There is a stable prevalence of DM, high and stable prevalence of hypertension, and declining prevalence of hypercholesterolemia among young Americans. Despite stable or increasing awareness of diabetes and hypertension, there are inadequate treatment and control trends for DM, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320905190DOI Listing
April 2021

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery outcomes in the United States: Impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

JTCVS Open 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala.

Objective: There has been a substantial decline in patients presenting for emergent and routine cardiovascular care in the United States after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to assess the risk of adverse clinical outcomes among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic period and compare the risks with those undergoing CABG before the pandemic in the year 2019.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the TriNetX Research Network database was performed. Patients undergoing CABG between January 20, 2019, and September 15, 2019, contributed to the 2019 cohort, and those undergoing CABG between January 20, 2020, and September 15, 2020, contributed to the 2020 cohort. Propensity-score matching was performed, and the odds of mortality, acute kidney injury, stroke, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and mechanical ventilation occurring by 30 days were evaluated.

Results: The number of patients undergoing CABG in 2020 declined by 35.5% from 5534 patients in 2019 to 3569 patients in 2020. After propensity-score matching, 3569 patient pairs were identified in the 2019 and the 2020 cohorts. Compared with those undergoing CABG in 2019, the odds of mortality by 30 days were 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.33;  = .80) in those undergoing CABG in 2020. The odds for stroke (odds ratio [OR], 1.201; 95% CI, 0.96-1.39), acute kidney injury (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-1.08), acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.60-2.42), and mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.94-1.30) were similar between the 2 cohorts.

Conclusions: The number of patients undergoing CABG in 2020 has substantially declined compared with 2019. Similar odds of adverse clinical outcomes were seen among patients undergoing CABG in the setting of COVID-19 compared with those in 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xjon.2021.03.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007527PMC
March 2021

Geographic Inequalities in Cardiovascular Mortality in the United States: 1999 to 2018.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 05 9;96(5):1218-1228. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham; Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the trends in cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and heart failure mortality in the stroke belt in comparison with the rest of the United States.

Patients And Methods: We evaluated the nationwide mortality data of all Americans from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database from 1999 to 2018. Cause-specific deaths were identified in the stroke belt and nonstroke belt populations using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes. The relative percentage gap was estimated as the absolute difference computed relative to nonstroke belt mortality. Piecewise linear regression and age-period-cohort modeling were used to assess, respectively, the trends and to forecast mortality across the 2 regions.

Results: The cardiovascular mortality rate (per 100,000 persons) was 288.3 (95% CI, 288.0 to 288.6; 3,684,273 deaths) in the stroke belt region and 251.2 (95% CI, 251.0 to 251.3; 13,296,164 deaths) in the nonstroke belt region. In the stroke belt region, age-adjusted mortality rates due to all cardiovascular causes (average annual percentage change [AAPC] in mortality rates, -2.4; 95% CI, -2.8 to -2.0), IHD (AAPC, -3.8; 95% CI, -4.2 to -3.5), and stroke (AAPC, -2.8; 95% CI, -3.4 to -2.1) declined from 1999 to 2018. A similar decline in cardiovascular (AAPC, -2.5; 95% CI, -3.0 to -2.0), IHD (AAPC, -4.0; 95% CI, -4.3 to -3.7), and stroke (AAPC, -2.9; 95% CI, -3.2 to -2.2) mortality was seen in the nonstroke belt region. There was no overall change in heart failure mortality in both regions (P>.05). The cardiovascular mortality gap was 11.8% in 1999 and 15.9% in 2018, with a modest reduction in absolute mortality rate difference (~7 deaths per 100,000 persons). These patterns were consistent across subgroups of age, sex, race, and urbanization status. An estimated 101,953 additional cardiovascular deaths need to be prevented from 2020 to 2025 in the stroke belt to ameliorate the gap between the 2 regions.

Conclusion: Despite the overall decline, substantial geographic disparities in cardiovascular mortality persist. Novel approaches are needed to attenuate the long-standing geographic inequalities in cardiovascular mortality in the United States, which are projected to increase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.08.036DOI Listing
May 2021

Geographic Variation in Cardiovascular Health Among American Adults.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham; Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, AL. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the contemporary geographic trends in cardiovascular health in the United States and its relationship with geographic distribution of cardiovascular mortality.

Methods: By use of a retrospective cross-sectional design, the 2011-2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) was queried to determine the age-adjusted prevalence of cardiovascular health index (CVHI) metrics (sum of ideal blood pressure, blood glucose concentration, lipid levels, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, and diet). Cardiovascular health was estimated as both continuous (0 to 7 points) and categorical (ideal, intermediate, poor) variables from the BRFSS. Age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality for 2017 was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER database.

Results: Among 1,362,529 American adult participants of the BRFSS 2011-2017 and all American residents in 2017, the CVHI score increased from 3.89±0.004 in 2011 to 3.96±0.005 in 2017 (P<.001) nationally, with modest improvement across all regions (P<.05 for all). Ideal cardiovascular health prevalence improved in the northeastern (P=.03) and southern regions (P=.002). In 2017, the prevalence of coronary heart disease (6.8%; 95% CI, 6.5% to 7.1%) and stroke (3.7%; 95% CI, 3.4% to 3.9%) was highest in the southern region. The CVHI score (3.81±0.01) and the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health (12.2%; 95% CI, 11.7% to 12.7%) were lowest in the southern United States. This corresponded to the higher cardiovascular mortality in the southern region (233.0 [95% CI, 232.2- to 33.8] per 100,000 persons).

Conclusion: Despite a modest improvement in CVHI, only 1 in 6 Americans has ideal cardiovascular health with significant geographic differences. These differences correlate with the geographic distribution of cardiovascular mortality. An urgent unmet need exists to mitigate the geographic disparities in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.12.034DOI Listing
March 2021

Obesity and Serial NT-proBNP Levels in Guided Medical Therapy for Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Insights From the GUIDE-IT Trial.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 23;10(7):e018689. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease University of Alabama at Birmingham AL.

Background Obese patients have lower NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels. The prognostic implications of achieving NT-proBNP levels ≤1000 pg/mL in obese patients with heart failure (HF) receiving biomarker-guided therapy are not completely known. We evaluated the prognostic implications of obesity and having NT-proBNP levels (≤1000 pg/mL) in the GUIDE-IT (Guiding Evidence-Based Therapy Using Biomarker-Intensified Treatment in HF) trial participants. Methods and Results The risk of adverse cardiovascular events (HF hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality) was assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models based on having NT-proBNP ≤1000 pg/mL (taken as a time-varying covariate), stratified by obesity status. The study outcome was also assessed on the basis of the body mass index at baseline. The predictive ability of NT-proBNP for adverse cardiovascular events was assessed using the likelihood ratio test. Compared with nonobese patients, obese patients were mostly younger, Black race, and more likely to be women. NT-proBNP levels were 59.0% (95% CI, 39.5%-83.5%) lower among obese individuals. The risk of adverse cardiovascular events was lower in obese (hazard ratio [HR], 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.59) and nonobese (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.19-0.57) patients with HF who had NT-proBNP levels ≤1000 pg/mL, compared with those who did not. There was no interaction between obesity and having NT-proBNP ≤1000 pg/mL on the study outcome (>0.10). Obese patients had a greater risk of developing adverse cardiovascular events (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01-1.90) compared with nonobese patients. NT-proBNP was the strongest predictor of adverse cardiovascular event risk in both obese and nonobese patients. Conclusions On-treatment NT-proBNP level ≤1000 pg/mL has favorable prognostic implications, irrespective of obesity status. NT-proBNP levels were the strongest predictor of cardiovascular events in both obese and nonobese individuals in this trial. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01685840.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174357PMC
April 2021

Diagnostic and prognostic implications of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction scoring systems.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 11;8(3):2089-2102. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Aims: We sought to compare the generalizability and prognostic implications of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) scores (HFA-PEFF and H FPEF score) in Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) and Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (RELAX) trial participants and matched controls from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community (ARIC) study.

Methods And Results: Based on the respective scores, the study participants from the TOPCAT (N = 356), RELAX (N = 216), and ARIC (N = 379) studies were categorized as having a low, intermediate, or high likelihood of HFpEF. Age, sex, and race matched controls free of cardiovascular disease who had unexplained dyspnoea were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. The prognostic value of scores was assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses. The median HFA-PEFF scores in the TOPCAT, RELAX, and ARIC studies were 5.0 [interquartile range (IQR): 5.0-6.0], 4.0 (IQR: 2.0-4.0), and 3.0 (IQR: 2.0-4.0), respectively. The median H FPEF scores in the three studies were 5.5 (IQR: 4.0-7.0), 6.0 (IQR: 4.0-7.0), and 3.0 (IQR: 2.0-5.0), respectively. A low HFA-PEFF and H FPEF score can rule out HFpEF with high sensitivity (99.5% and 99.6%, respectively) and negative predictive value (95.7% and 98.3%, respectively). A high HFA-PEFF and H FPEF score can rule-in HFpEF with good specificity (82.8% and 95.6%, respectively) and positive predictive value (79.9% and 90.4%, respectively). Among TOPCAT participants, the hazard for adverse cardiovascular events per point increase in HFA-PEFF and H FPEF score was 1.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.63) and 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.88-1.15), respectively. A higher H FPEF score was associated with lower peak oxygen intake in RELAX trial participants (adjusted P = 0.01).

Conclusions: The HFA-PEFF and the H FPEF scores are reliable diagnostic tools for HFpEF. The prognostic utility of HFpEF scores requires further validation in larger rigorously phenotyped populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120372PMC
June 2021

Coronary Artery Calcium Score for Personalization of Antihypertensive Therapy: A Pooled Cohort Analysis.

Hypertension 2021 Apr 1;77(4):1106-1118. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

From the Division of Cardiovascular Disease (V.P., P.A.), University of Alabama at Birmingham.

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946744PMC
April 2021

Nocturnal blood pressure dipping in treated hypertensives: insights from the SPRINT trial.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Nov 29. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1670 University Boulevard, Volker Hall B140, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa125DOI Listing
November 2020

Experimental observation of pinned solitons in a flowing dusty plasma.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jan;103(1-1):013201

Institute For Plasma Research, HBNI, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India 382428.

Pinned solitons are a special class of nonlinear solutions created by a supersonically moving object in a fluid. They move with the same velocity as the moving object and thereby remain pinned to the object. A well-known hydrodynamical phenomenon, they have been shown to exist in numerical simulation studies but to date have not been observed experimentally in a plasma. In this paper we report the first experimental excitation of pinned solitons in a dusty (complex) plasma flowing over a charged obstacle. The experiments are performed in a Π shaped dusty plasma experimental (DPEx) device in which a dusty plasma is created in the background of a DC glow discharge Ar plasma using micron sized kaolin dust particles. A biased copper wire creates a potential structure that acts as a stationary charged object over which the dust fluid is made to flow at a highly supersonic speed. Under appropriate conditions nonlinear stationary structures are observed in the laboratory frame that correspond to pinned structures moving with the speed of the obstacle in the frame of the moving fluid. A systematic study is made of the propagation characteristics of these solitons by carefully tuning the flow velocity of the dust fluid by changing the height of the potential structure. It is found that the nature of the pinned solitons changes from a single-humped one to a multihumped one and their amplitudes increase with an increase of the flow velocity of the dust fluid. The experimental findings are then qualitatively compared with the numerical solutions of a model forced Korteweg de Vries (fKdV) equation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.103.013201DOI Listing
January 2021

Outcome of Prophylactic Noninvasive Ventilation Following Planned Extubation in High-risk Patients: A Two-year Prospective Observational Study from a General Intensive Care Unit.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2020 Dec;24(12):1185-1192

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Fortis-Escorts Hospital, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

Introduction: Prophylactic use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is recommended following extubation in patients at high risk of extubation failure. In a prospective cohort study, we examined the impact of prophylactic NIV in this subset of patients, potentially exploring the risk factors for extubation failure in them and the impact of extubation failure on organ function. We also explored the effect of fluid balance on extubation failure or success in this high-risk patient subgroup.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive adult patients (≥18 years) admitted in the mixed intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care center, between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2019, who passed a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) following at least 12 hours of invasive mechanical ventilation and put on prophylactic NIV for being at a high risk of extubation failure, were prospectively followed throughout their hospital stay. Extubation failure was defined as developing respiratory failure within 72 hours postextubation requiring reintubation or still requiring NIV support at 72 hours postextubation.

Results: A total of 85 patients were included in the study. 11.8% of patients had extubation failure at 72 hours with an overall reintubation rate of 10.5%. Higher age ( < 0.05), longer duration of invasive ventilation ( < 0.05), and higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at extubation ( < 0.05) were identified as risk factors for extubation failure in univariate analysis. However, in the multivariate analysis, only a higher SOFA score remained statistically significant in forward logistic regression analysis ( < 0.05). We found a clear trend toward worsening organ function score in the extubation failure group in the first 72 hours postextubation, suggesting extubation failure as a risk factor for organ dysfunction. Cumulative fluid balance was higher both at extubation and in subsequent 3 days postextubation in the failure group, but the differences were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Higher age, longer duration of invasive ventilation, and higher baseline SOFA score at extubation remain risk factors for extubation failure even in this high-risk subset of patients on prophylactic NIV. Extubation failure is associated with the worsening of organ function. A trend toward higher cumulative fluid balance both at extubation and postextubation, suggests aggressive de-resuscitation as a potentially helpful strategy in preventing extubation failure.

How To Cite This Article: Ghosh S, Chawla A, Jhalani R, Salhotra R, Arora G, Nagar S, . Outcome of Prophylactic Noninvasive Ventilation Following Planned Extubation in High-risk Patients: A Two-year Prospective Observational Study from a General Intensive Care Unit. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(12):1185-1192.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10071-23673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775937PMC
December 2020

Trends and Geographic Variation in Acute Respiratory Failure and ARDS Mortality in the United States.

Chest 2021 04 22;159(4):1460-1472. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL. Electronic address:

Background: Despite numerous advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology, progression, and management of acute respiratory failure (ARF) and ARDS, limited contemporary data are available on the mortality burden of ARF and ARDS in the United States.

Research Question: What are the contemporary trends and geographic variation in ARF and ARDS-related mortality in the United States?

Study Design And Methods: A retrospective analysis of the National Center for Health Statistics' nationwide mortality data was conducted to assess the ARF and ARDS-related mortality trends from 2014 through 2018 and the geographic distribution of ARF and ARDS-related deaths in 2018 for all American residents. Piecewise linear regression was used to evaluate the trends in age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) in the overall population and various demographic subgroups of age, sex, race, urbanization, and region.

Results: Among 1,434,349 ARF-related deaths and 52,958 ARDS-related deaths during the study period, the AAMR was highest in older individuals (≥ 65 years), non-Hispanic Black people, and those living in the nonmetropolitan region. The AAMR for ARF-related deaths (per 100,000 people) increased from 74.9 (95% CI, 74.6-75.2) in 2014 to 85.6 (95% CI, 85.3-85.9) in 2018 (annual percentage change [APC], 3.4 [95% CI, 2.2-4.6]; P = .003). The AAMR (per 100,000 people) for ARDS-related deaths was 3.2 (95% CI, 3.2-3.3) in 2014 and 3.0 (95% CI, 3.0-3.1 in 2018; APC, -0.9 [95% CI, -5.4 to 3.8]; P = .56). The observed increase in rates for ARF mortality was consistent across the subgroups of age, sex, race or ethnicity, urbanization status, and geographical region (P < .05 for all). The AAMR (per 100,000 people) for ARF (91.3 [95% CI, 90.8-91.8]) and ARDS-related mortality (3.3 [95% CI, 3.2-3.4]) in 2018 were highest in the South.

Interpretation: The ARF-related mortality increased at approximately 3.4% annually, and ARDS-related mortality showed a lack of decline in the last 5 years. These data contextualize important health information to guide priorities for research, clinical care, and policy, especially during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.10.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581392PMC
April 2021

Mortality Due to Mitral Regurgitation Among Adults in the United States: 1999-2018.

Mayo Clin Proc 2020 12;95(12):2633-2643

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL.

Objective: To evaluate the nationwide trends in mortality due to mitral regurgitation (MR) among American adults from 1999 to 2018.

Patients And Methods: Trends in mortality due to MR were assessed using retrospective cross-sectional analyses of nationwide mortality data from death certificates of all American residents between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2018, using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research database. Piecewise linear regression was used to evaluate the trends in the overall population and in subgroups.

Results: Among 45,982 deaths due to MR during the study period, higher mortality rates were seen in older White females from the western United States. In 1999, the crude and age-adjusted mortality rates were 27.4 (95% CI, 26.3 to 28.4) and 27.5 (95% CI, 26.4 to 28.5) per 1,000,000 persons, respectively. By 2018, these rates declined to 18.0 (95% CI, 17.3 to 18.7) and 17.7 (95% CI, 17.0 to 18.4) per 1,000,000 persons, respectively (P<.001 for trend for both). Crude mortality rates declined from 1999 to 2012 (annual percentage change [APC], -4.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -3.6) but then increased after 2012 (APC, 2.6 [95% CI, 0.8 to 4.4; P<.001 for change in trend]). The age-adjusted mortality rates declined from 1999 to 2012 (APC, -3.9 [95% CI, -4.4 to -3.4]) but subsequently increased after 2012 (APC, 1.4 [95% CI, -0.4 to 3.2; P<.001 for change in trend]). The observed decrease was consistent across age, sex, race, geographic region, and urbanization subgroups (P<.05 for all).

Conclusion: Mortality due to MR in American adults declined at an annual rate of approximately 4% until 2012 and has since then increased by about 1.5% annually. These mortality trends warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.08.039DOI Listing
December 2020

Corrigendum: CitE Enzymes Are Essential for to Establish Infection in Macrophages and Guinea Pigs.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 30;10:587907. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Tuberculosis Research Laboratory, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, India.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00385.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.587907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662888PMC
October 2020

Geographic Variation in Racial Disparities in Health and Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Mortality.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2020 Dec 6;4(6):703-716. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Objective: To evaluate the race-stratified state-level prevalence of health determinants and the racial disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cumulative incidence and mortality in the United States.

Patients And Methods: The age-adjusted race-stratified prevalence of comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity), preexisting medical conditions (pulmonary disease, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and malignant neoplasm), poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol abuse, and physical inactivity), and adverse socioeconomic factors (education, household income, and health insurance) was computed in 435,139 American adult participants from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Correlation was assessed between health determinants and the race-stratified COVID-19 crude mortality rate and infection-fatality ratio computed from respective state public health departments in 47 states.

Results: Blacks had a higher prevalence of comorbidities (63.3%; 95% CI, 62.4% to 64.2% vs 55.1%; 95% CI, 54.7% to 55.5%) and adverse socioeconomic factors (47.0%; 95% CI, 46.0% to 47.9% vs 30.9%; 95% CI, 30.6% to 31.3%) than did whites. The prevalence of preexisting medical conditions was similar in blacks (30.4%; 95% CI, 28.8% to 32.1%) and whites (30.8%; 95% CI, 30.2% to 31.4%). The prevalence of poor health behaviors was higher in whites (57.2%; 95% CI, 56.3% to 58.0%) than in blacks (50.2%; 95% CI,46.2% to 54.2%). Comorbidities and adverse socioeconomic factors were highest in the southern region, and poor health behaviors were highest in the western region. The cumulative incidence rate (per 100,000 persons) was 3-fold higher in blacks (1546.4) than in whites (540.4). The crude mortality rate (per 100,000 persons) was 2-fold higher in blacks (83.2) than in whites (33.2). However, the infection-fatality ratio (per 100 cases) was similar in whites (6.2) and blacks (5.4). Within racial groups, the geographic distribution of health determinants did not correlate with the state-level COVID-19 mortality and infection-fatality ratio (>.05 for all).

Conclusion: Racial disparities in COVID-19 are largely driven by the higher cumulative incidence of infection in blacks. There is a discordance between the geographic dispersion of COVID-19 mortality and the regional distribution of health determinants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2020.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538135PMC
December 2020

Author Correction: Establishing Virulence Associated Polyphosphate Kinase 2 as a drug target for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Sci Rep 2020 Sep 21;10(1):15610. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72745-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506529PMC
September 2020

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Poor Control of Hypertension Among Young American Adults: Race-Stratified Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Mayo Clin Proc 2020 07;95(7):1390-1403

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the race-stratified trends for prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in young American adults aged 18 to 44 years.

Patients And Methods: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2005-2016 for adults aged 18 to 44 years was used to calculate age-adjusted (using 2005, 2010, and 2015 US Census population proportions) weighted trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American participants as per the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. Trends were estimated by logistic regression models including demographic, socioeconomic, health care access, and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons as covariates.

Results: Among 15,171 young American adults, stable trends for the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension was seen in all racial groups (P>.05 for all). The prevalence from 2013 to 2016 was highest in non-Hispanic blacks (30.7%; 95% CI, 27.3 to 34.0%), followed by non-Hispanic whites (21.9%; 95% CI, 19.6 to 24.1%), and Mexican Americans (21.9%; 95% CI, 18.6 to 25.1%). The awareness was stable at ∼43.2% in non-Hispanic blacks, ∼34.8% in non-Hispanic whites, and ∼28.4% in Mexican Americans from 2005 to 2008 through 2013 to 2016. The stable treatment rates at nearly 34.4%, 23.7%, and 20.6%, were seen in non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Mexican-Americans, respectively. The optimal control of hypertension was seen in 14.5% (95% CI, 12.1 to 17.0%) non-Hispanic blacks, 12.2% (95% CI, 10.3 to 14.0%) non-Hispanic whites, and 10.3% (95% CI, 7.1 to 13.5%) Mexican Americans from 2013 to 2016.

Conclusion: Nearly one in every three non-Hispanic young black and one in every five young Mexican American and non-Hispanic white adults have hypertension. Our race-stratified analyses highlight the categorical need to improve the abysmal control of hypertension which is approximately 1 in 10 young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.01.041DOI Listing
July 2020

Gastroduodenal Bezoar with Duodenal Web: A Rare Association.

J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2020 May-Jun;25(3):189-190. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jiaps.JIAPS_48_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302458PMC
April 2020

Fusion imaging during balloon mitral valvulopasty: First experience.

Echocardiography 2020 07 12;37(7):1088-1090. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

The EchoNavigator (EchoNav, Philips, The Netherlands) is a tool that fuses live X-ray with three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) images allowing for enhanced precision and accuracy during interventional cardiac procedures. We present the first case of EchoNav utilization during balloon mitral valvuloplasty using the newest version (EchoNav 3.0.2). The benefits of the EchoNav application include improved procedural precision and safety due to improved demonstration of the relationship between the interventional equipment and neighboring cardiac structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14753DOI Listing
July 2020

Experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a complex plasma monolayer crystal.

Phys Rev E 2020 Apr;101(4-1):043209

Institute For Plasma Research, HBNI, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India, 382428.

The formation and melting of a monolayered charged dust particle crystal in a DC glow discharge argon plasma is studied. The nature of the melting or formation process is established as a first-order phase transition from the variations in the Coulomb coupling parameter, the dust temperature, the structural order parameter, and from the existence of a hysteresis behavior. Our experimental results are distinctly different from existing theoretical predictions for two dimensional crystals based on the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young mechanism or the grain boundary induced melting and indicate a mechanism that is akin to a fluctuation induced first-order phase transition in complex plasmas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.101.043209DOI Listing
April 2020

Incidence and Implications of Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter in Hypertension: Insights From the SPRINT Trial.

Hypertension 2020 06 4;75(6):1483-1490. Epub 2020 May 4.

From the Division of Cardiovascular Disease (V.P., J.K., G.A., P.A.), University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham.

We evaluated the impact of intensive blood pressure control on the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) and the prognostic implications of preexisting and new-onset AF in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) participants. New-onset AF was defined as occurrence of AF in 12-lead electrocardiograms after randomization in participants free of AF at baseline. Poisson regression modeling was used to calculate incident rates of new-onset AF. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the risk of adverse cardiovascular events (composite of myocardial infarction, non-myocardial infarction acute coronary syndrome, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular death). In 9327 participants, 8.45% had preexisting AF, and 1.65% had new-onset AF. The incidence of new-onset AF was 4.53 per 1000-person years, with similar rates in the standard and intensive treatment arms (4.95 versus 4.11 per 1000-person years; adjusted =0.14). Participants with preexisting AF (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.46-2.31]; <0.001) and new-onset AF (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.45 [95% CI, 1.58-3.80]; <0.001) had a greater risk for development of adverse cardiovascular events compared with those with no AF. Participants with preexisting AF who achieved blood pressure <120/80 mm Hg at 3 months continued have a poor prognosis (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.32-2.70]; =0.001) compared with those with no AF. Intensive blood pressure control does not diminish the incidence of new-onset AF in an older, high-risk, nondiabetic population. Both preexisting and new-onset AF have adverse prognostic implications. In participants with preexisting AF, residual cardiovascular risk is evident even with on-treatment blood pressure <120/80 mm Hg. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01206062.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.14690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225039PMC
June 2020

Implications of Atrial Fibrillation Among Patients With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery.

Am J Cardiol 2020 06 12;125(12):1836-1844. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama. Electronic address:

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common perioperative arrhythmia. However, its occurrence and implications remain poorly defined in the setting of noncardiac procedures. We sought to define the incidence, prevalence, and prognostic implications of AF among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) undergoing noncardiac surgery. Using a previously validated approach that employed unique patient-linked variables in the New York State Inpatient Database from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014, the frequency of new-onset and pre-existing AF was determined in adults with ASCVD aged ≥18 years undergoing noncardiac surgery. The secondary outcomes were stroke within 1 month and all-cause mortality. Using multivariable logistic regression models, the factors and outcomes associated with new-onset AF after noncardiac surgery were assessed. Nine surgical subgroups of major noncardiac surgery served as exposure. A total of 184,775 patients were identified during the study period. Age ≥65, anemia, history of heart failure, valvular heart disease, and thoracic surgery were predictors of new-onset AF after noncardiac surgery. Among 3,806 patients (2.5%) developed new-onset AF and 31,603 (17.5%) patient had pre-existing AF. After multivariable-adjusted modeling, new-onset AF was associated with increased odds of stroke within 1 month (odds ratio: 1.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.53; p < 0.001)], mortality (odds ratio: 3.74; 95% confidence interval: 3.30 to 4.24; p < 0.001) and longer length of stay in the hospital (10 days; interquartile range: 6 to 16 days; p < 0.001). New-onset AF portends a poor prognosis in patients with ASCVD undergoing noncardiac surgeries. The risk profile of patients that develop new-onset AF differs across patient phenotypes and by surgical procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261641PMC
June 2020

Clinical, Demographic, and Imaging Correlates of Anemia in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction (from the RELAX Trial).

Am J Cardiol 2020 06 16;125(12):1870-1878. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; Section of Cardiology, Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama. Electronic address:

Anemia is a commonly occurring comorbidity among patients of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) but limited data exists on the cardiovascular phenotype of anemia in HFpEF. We sought to characterize the clinical features, exercise capacity, and outcomes in patients with HFpEF to elucidate the phenotype and pathophysiology of anemia in HFpEF. Post hoc analyses of participants enrolled in the RELAX (Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status and Exercise Capacity in Diastolic Heart Failure) trial was performed. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <13 g/dL in men and <12 g/dL in women. Multivariate adjusted regression modeling was done to assess for differences in peak oxygen uptake. Adjusted hazard ratios were generated to assess difference in hospitalization events using a Cox proportional hazards model. Anemic HFpEF patients were more likely to be older, male, and have worse renal function (p <0.05 for all). N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin I, pro-collagen III N-terminal peptide, C-telopeptide for type I collagen, uric acid, cystatin-c, and galectin-3 (p <0.05 for all) levels were higher in anemic HFpEF patients. In adjusted models, anemic HFpEF patients had worse exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake: 11.3 vs 12.1 mL/kg/min; p = 0.004). The hazard for cardiac or renal cause of hospitalization in those with anemia was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 0.9 to 4.3). Anemic HFpEF patients have worse exercise capacity and are more likely to be hospitalized. A better understanding of the physiologic phenotypes of HFpEF patients may allow for greater personalization of treatment and prognostication in HFpEF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271904PMC
June 2020

Collaborative cardiovascular management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia on tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

Vasc Med 2020 06 17;25(3):246-254. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of the BCR-ABL fusion protein have dramatically changed the mortality of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but they carry a risk of serious vascular morbidity. While TKIs do not cure CML, daily oral administration of a TKI can control CML and TKIs are chronic medications. Interestingly, vascular complications can occur at any time a patient is on a TKI. Therefore, it is imperative that all care team members and patients are aware of and watching for possible vascular complications. In the following review, a case of arterial thrombosis secondary to the TKI ponatinib is presented as well as a discussion of thrombotic and vascular adverse events reported with TKIs. TKIs are metabolized through the cytochrome P450 system and important drug interactions to consider are reviewed. Finally, we present a multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients with CML on TKIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1358863X20906868DOI Listing
June 2020

Strategies to Prevent Cardiotoxicity.

Curr Treat Options Oncol 2020 04 8;21(4):32. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 321 Lyons Harrison Research Building, 1720 2nd Ave South, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Opinion Statement: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among cancer survivors. While the field of cardiology as a whole is driven by evidence generated through robust clinical trials, data in cardio-oncology is limited to a relatively small number of prospective clinical trials with heterogeneous groups of cancer patients. In addition, many pharmaceutical trials in oncology are flawed from a cardiovascular perspective because they exclude patients with significant cardiovascular (CV) history and have wide variation in the definitions of CV events and cardiotoxicity. Ultimately, oncology trials often underrepresent the possibility of cardiovascular events in a "real world" population. Thus, the signal for CV toxicity from a cancer treatment is often not manifested until phase IV studies; where we are often caught trying to mitigate the CV effects rather than preventing them. Most of the data about cardiotoxicity from cancer therapy and cardioprotective strategies has been developed from our experience in using anthracyclines for over 50 years with dramatic improvement in cancer survivorship. However, as we are in an era where cancer drug discovery is moving at lightning pace with increasing survival rates, it is imperative to move beyond anthracyclines and commit to research on the cardiovascular side effects of all aspects of cancer therapy with a focus on prevention. We emphasize the role of pre-cancer treatment CV assessment to anticipate cardiac issues and ultimately optimizing CV risk prior to cancer therapy as an opportunity to mitigate cardiovascular risk from cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11864-020-0722-6DOI Listing
April 2020

Increased awareness, inadequate treatment, and poor control of cardiovascular risk factors in American young adults: 2005-2016.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Mar 2:2047487320905190. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.

Introduction: There are little contemporary data about cardiovascular risk factors among young adults. We defined trends in diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia in American adults aged 18-44 years.

Methods: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Study serial cross-sectional surveys were used to define three time periods: 2005-2008, 2009-2012, and 2013-2016. Age-adjusted weighted trends of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of DM, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were calculated by linear regression modelling in the overall sample, males, and females. Trends were calculated after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, education attainment, income, insurance status, and number of healthcare visits.

Results: From 2005-2008 to 2013-2016, 15,171 participants were identified. DM prevalence was stable ∼3%, hypertension prevalence was stable ∼11.0%, and hypercholesterolemia prevalence declined from 11.5% to 9.0% (p = 0.02). DM awareness stayed stable between 61.1 and 74.1%, hypertension awareness increased from 68.7 to 77.7% (p = 0.05), and hypercholesterolemia awareness was stable between 46.8 and 54.1%. DM and hypertension treatment improved markedly (p < 0.001 and 0.05, respectively) but the hypercholesterolemia treatment was stable ∼30%. DM control improved across survey periods (7.7-17.4%, p = 0.04) but hypertension control (∼50%) and hypercholesterolemia control (∼13%) remained stable. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control trends also differed between males and females.

Conclusions: There is a stable prevalence of DM, high and stable prevalence of hypertension, and declining prevalence of hypercholesterolemia among young Americans. Despite stable or increasing awareness of diabetes and hypertension, there are inadequate treatment and control trends for DM, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320905190DOI Listing
March 2020