Publications by authors named "Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre"

33 Publications

Radio-Iodide Treatment: From Molecular Aspects to the Clinical View.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Departamento de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario de Móstoles, 28935 Madrid, Spain.

Thyroid radio-iodide therapy (RAI) is one of the oldest known and used targeted therapies. In thyroid cancer, it has been used for more than eight decades and is still being used to improve thyroid tumor treatment to eliminate remnants after thyroid surgery, and tumor metastases. Knowledge at the molecular level of the genes/proteins involved in the process has led to improvements in therapy, both from the point of view of when, how much, and how to use the therapy according to tumor type. The effectiveness of this therapy has spread into other types of targeted therapies, and this has made sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) one of the favorite theragnostic tools. Here we focus on describing the molecular mechanisms involved in radio-iodide therapy and how the alteration of these mechanisms in thyroid tumor progression affects the diagnosis and results of therapy in the clinic. We analyze basic questions when facing treatment, such as: (1) how the incorporation of radioiodine in normal, tumor, and metastatic thyroid cells occurs and how it is regulated; (2) the pros and cons of thyroid hormonal deprivation vs. recombinant human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (rhTSH) in radioiodine residence time, treatment efficacy, thyroglobulin levels and organification, and its influence on diagnostic imaging tests and metastasis treatment; and (3) the effect of stunning and the possible causes. We discuss the possible incorporation of massive sequencing data into clinical practice, and we conclude with a socioeconomical and clinical vision of the above aspects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13050995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957486PMC
February 2021

Rate of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features depends on pathologist's criteria: a multicentre retrospective Southern European study with prolonged follow-up.

Endocrine 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Endocrinology, Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Purpose: To determine the rate of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) in a multi-institutional series from the Iberian Peninsula and describing this NIFTP cohort.

Methods: Retrospective study of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or well-differentiated tumours of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 and measuring ≥5 mm in adult patients from 17 hospitals. Pathological reports were reviewed to determine the cases that fulfil the original criteria of NIFTP and histology was reassessed. Rates were correlated with the number of PTC and its follicular variant (FVPTC) of each institution. Demographic data, histology, management, and follow-up of the reclassified NIFTP cohort were recorded.

Results: A total of 182 cases with NIFTP criteria were identified: 174/3372 PTC (rate: 5.2%; range: 0-12.1%) and 8/19 WDT-UMP (42.1%). NIFTP rate showed linear correlation with total PTC (p: 0.03) and FVPTC (p: 0.007) identified at each centre. Ultrasound findings were non-suspicious in 60.1%. Fine-needle cytology or core biopsy diagnoses were undetermined in 49.7%. Most patients were treated with total thyroidectomy. No case had nodal disease. Among patients with total thyroidectomy, 89.7% had an excellent response evaluated 1 year after surgery. There were no structural persistence or relapses. Five patients showed residual thyroglobulin after 90 months of mean follow-up.

Conclusions: NIFTP rate is low but highly variable in neighbouring institutions of the Iberian Peninsula. This study suggests pathologist's interpretation of nuclear alterations as the main cause of these differences. Patients disclosed an excellent outcome, even without using the strictest criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-021-02610-7DOI Listing
January 2021

RAS Subcellular Localization Inversely Regulates Thyroid Tumor Growth and Dissemination.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Sep 10;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Instituto de Biomedicina y Biotecnología de Cantabria (IBBTEC), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad de Cantabria. Santander, E-39011 Cantabria, Spain.

mutations are the second most common genetic alteration in thyroid tumors. However, the extent to which they are associated with the most aggressive phenotypes is still controversial. Regarding their malignancy, the majority of mutant tumors are classified as undetermined, which complicates their clinical management and can lead to undesired under- or overtreatment. Using the chick embryo spontaneous metastasis model, we herein demonstrate that the aggressiveness of HRAS-transformed thyroid cells, as determined by the ability to extravasate and metastasize at distant organs, is orchestrated by HRAS subcellular localization. Remarkably, aggressiveness inversely correlates with tumor size. In this respect, we also show that RAS site-specific capacity to regulate tumor growth and dissemination is dependent on VEGF-B secretion. Furthermore, we have identified the acyl protein thioesterase APT-1 as a determinant of thyroid tumor growth versus dissemination. We show that alterations in APT-1 expression levels can dramatically affect the behavior of thyroid tumors, based on its role as a regulator of HRAS sublocalization at distinct plasma membrane microdomains. In agreement, APT-1 emerges in thyroid cancer clinical samples as a prognostic factor. As such, APT-1 levels could serve as a biomarker that could help in the stratification of mutant thyroid tumors based on their aggressiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565207PMC
September 2020

BRAF V600E status may facilitate decision-making on active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

Eur J Cancer 2020 01 29;124:161-169. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Thyroid Research, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Conservative active surveillance has been proposed for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), defined as ≤1.0 cm and lacking clinical aggressive features, but controversy exists with accepting it as not all such PTMCs are uniformly destined for benign prognosis. This study investigated whether BRAF V600E status could further risk stratify PTMC, particularly low-risk PTMC, and can thus help with more accurate case selection for conservative management.

Methods: This international multicenter study included 743 patients treated with total thyroidectomy for PTMC (584 women and 159 men), with a median age of 49 years (interquartile range [IQR], 39-59 years) and a median follow-up time of 53 months (IQR, 25-93 months).

Results: On overall analyses of all PTMCs, tumour recurrences were 6.4% (32/502) versus 10.8% (26/241) in BRAF mutation-negative versus BRAF mutation-positive patients (P = 0.041), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.44 (95% CI (confidence interval), 1.15-5.20) after multivariate adjustment for confounding clinical factors. On the analyses of low-risk PTMC, recurrences were 1.3% (5/383) versus 4.3% (6/139) in BRAF mutation-negative versus BRAF mutation-positive patients, with an HR of 6.65 (95% CI, 1.80-24.65) after adjustment for confounding clinical factors. BRAF mutation was associated with a significant decline in the Kaplan-Meier recurrence-free survival curve in low-risk PTMC.

Conclusions: BRAF V600E differentiates the recurrence risk of PTMC, particularly low-risk PTMC. Given the robust negative predictive value, conservative active surveillance of BRAF mutation-negative low-risk PTMC is reasonable whereas the increased recurrence risk and other well-known adverse effects of BRAF V600E make the feasibility of long-term conservative surveillance uncertain for BRAF mutation-positive PTMC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.10.017DOI Listing
January 2020

Hsa-miR-139-5p is a prognostic thyroid cancer marker involved in HNRNPF-mediated alternative splicing.

Int J Cancer 2020 01 28;146(2):521-530. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

It is critical to identify biomarkers and functional networks associated with aggressive thyroid cancer to anticipate disease progression and facilitate personalized patient management. We performed miRNome sequencing of 46 thyroid tumors enriched with advanced disease patients with a median follow-up of 96 months. MiRNome profiles correlated with tumor-specific histopathological and molecular features, such as stromal cell infiltration and tumor driver mutation. Differential expression analysis revealed a consistent hsa-miR-139-5p downexpression in primary carcinomas from patients with recurrent/metastatic disease compared to disease-free patients, sustained in paired local metastases and validated in publicly available thyroid cancer series. Exogenous expression of hsa-miR-139-5p significantly reduced migration and proliferation of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. Proteomic analysis indicated RICTOR, SMAD2/3 and HNRNPF as putative hsa-miR-139-5p targets in our cell system. Abundance of HNRNPF mRNA, encoding an alternative splicing factor involved in cryptic exon inclusion/exclusion, inversely correlated with hsa-miR-139-5p expression in human tumors. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 174 splicing events differentially regulated upon HNRNPF repression in our cell system, affecting genes involved in RTK/RAS/MAPK and PI3K/AKT/MTOR signaling cascades among others. These results point at the hsa-miR-139-5p/HNRNPF axis as a novel regulatory mechanism associated with the modulation of major thyroid cancer signaling pathways and tumor virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32622DOI Listing
January 2020

Impaired microRNA processing by DICER1 downregulation endows thyroid cancer with increased aggressiveness.

Oncogene 2019 07 9;38(27):5486-5499. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols"; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.

The global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is emerging as a common hallmark of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well known. We identified that the oncogenic miR-146b-5p attenuates miRNA biosynthesis by targeting DICER1 and reducing its expression. DICER1 overexpression inhibited all the miR-146b-induced aggressive phenotypes in thyroid cells. Systemic injection of an anti-miR-146b in mice with orthotopic thyroid tumors suppressed tumor growth and recovered DICER1 levels. Notably, DICER1 downregulation promoted proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through miRNA downregulation. Our analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed a general decrease in DICER1 expression in thyroid cancer that was associated with a worse clinical outcome. Administration of the small-molecule enoxacin to promote DICER1 complex activity reduced tumor aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our data confirm DICER1 as a tumor suppressor and show that oncogenic miR-146b contributes to its downregulation. Moreover, our results highlight a potential therapeutic application of RNA-based therapies including miRNA inhibitors and restoration of the biogenesis machinery, which may provide treatments for thyroid and other cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-019-0804-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6755984PMC
July 2019

BRAF V600E Confers Male Sex Disease-Specific Mortality Risk in Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2018 09 2;36(27):2787-2795. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Fei Wang, Shihua Zhao, and Yangang Wang, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, People's Republic of China; Fei Wang, Xiaopei Shen, Guangwu Zhu, Rengyun Liu, and Mingzhao Xing, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; David Viola and Rossella Elisei, University of Pisa, Pisa; Efisio Puxeddu, University of Perugia, Perugia; Laura Fugazzola and Carla Colombo, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Istituto di Recovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), and University of Milan, Milan; Caterina Mian, University of Padua; Federica Vianello, Veneto Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Padua, Italy; Barbara Jarzab and Agnieszka Czarniecka, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute Oncology Center, Gliwice, Poland; Alfred K. Lam, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland; Christine J. O'Neill, Mark S. Sywak, and Roderick Clifton-Bligh, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Linwah Yip, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre, Hospital Universitario La Paz and Hospital Universitario de Móstoles; Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre and Pilar Santisteban, Biomedical Research Institute "Alberto Sols" and Health Institute Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; and Bela Bendlova and Vlasta Sýkorová, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.

Purpose To test whether the prognostic risk of male sex in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is determined by BRAF V600E and can thus be stratified by BRAF status. Patients and Methods We retrospectively investigated the relationship between male sex and clinicopathologic outcomes in PTC, particularly mortality, with respect to BRAF status in 2,638 patients (male, n = 623; female, n = 2,015) from 11 centers in six countries, with median age of 46 years (interquartile range, 35-58 years) at diagnosis and median follow-up time of 58 months (interquartile range, 26-107 months). Results Distant metastasis rates in men and women were not different in wild-type BRAF PTC but were different in BRAF V600E PTC: 8.9% (24 of 270) and 3.7% (30 of 817; P = .001), respectively. In wild-type BRAF PTC, mortality rates were 1.4% (five of 349) versus 0.9% (11 of 1175) in men versus women ( P = .384), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.59 (95% CI, 0.55 to 4.57), which remained insignificant at 0.70 (95% CI, 0.23 to 2.09) after clinicopathologic multivariable adjustment. In BRAF V600E PTC, mortality rates were 6.6% (18 of 272) versus 2.9% (24 of 822) in men versus women ( P = .006), with an HR of 2.43 (95% CI, 1.30 to 4.53), which remained significant at 2.74 (95% CI, 1.38 to 5.43) after multivariable adjustment. In conventional-variant PTC, male sex similarly had no effect in wild-type BRAF patients; mortality rates in BRAF V600E patients were 7.2% (16 of 221) versus 2.9% (19 of 662) in men versus women ( P = .004), with an HR of 2.86 (95% CI, 1.45 to 5.67), which remained significant at 3.51 (95% CI, 1.62 to 7.63) after multivariable adjustment. Conclusion Male sex is a robust independent risk factor for PTC-specific mortality in BRAF V600E patients but not in wild-type BRAF patients. The prognostic risk of male sex in PTC can thus be stratified by BRAF status in clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2018.78.5097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6145834PMC
September 2018

Patient Age-Associated Mortality Risk Is Differentiated by BRAF V600E Status in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2018 02 14;36(5):438-445. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Xiaopei Shen, Guangwu Zhu, Rengyun Liu, and Mingzhao Xing, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; David Viola and Rossella Elisei, University of Pisa, Pisa; Efisio Puxeddu, University of Perugia, Perugia; Laura Fugazzola and Carla Colombo, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Istituto Auxologico Italiano and University of Milan, Milan; Caterina Mian, University of Padua; Federica Vianello, Veneto Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Padua, Italy; Barbara Jarzab and Agnieszka Czarniecka, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice, Poland; Alfred K. Lam, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland; Christine J. O'Neill, Mark S. Sywak, and Roderick Clifton-Bligh, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Linwah Yip, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre, Hospital Universitario La Paz and Hospital Universitario de Móstoles; Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre and Pilar Santisteban, Biomedical Research Institute "Alberto Sols," Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre and Pilar Santisteban, Ciberonc, Health Institute Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; and Bela Bendlova and Vlasta Sýkorová, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.

Purpose For the past 65 years, patient age at diagnosis has been widely used as a major mortality risk factor in the risk stratification of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but whether this is generally applicable, particularly in patients with different BRAF genetic backgrounds, is unclear. The current study was designed to test whether patient age at diagnosis is a major mortality risk factor. Patients and Methods We conducted a comparative study of the relationship between patient age at diagnosis and PTC-specific mortality with respect to BRAF status in 2,638 patients (623 men and 2,015 women) with a median age of 46 years (interquartile range, 35 to 58 years) at diagnosis and a median follow-up time of 58 months (interquartile range, 26 to 107 months). Eleven medical centers from six countries participated in this study. Results There was a linear association between patient age and mortality in patients with BRAF V600E mutation, but not in patients with wild-type BRAF, in whom the mortality rate remained low and flat with increasing age. Kaplan-Meier survival curves rapidly declined with increasing age in patients with BRAF V600E mutation but did not decline in patients with wild-type BRAF, even beyond age 75 years. The association between mortality and age in patients with BRAF V600E was independent of clinicopathologic risk factors. Similar results were observed when only patients with the conventional variant of PTC were analyzed. Conclusion The long-observed age-associated mortality risk in PTC is dependent on BRAF status; age is a strong, continuous, and independent mortality risk factor in patients with BRAF V600E mutation but not in patients with wild-type BRAF. These results question the conventional general use of patient age as a high-risk factor in PTC and call for differentiation between patients with BRAF V600E and wild-type BRAF when applying age to risk stratification and management of PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.74.5497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5807010PMC
February 2018

BRAF V600E Mutation-Assisted Risk Stratification of Solitary Intrathyroidal Papillary Thyroid Cancer for Precision Treatment.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 04;110(4):362-370

Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Thyroid Research, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Precise risk stratification-based treatment of solitary intrathyroidal papillary thyroid cancer (SI-PTC) that is larger than 1.0 cm and 4.0 cm or less is undefined.

Methods: A genetic-clinical risk study was performed on BRAF V600E in 955 patients (768 women and 187 men) with SI-PTC, with median age of 46 years and median clinical follow-up time of 64 months at 11 medical centers in six countries. The chi-square test or, for analyses with small numbers, Fisher's exact test was performed to compare recurrence rates. Recurrence-free probability was estimated by Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis, and the independent effect of BRAF mutation on the recurrence was analyzed by Cox regression and Cox proportional hazard analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Recurrence of SI-PTC larger than 1.0 cm and 4.0 cm or less was 9.5% (21/221) vs 3.4% (11/319) in BRAF mutation vs wild-type BRAF patients, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.46 to 6.30) and a patient age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio of 3.10 (95% CI = 1.49 to 6.45, P = .002). Recurrence rates of SI-PTC larger than 2.0 cm and 4.0 cm or less were 16.5% (13/79) vs 3.6% (5/139) in mutation vs wild-type patients (HR = 5.44, 95% CI = 1.93 to 15.34; and adjusted HR = 5.58, 95% CI = 1.96 to 15.85, P = .001). Recurrence rates of SI-PTC larger than 3.0 cm and 4 cm or less were 30.0% (6/20) vs 1.9% (1/54) in mutation vs wild-type patients (HR = 18.40, 95% CI = 2.21 to 152.98; and adjusted HR = 14.73, 95% CI = 1.74 to 124.80, P = .01). Recurrences of mutation-positive SI-PTC were comparable with those of counterpart invasive solitary PTC, around 20% to 30%, in tumors larger than 2.0 cm to 3.0 cm. BRAF mutation was associated with a statistically significant decrease in recurrence-free patient survival on KM analysis, particularly in SI-PTC larger than 2.0 cm and 4.0 cm or less. Similar results were obtained in conventional SI-PTC. The negative predictive values of BRAF mutation for recurrence were 97.8% (95% CI = 96.3% to 98.8%) for general SI-PTC and 98.2% (95% CI = 96.3% to 99.3%) for conventional SI-PTC.

Conclusions: BRAF V600E identifies a subgroup of SI-PTC larger than 1.0 cm and 4.0 cm or less, particularly tumors larger than 2.0 cm and 4.0 cm or less, that has high risk for recurrence comparable with that of invasive solitary PTC, making more aggressive treatment reasonable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6658860PMC
April 2018

Increased Global DNA Hypomethylation in Distant Metastatic and Dedifferentiated Thyroid Cancer.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 02;103(2):397-406

Consortium for the Study of Thyroid Cancer, CECaT, Barcelona, Spain.

Context: Global DNA hypomethylation is a major event for the development and progression of cancer, although the significance in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate its role in thyroid cancer progression and its potential as a prognostic marker.

Methods: Global hypomethylation of Alu repeats was used as a surrogate marker for DNA global hypomethylation, and was assessed using the Quantification of Unmethylated Alu technique. Mutations in BRAF and RAS were determined by Sanger sequencing.

Results: Ninety primary thyroid tumors were included [28 low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), 13 pediatric DTC, 33 distant metastatic DTC, 7 poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC), and 9 anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC)], as well as 24 distant metastases and 20 normal thyroid tissues. An increasing hypomethylation was found for distant metastatic DTC [median, 4.0; interquartile range (IQR), 3.1 to 6.2] and PDTC/ATC (median, 9.3; IQR, 7.0 to 12.1) as compared with normal thyroid tissue (median, 2.75; IQR, 2.30 to 3.15), whereas low-risk and pediatric DTC were not affected by hypomethylation. Alu hypomethylation was similar between distant metastases and matched primary tumors. Within distant metastatic DTC, Alu hypomethylation was increased in BRAF vs RAS mutated tumors. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses showed that thyroid cancer-related and all-cause mortality were associated with tumor hypomethylation, but this association was lost after adjustment for thyroid cancer risk category.

Conclusion: Distant metastatic DTC, PDTC, and ATC were increasingly affected by global Alu hypomethylation, suggesting that this epigenetic entity may be involved in thyroid cancer progression and dedifferentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-01613DOI Listing
February 2018

The Prognostic Value of Tumor Multifocality in Clinical Outcomes of Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 09;102(9):3241-3250

Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Thyroid Research, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287.

Context: Multifocality is often treated as a risk factor for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), prompting aggressive treatments, but its prognostic value remains unestablished.

Objective: To investigate the role of tumor multifocality in clinical outcomes of PTC.

Methods: Multicenter study of the relationship between multifocality and clinical outcomes of PTC in 2638 patients (623 men and 2015 women) with median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of 46 (35 to 58) years and median (IQR) follow-up time of 58 (26 to 107) months at 11 medical centers in six countries. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data were used for validation.

Results: Disease recurrence in multifocal and unifocal PTC was 198 of 1000 (19.8%) and 221 of 1624 (13.6%) (P < 0.001), with a hazard ratio of 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28 to 1.88], which became insignificant at 1.13 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.37) on multivariate adjustment. Similar results were obtained in PTC variants: conventional PTC, follicular-variant PTC, tall-cell PTC, and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. There was no association between multifocality and mortality in any of these PTC settings, whereas there was a strong association between classic risk factors and cancer recurrence or mortality, which remained significant after multivariate adjustment. In 1423 patients with intrathyroidal PTC, disease recurrence was 20 of 455 (4.4%) and 41 of 967 (4.2%) (P = 0.892) and mortality was 0 of 455 (0.0%) and 3 of 967 (0.3%) (P = 0.556) in multifocal and unifocal PTC, respectively. The results were reproduced in 89,680 patients with PTC in the SEER database.

Conclusions: Tumor multifocality has no independent risk prognostic value in clinical outcomes of PTC; its indiscriminate use as an independent risk factor, prompting overtreatments of patients, should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-00277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5587077PMC
September 2017

ENDOCRINE TUMOURS: Advances in the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer: lessons from the cancer genome.

Eur J Endocrinol 2016 Nov;175(5):R203-17

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols" Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (CSIC-UAM)Madrid, Spain

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy giving rise to one of the most indolent solid cancers, but also one of the most lethal. In recent years, systematic studies of the cancer genome, most importantly those derived from The Cancer Genome Altas (TCGA), have catalogued aberrations in the DNA, chromatin, and RNA of the genomes of thousands of tumors relative to matched normal cellular genomes and have analyzed their epigenetic and protein consequences. Cancer genomics is therefore providing new information on cancer development and behavior, as well as new insights into genetic alterations and molecular pathways. From this genomic perspective, we will review the main advances concerning some essential aspects of the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer such as mutational mechanisms, new cancer genes implicated in tumor initiation and progression, the role of non-coding RNA, and the advent of new susceptibility genes in thyroid cancer predisposition. This look across these genomic and cellular alterations results in the reshaping of the multistep development of thyroid tumors and offers new tools and opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-16-0202DOI Listing
November 2016

β-catenin signaling is required for RAS-driven thyroid cancer through PI3K activation.

Oncotarget 2016 Aug;7(31):49435-49449

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols", Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) y Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.

Mutations in β-catenin are traditionally described as late events in thyroid cancer progression. However, the functional implications of β-catenin dysregulation in the context of tumor initiating events remain unclear. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the two main oncogenic drivers in thyroid cancer, RAS and BRAF, could activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Expression of HRASV12 but not BRAFV600E in thyroid cells induced β-catenin nuclear localization, increased β-catenin-dependent transcriptional activity and inhibited GSK3β. In a panel of human thyroid cancer cell lines representative of the main genetic events in thyroid cancer, β-catenin activation was highly dependent on PI3K/AKT activity through its phosphorylation at S552, but not on MAPK. Silencing of β-catenin expression in cell lines led to a dramatic reduction in proliferation due to an induction of senescence, which was concordant with a reduction in tumor size in nude mice. Moreover, β-catenin silencing suppressed the expression of EMT-related genes and reduced the invasive capacity of the tumor cells. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that RAS-driven tumors induce PI3K/AKT-dependent β-catenin activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5226519PMC
August 2016

Spanish consensus for the management of patients with advanced radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.

Endocrinol Nutr 2016 Apr 19;63(4):e17-24. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Medical Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Approximately one third of the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who develop structurally-evident metastatic disease are refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI). Most deaths from thyroid cancer occur in these patients. The main objective of this consensus is to address the most controversial aspects of management of these patients.

Methods: On behalf of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology & Nutrition (SEEN) and the Spanish Group for Orphan and Infrequent Tumors (GETHI), the Spanish Task Force for Thyroid Cancer, consisting of endocrinologists and oncologists, reviewed the relevant literature and prepared a series of clinically relevant questions related to management of advanced RAI-refractory DTC.

Results: Ten clinically relevant questions were identified by the task force. In answering to these 10 questions, the task force included recommendations regarding the best definition of refractoriness; the best therapeutic options including watchful waiting, local therapies, and systemic therapy (e.g. kinase inhibitors), when sodium iodide symporter (NIS) restoration may be expected; and how recent advances in molecular biology have increased our understanding of the disease.

Conclusions: In response to our appointment as a task force by the SEEN and GHETI, we developed a consensus to help in clinical management of patients with advanced RAI-refractory DTC. We think that this consensus will provide helpful and current recommendations that will help patients with this disorder to get optimal medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endonu.2015.08.007DOI Listing
April 2016

Differential Clinicopathological Risk and Prognosis of Major Papillary Thyroid Cancer Variants.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Jan 3;101(1):264-74. Epub 2015 Nov 3.

Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Thyroid Research, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Department of Medicine (X.Shi., R.L., X.Shen., D.T., M.X.), Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287; Department of Surgery, Division of Pathology (F.B., R.G.), 56126 Pisa, Italy; The Endocrine Institute and The Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism (H.G., Z.S., W.T.), The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001, China; Endocrine Surgery (T.J.M.), University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55101 Mainz, Germany; Human Cancer Genomic Research (K.A.K.), Research Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh 12713, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Fondazione Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Ca' Granda Policlinico, Milan, and Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation (L.E., C.C.), University of Milan, 20122 Milan Italy; Endocrine Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research (E.K.), National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology (A.C., B.J.), 44-101 Gliwice, Poland; Department of Molecular Endocrinology (B.B., V.S.), Institute of Endocrinology, Prague 11694, Czech Republic; Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology (Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, M.S.S.; Paula Soares, P.So.), University of Porto (Ipatimup) and Medical Faculty of the University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal; College of Medicine (Y.K.S., T.Y.K.), University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Department of Pathology (S.C.; S.L.A.), University Health Network, Toronto, ON M5G 2C4 Canada; Endocrine Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine (D.V., R.E.), World Health Organization, Collaborating Center for the Study and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases and Other Endocrine and Meta

Context: Individualized management, incorporating papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) variant-specific risk, is conceivably a useful treatment strategy for PTC, which awaits comprehensive data demonstrating differential risks of PTC variants to support.

Objective: This study sought to establish the differential clinicopathological risk of major PTC variants: conventional PTC (CPTC), follicular-variant PTC (FVPTC), and tall-cell PTC (TCPTC).

Methods: This was a retrospective study of clinicopathological outcomes of 6282 PTC patients (4799 females and 1483 males) from 26 centers and The Cancer Genome Atlas in 14 countries with a median age of 44 years (interquartile range, 33-56 y) and median follow-up time of 37 months (interquartile range, 15-82 mo).

Results: The cohort consisted of 4702 (74.8%) patients with CPTC, 1126 (17.9%) with FVPTC, and 239 (3.8%) with TCPTC. The prevalence of high-risk parameters was significantly different among the three variants, including extrathyroidal invasion, lymph node metastasis, stages III/IV, disease recurrence, mortality, and the use (need) of radioiodine treatment (all P < .001), being highest in TCPTC, lowest in FVPTC, and intermediate in CPTC, following an order of TCPTC > CPTC ≫ FVPTC. Recurrence and mortality in TCPTC, CPTC, and FVPTC were 27.3 and 6.7%, 16.1 and 2.5%, and 9.1 and 0.6%, corresponding to events per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 92.47 (64.66-132.26) and 24.61 (12.31-49.21), 34.46 (30.71-38.66), and 5.87 (4.37-7.88), and 24.73 (18.34-33.35) and 1.68 (0.54-5.21), respectively. Mortality hazard ratios of CPTC and TCPTC over FVPTC were 3.44 (95% CI, 1.07-11.11) and 14.96 (95% CI, 3.93-56.89), respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed the best prognosis in FVPTC, worst in TCPTC, and intermediate in CPTC in disease recurrence-free probability and disease-specific patient survival. This was particularly the case in patients at least 45 years old.

Conclusion: This large multicenter study demonstrates differential prognostic risks of the three major PTC variants and establishes a unique risk order of TCPTC > CPTC ≫ FVPTC, providing important clinical implications for specific variant-based management of PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-2917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4701842PMC
January 2016

The miR-146b-3p/PAX8/NIS Regulatory Circuit Modulates the Differentiation Phenotype and Function of Thyroid Cells during Carcinogenesis.

Cancer Res 2015 Oct 17;75(19):4119-30. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols," Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (CSIC-UAM), Madrid, Spain.

The presence of differentiated thyroid cells in thyroid cancer is critical for the antitumor response to radioactive iodide treatment, and loss of the differentiated phenotype is a key hallmark of iodide-refractory metastatic disease. The role of microRNAs (miRNA) in fine-tuning gene expression has become a major regulatory mechanism by which developmental and pathologic processes occur. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing and expression analysis of eight papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) to comprehensively characterize miRNAs involved in loss of differentiation. We found that only a small set of abundant miRNAs is differentially expressed between PTC tissue and normal tissue from the same patient. In addition, we integrated computational prediction of potential targets and mRNA sequencing and identified a master miRNA regulatory network involved in essential biologic processes such as thyroid differentiation. Both mature products of mir-146b (miR-146b-5p and -3p) were among the most abundantly expressed miRNAs in tumors. Specifically, we found that miR-146b-3p binds to the 3'-untranslated region of PAX8 and sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), leading to impaired protein translation and a subsequent reduction in iodide uptake. Furthermore, our findings show that miR-146b and PAX8 regulate each other and share common target genes, thus highlighting a novel regulatory circuit that governs the differentiated phenotype of PTC. In conclusion, our study has uncovered the existence of a miR-146b-3p/PAX8/NIS regulatory circuit that may be exploited therapeutically to modulate thyroid cell differentiation and iodide uptake for improved treatment of advanced thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-3547DOI Listing
October 2015

Recommendations for somatic and germline genetic testing of single pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma based on findings from a series of 329 patients.

J Med Genet 2015 Oct 12;52(10):647-56. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Nowadays, 65-80% of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) cases are explained by germline or somatic mutations in one of 22 genes. Several genetic testing algorithms have been proposed, but they usually exclude sporadic-PPGLs (S-PPGLs) and none include somatic testing. We aimed to genetically characterise S-PPGL cases and propose an evidence-based algorithm for genetic testing, prioritising DNA source.

Methods: The study included 329 probands fitting three criteria: single PPGL, no syndromic and no PPGL family history. Germline DNA was tested for point mutations in RET and for both point mutation and gross deletions in VHL, the SDH genes, TMEM127, MAX and FH. 99 tumours from patients negative for germline screening were available and tested for RET, VHL, HRAS, EPAS1, MAX and SDHB.

Results: Germline mutations were found in 46 (14.0%) patients, being more prevalent in paragangliomas (PGLs) (28.7%) than in pheochromocytomas (PCCs) (4.5%) (p=6.62×10(-10)). Somatic mutations were found in 43% of those tested, being more prevalent in PCCs (48.5%) than in PGLs (32.3%) (p=0.13). A quarter of S-PPGLs had a somatic mutation, regardless of age at presentation. Head and neck PGLs (HN-PGLs) and thoracic-PGLs (T-PGLs) more commonly had germline mutations (p=2.0×10(-4) and p=0.027, respectively). Five of the 29 metastatic cases harboured a somatic mutation, one in HRAS.

Conclusions: We recommend prioritising testing for germline mutations in patients with HN-PGLs and T-PGLs, and for somatic mutations in those with PCC. Biochemical secretion and SDHB-immunohistochemistry should guide genetic screening in abdominal-PGLs. Paediatric and metastatic cases should not be excluded from somatic screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103218DOI Listing
October 2015

Consensus on the management of advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma on behalf of the Working Group of Thyroid Cancer of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology (SEEN) and the Spanish Task Force Group for Orphan and Infrequent Tumors (GETHI).

Endocrinol Nutr 2015 Apr 26;62(4):e37-46. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

Service of Medical Oncology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

Background: In Spain medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) would not exceed 80 new cases per year and less than half of them would be good candidates for systemic treatment with novel agents.

Methods: Relevant literature was reviewed, including PubMed searches supplemented with additional articles.

Results: The consensus summarizes the clinical outcomes in terms of activity and toxicity of each of the available drugs. A brief summary of the minimum requirements in terms of follow up and genetic counseling around MTC is also included.

Conclusions: Only those patients with objective imaging progression in the last 12-14 months with large volume of disease are clear candidates to start systemic treatment. However, those patients with low disease volume should be considered for 'wait and see' strategy until symptoms of the disease appear. Multidisciplinary approach for the management of MTC patient is mandatory nowadays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endonu.2015.01.005DOI Listing
April 2015

MicroRNA deep-sequencing reveals master regulators of follicular and papillary thyroid tumors.

Mod Pathol 2015 Jun 27;28(6):748-57. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

1] Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain [2] ISCIII Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain.

MicroRNA deregulation could be a crucial event in thyroid carcinogenesis. However, current knowledge is based on studies that have used inherently biased methods. Thus, we aimed to define in an unbiased way a list of deregulated microRNAs in well-differentiated thyroid cancer in order to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers. We performed a microRNA deep-sequencing study using the largest well-differentiated thyroid tumor collection reported to date, comprising 127 molecularly characterized tumors with follicular or papillary patterns of growth and available clinical follow-up data, and 17 normal tissue samples. Furthermore, we integrated microRNA and gene expression data for the same tumors to propose targets for the novel molecules identified. Two main microRNA expression profiles were identified: one common for follicular-pattern tumors, and a second for papillary tumors. Follicular tumors showed a notable overexpression of several members of miR-515 family, and downregulation of the novel microRNA miR-1247. Among papillary tumors, top upregulated microRNAs were miR-146b and the miR-221~222 cluster, while miR-1179 was downregulated. BRAF-positive samples displayed extreme downregulation of miR-7 and -204. The identification of the predicted targets for the novel molecules gave insights into the proliferative potential of the transformed follicular cell. Finally, by integrating clinical follow-up information with microRNA expression, we propose a prediction model for disease relapse based on expression of two miRNAs (miR-192 and let-7a) and several other clinicopathological features. This comprehensive study complements the existing knowledge about deregulated microRNAs in the development of well-differentiated thyroid cancer and identifies novel markers associated with recurrence-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2015.44DOI Listing
June 2015

Spanish consensus for the management of patients with anaplastic cell thyroid carcinoma.

Endocrinol Nutr 2015 Mar 9;62(3):e15-22. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Spain.

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive solid tumour known and is a rare but highly lethal form of thyroid cancer that requires a multidisciplinary team approach. No Spanish consensus exists for management of patients with ATC. The Thyroid Cancer Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and the GETHI (Grupo Español de Enfermedades Huérfanas e Infrecuentes) of the Spanish Society of Oncology, in agreement with the Boards of these Societies, commissioned an independent task force to develop a wide consensus on ATC. The relevant literature was reviewed, including serial PubMed searches supplemented with additional articles. The consensus includes the characteristics, diagnosis, initial evaluation, establishment of treatment goals, approaches to locoregional disease (surgery, radiotherapy, systemic therapy, supportive care during active treatment), approaches to advanced/metastatic disease, palliative care options, monitoring, and long-term follow-up of ATC. For operable disease, a combination of radical surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, using agents such as doxorubicin, cisplatin and paclitaxel, is the best treatment strategy. Cytotoxic drugs are poorly effective for advanced/metastatic ATC. On the other hand, targeted agents may represent a viable therapeutic option. Patients with stage IVA/IVB resectable disease have the best prognosis, particularly if a multimodal approach is used, and some stage IVB unresectable patients may respond to aggressive therapy. Patients with stage IVC disease should be considered for clinical trials or for hospice/palliative care depending on their preference. This is the first Spanish consensus for ATC, and provides recommendations for management of this extremely aggressive malignancy. Novel systemic therapies are being tested, and more effective combinations are needed to improve patient outcomes. Although more aggressive radiotherapy has reduced locoregional recurrence, mean overall survival has not improved in the past 50 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endonu.2014.11.006DOI Listing
March 2015

Association between BRAF V600E mutation and recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2015 Jan 20;33(1):42-50. Epub 2014 Oct 20.

Mingzhao Xing and Ali S. Alzahrani, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Kathryn A. Carson, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Young Kee Shong and Tae Yong Kim, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; David Viola and Rossella Elisei, WHO Collaborating Center for the Study and Treatment of Thyroid Diseases and Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, University of Pisa, Pisa; Caterina Mian, University of Padua; Federica Vianello, Veneto Institute of Oncology, Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Padua; Efisio Puxeddu, University of Perugia, Perugia; Laura Fugazzola, University of Milan and Fondazione IRCCS CàGranda, Milan; Giovanni Tallini, University of Bologna School of Medicine, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy; Bela Bendlová and Vlasta Sýkorová, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic; Linwah Yip, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; R. Michael Tuttle, Eyal Robenshtok, and James A. Fagin, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Agnieszka Czarniecka and Barbara Jarzab, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice, Poland; Christine J. O'Neill, Mark S. Sywak, and Roderick Clifton-Bligh, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales; Alfred K. Lam, Griffith University School of Medicine, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre, Hospital La Paz, Health Research Institute, and Hospital Universitario de Móstoles; Garcilaso Riesco-Eizaguirre and Pilar Santisteban, Biomedical Research Institute Alberto Sols, Spanish Council of Research, and Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Hirotaka Nakayama, Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama, Japan; and Elizabeth H. Holt, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of BRAF V600E mutation for the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).

Patients And Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study of the relationship between BRAF V600E mutation and recurrence of PTC in 2,099 patients (1,615 women and 484 men), with a median age of 45 years (interquartile range [IQR], 34 to 58 years) and a median follow-up time of 36 months (IQR, 14 to 75 months).

Results: The overall BRAF V600E mutation prevalence was 48.5% (1,017 of 2,099). PTC recurrence occurred in 20.9% (213 of 1,017) of BRAF V600E mutation-positive and 11.6% (125 of 1,082) of BRAF V600E mutation-negative patients. Recurrence rates were 47.71 (95% CI, 41.72 to 54.57) versus 26.03 (95% CI, 21.85 to 31.02) per 1,000 person-years in BRAF mutation-positive versus -negative patients (P < .001), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.82 (95% CI, 1.46 to 2.28), which remained significant in a multivariable model adjusting for patient sex and age at diagnosis, medical center, and various conventional pathologic factors. Significant association between BRAF mutation and PTC recurrence was also found in patients with conventionally low-risk disease stage I or II and micro-PTC and within various subtypes of PTC. For example, in BRAF mutation-positive versus -negative follicular-variant PTC, recurrence occurred in 21.3% (19 of 89) and 7.0% (24 of 342) of patients, respectively, with recurrence rates of 53.84 (95% CI, 34.34 to 84.40) versus 19.47 (95% CI, 13.05 to 29.04) per 1,000 person-years (P < .001) and an HR of 3.20 (95% CI, 1.46 to 7.02) after adjustment for clinicopathologic factors. BRAF mutation was associated with poorer recurrence-free probability in Kaplan-Meier survival analyses in various clinicopathologic categories.

Conclusion: This large multicenter study demonstrates an independent prognostic value of BRAF V600E mutation for PTC recurrence in various clinicopathologic categories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2014.56.8253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4268252PMC
January 2015

NIS mediates iodide uptake in the female reproductive tract and is a poor prognostic factor in ovarian cancer.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 Jul 7;99(7):E1199-208. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (G.R.-E., S.G.L., M.A.E.-C., P.S.), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC-UAM) 28029 Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición (G.R-E.), Departamento de Anatomía Patologica (M.M., D.H.), and Servicio de Oncología Medica (A.R.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, IdPAZ, 28046, Madrid, Spain; and Unidad de Patología Mamaria (M.I.G.) and Unidad de Tumores Endocrinos (A.D.l.V.), Unidad Funcional de Investigación en Enfermedades Crónicas (UFIEC), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Context: The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active transport of iodide into the thyroid and the lactating mammary glands and is highly expressed in thyroid and breast carcinomas. NIS is clinically very relevant because it allows the treatment with radioiodine of thyroid cancer patients.

Objective: In this study we wanted to explore whether NIS is expressed in the ovary and in ovarian cancer.

Methods/patients: Methods included NIS and paired box 8 expression and function in ovarian cancer patients and rats by immunochemistry, immunoblot, RT-PCR, and iodide uptake.

Results: Here we demonstrate for the first time that NIS is expressed in the ovary and fallopian tube and actively accumulates significant levels of radioiodide in vivo. In a large survey of menstruating women receiving radioiodide for medical purposes, 15% showed significant uptake in the normal reproductive tract. Ovarian NIS activity is influenced by the estrous cycle stage in rats, being up-regulated during peak levels of estrogens occurring immediately before the ovulation. We unveil that the regulatory mechanism underlying this phenomenon is based on the functional cooperation of estrogen receptor-α and paired box 8. We also show that NIS is highly expressed in ovarian cancer, predicting a poor prognosis in these patients.

Conclusions: These results provide the basis that will help minimize the impact of therapeutic doses of radioiodide on gonadal function. We also suggest that NIS is a new ovarian cancer marker, opening a door for the use of radioiodide in the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-4249DOI Listing
July 2014

Clinical guidelines for management of thyroid nodule and cancer during pregnancy.

Endocrinol Nutr 2014 Mar 28;61(3):130-8. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, España.

Special considerations are warranted in management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer during pregnancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid nodules follows the standard practice in non-pregnant women. On the other hand, differentiated thyroid cancer management during pregnancy poses a number of challenges for the mother and fetus. The available data show that pregnancy is not a risk factor for thyroid cancer development or recurrence, although flare-ups cannot be completely ruled out in women with active disease. If surgery is needed, it should be performed during the second term or, preferably, after delivery. A majority of pregnant patients with low-risk disease only need adjustment in levothyroxine therapy. However, women with increased serum thyroglobulin levels before pregnancy or structural disease require regular thyroglobulin measurements and neck ultrasound throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for radioactive iodine administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.endonu.2013.08.003DOI Listing
March 2014

DNA methylation signatures identify biologically distinct thyroid cancer subtypes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013 Jul 10;98(7):2811-21. Epub 2013 May 10.

Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the global patterns of aberrant DNA methylation in thyroid cancer.

Research Design And Methods: We have used DNA methylation arrays to determine, for the first time, the genome-wide promoter methylation status of papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid tumors.

Results: We identified 262 and 352 hypermethylated and 13 and 21 hypomethylated genes in differentiated papillary and follicular tumors, respectively. Interestingly, the other tumor types analyzed displayed more hypomethylated genes (280 in anaplastic and 393 in medullary tumors) than aberrantly hypermethylated genes (86 in anaplastic and 131 in medullary tumors). Among the genes indentified, we show that 4 potential tumor suppressor genes (ADAMTS8, HOXB4, ZIC1, and KISS1R) and 4 potential oncogenes (INSL4, DPPA2, TCL1B, and NOTCH4) are frequently regulated by aberrant methylation in primary thyroid tumors. In addition, we show that aberrant promoter hypomethylation-associated overexpression of MAP17 might promote tumor growth in thyroid cancer.

Conclusions: Thyroid cancer subtypes present differential promoter methylation signatures, and nondifferentiated subtypes are characterized by aberrant promoter hypomethylation rather than hypermethylation. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential clinical interest of the tumor subtype-specific DNA methylation signatures described herein and the role of aberrant promoter hypomethylation in nondifferentiated thyroid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-3566DOI Listing
July 2013

Association between BRAF V600E mutation and mortality in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

JAMA 2013 Apr;309(14):1493-501

Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Thyroid Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Importance: BRAF V600E is a prominent oncogene in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but its role in PTC-related patient mortality has not been established.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between BRAF V600E mutation and PTC-related mortality.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective study of 1849 patients (1411 women and 438 men) with a median age of 46 years (interquartile range, 34-58 years) and an overall median follow-up time of 33 months (interquartile range, 13-67 months) after initial treatment at 13 centers in 7 countries between 1978 and 2011.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Patient deaths specifically caused by PTC.

Results: Overall, mortality was 5.3% (45/845; 95% CI, 3.9%-7.1%) vs 1.1% (11/1004; 95% CI, 0.5%-2.0%) (P < .001) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients. Deaths per 1000 person-years in the analysis of all PTC were 12.87 (95% CI, 9.61-17.24) vs 2.52 (95% CI, 1.40-4.55) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients; the hazard ratio (HR) was 2.66 (95% CI, 1.30-5.43) after adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, and medical center. Deaths per 1000 person-years in the analysis of the conventional variant of PTC were 11.80 (95% CI, 8.39-16.60) vs 2.25 (95% CI, 1.01-5.00) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients; the adjusted HR was 3.53 (95% CI, 1.25-9.98). When lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal invasion, and distant metastasis were also included in the model, the association of BRAF V600E with mortality for all PTC was no longer significant (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.53-2.76). A higher BRAF V600E-associated patient mortality was also observed in several clinicopathological subcategories, but statistical significance was lost with adjustment for patient age, sex, and medical center. For example, in patients with lymph node metastasis, the deaths per 1000 person-years were 26.26 (95% CI, 19.18-35.94) vs 5.93 (95% CI, 2.96-11.86) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients (unadjusted HR, 4.43 [95% CI, 2.06-9.51]; adjusted HR, 1.46 [95% CI, 0.62-3.47]). In patients with distant tumor metastasis, deaths per 1000 person-years were 87.72 (95% CI, 62.68-122.77) vs 32.28 (95% CI, 16.14-64.55) in BRAF V600E-positive vs mutation-negative patients (unadjusted HR, 2.63 [95% CI, 1.21-5.72]; adjusted HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.27-2.62]).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this retrospective multicenter study, the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was significantly associated with increased cancer-related mortality among patients with PTC. Because overall mortality in PTC is low and the association was not independent of tumor features, how to use BRAF V600E to manage mortality risk in patients with PTC is unclear. These findings support further investigation of the prognostic and therapeutic implications of BRAF V600E status in PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.3190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791140PMC
April 2013

Telomerase-driven expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) for in vivo radioiodide treatment of cancer: a new broad-spectrum NIS-mediated antitumor approach.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Sep 22;96(9):E1435-43. Epub 2011 Jun 22.

Molecular Endocrinology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Arturo Duperier 4, Madrid, Spain 28029.

Context: Telomerase promoters (hTERT and hTR) are useful for transcriptional targeting in gene therapy models of cancer. Telomerase-driven expression of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in tumor cells has been successfully used as a reporter gene in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the NIS-mediated therapeutic effect of telomerase promoters in a wide variety of human cancer cell lines.

Design And Methods: Promoter fragments from either hTERT or hTR were used to drive the expression of NIS in cell lines derived from melanoma (M14), breast (MDA-MB-231), colon (HT-29), lung (H460), ovarian (OVCAR-3), and thyroid (TPC-1) carcinomas. Iodide uptake assays, protein immunodetection, and clonigenic assays were used to confirm NIS functional expression and the (131)I-mediated cytopathic effect. Tumor xenografts in mice were infected with hTERT and hTR and then treated using radioiodide.

Results: Both promoters were selectively active in cancer cells that were effectively killed by exposure to (131)I. One single dose of 1 mCi (131)I markedly suppressed tumor growth of melanoma-derived tumor xenografts compared with controls. This effect was more modest in colon cancer-derived xenografts in part due to the reduced infectivity and the tumor cystic nature. The therapeutic effect of hTR promoter was found to be stronger than that of hTERT promoter.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that telomerase-driven expression of NIS could potentially have applications for (131)I therapy of a wide variety of cancers. Additionally, this is the first study to report NIS-mediated (131)I therapy of melanoma tumors in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2010-2373DOI Listing
September 2011

Solitary hemorrhagic cerebellar metastasis from occult papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

Thyroid 2010 May;20(5):563-7

Department of Endocrinology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Cerebellar metastasis (CM) from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is exceptional with only 12 reported cases and usually carries a very poor prognosis. In the two previously reported patients in whom CM was detected before PTC, other distant or local metastases were already present by the time of PTC diagnosis. We report a patient found to have papillary thyroid microcarcinoma after surgical resection and histopathological study of a large solitary hemorrhagic CM, who showed no evidence of other metastatic sites and survived 7 years after initial diagnosis.

Summary: A 65-year-old female patient with a history of surgical resection of a 7-cm cerebellar mass diagnosed with PTC metastasis, and adjuvant treatment with cranial external radiotherapy, was referred to us. The neck ultrasonography showed a solitary 4-mm right thyroid nodule. Histopathology after total thyroidectomy revealed a 2-mm papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, sclerosing variant, with capsule infiltration but no regional lymph node invasion. Although she received a total dose of 500 mCi of 131-I after surgery and the last two whole-body scans were normal, serum thyroglobulin levels progressively increased. The patient refused any further test or treatment other than basal blood sampling and suppressive therapy with levothyroxine and remained stable for 4 years until she started to complain about deviation of her walk. A computed tomography scan showed a regrowth of the metastasis. She suffered a sudden worsening of her neurological status because of a big intratumoral hemorrhage that required decompressive craniectomy and hematoma evacuation surviving 3 years more after this episode.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a solitary CM from an occult PTC, and also the first that developed an acute cerebellar hemorrhage years after cranial surgery, however, exhibiting the longest reported survival. This case highlights the importance of not only an appropriate initial treatment of the CM and primary PTC in these patients, but also a close follow-up, to avoid further complications and improve their prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2010.0062DOI Listing
May 2010

The BRAFV600E oncogene induces transforming growth factor beta secretion leading to sodium iodide symporter repression and increased malignancy in thyroid cancer.

Cancer Res 2009 Nov 27;69(21):8317-25. Epub 2009 Oct 27.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas y Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The activating mutation BRAF(V600E) is a frequent genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) that predicts a poor prognosis, leading to loss of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression and subsequent radioiodide-refractory metastatic disease. The molecular basis of such an aggressive behavior induced by BRAF remains unclear. Here, we show a mechanism through which BRAF induces NIS repression and promotes epithelial to mesenchimal transition and invasion based on the operation of an autocrine transforming growth factor (TGF)beta loop. BRAF induces secretion of functional TGFbeta and blocking TGFbeta/Smad signaling at multiple levels rescues BRAF-induced NIS repression. Although this mechanism is MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-ERK independent, secreted TGFbeta cooperates with MEK-ERK signaling in BRAF-induced cell migration, Matrigel invasion, and EMT. Consistent with this process, TGFbeta and other key components of TGFbeta signaling, such as TbetaRII and pSmad2, are overexpressed in human PTC, suggesting a widespread activation of this pathway by locally released TGFbeta. Moreover, this high TGFbeta/Smad activity is associated with PTC invasion, nodal metastasis, and BRAF status. Interestingly, TGFbeta is overexpressed in the invasive front, whereas NIS is preferentially expressed in the central regions of the tumors, suggesting that this negative correlation between TGFbeta and NIS occurs locally inside the tumor. Our study describes a novel mechanism of NIS repression in thyroid cancer and provides evidence that TGFbeta may play a key role in promoting radioiodide resistance and tumor invasion during PTC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1248DOI Listing
November 2009