Publications by authors named "Gaole Dai"

37 Publications

Immobilising hairpin DNA-conjugated distyryl boron dipyrromethene on gold@polydopamine core-shell nanorods for microRNA detection and microRNA-mediated photodynamic therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr 24;13(13):6499-6512. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China.

A novel nanosystem of polydopamine-coated gold nanorods (AuNR@PDA) immobilised with molecules of hairpin DNA-conjugated distyryl boron dipyrromethene (DSBDP) was designed and fabricated for detection of microRNA-21 (miR-21). By using this oncogenic stimulus, the photodynamic effect of the DSBDP-based photosensitiser was also activated. In the presence of miR-21, the fluorescence intensity of the nanosystem was increased due to the dissociation of the conjugate from AuNR@PDA upon hybridisation. The intracellular fluorescence intensity triggered by intracellular miR-21 was in the order: MCF-7 > HeLa > HEK-293, which was in accordance with their miR-21 expression levels. The specificity was demonstrated by comparing the results with those of an analogue with a scrambled DNA sequence. The nanosystem could also result in miR-21-mediated photodynamic eradication of miR-21-overexpressed MCF-7 cells. After intravenous injection of the nanosystem into HeLa tumour-bearing nude mice, the fluorescence intensity of the tumour was increased over 24 h and was about 3-fold stronger than that of the scrambled analogue. Upon irradiation, the nanosystem could also greatly reduce the size of the tumour without causing significant tissue damage in the major organs. The overall results showed that this nanoplatform can serve as a specific and potent theranostic agent for simultaneous miR-21 detection and miR-21-mediated photodynamic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr09135aDOI Listing
April 2021

Decursin alleviates the aggravation of osteoarthritis via inhibiting PI3K-Akt and NF-kB signal pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 18;97:107657. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Orthopedics Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease that takes joint degeneration or aging as its pathological basis, and joint swelling, pain or dysfunction as its main clinical manifestations. Decursin (DE), the major active component isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory effect in many diseases. But, the specific physiological mechanism of DE on OA is not clear yet. Therefore, the object of this study was to assess the therapeutic effect of DE on OA, and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms. In vitro cell experiments, the inflammatory response in chondrocytes is mediated via interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which led to abnormal secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). These cytokines were all decreased by the preconditioning of DE in a dose-dependent form of 1, 5, and 10 µM. Moreover, DE could restrain IL-1β-mediated inflammatory reaction and the collapse of extracellular matrix (ECM) via reducing the secretion of ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) and MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases). In short, DE restrained IL-1β-mediated abnormal excitation of PI3K/AKT/NF-κB axis. Furthermore, molecular docking analysis showed that DE has a strong binding affinity with the inhibitory targets of PI3K. In vivo animal studies, DE treatment could helped to improve destruction of articular cartilage and decreased the serum inflammatory factor levels in an operationally induced mouse OA model. To sum up, these data obtained from the experiment indicate that DE has good prospects for the treatment of osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107657DOI Listing
April 2021

General Design Methodology for Organic Eutectic Electrolytes toward High-Energy-Density Redox Flow Batteries.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 9;33(15):e2008560. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.

By virtue of strong molecular interactions, eutectic electrolytes provide highly concentrated redox-active materials without other auxiliary solvents, hence achieving high volumetric capacities and energy density for redox flow batteries (RFBs). However, it is critical to unveil the underlying mechanism in this system, which will be undoubtedly beneficial for their future research on high-energy storage systems. Herein, a general formation mechanism of organic eutectic electrolytes (OEEs) is developed, and it is found that molecules with specific functional groups such as carbonyl (CO), nitroxyl radical (NO•), and methoxy (OCH ) groups can coordinate with alkali metal fluorinated sulfonylimide salts (especially for bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, TFSI), thereby forming OEEs. Molecular designs further demonstrate that the redox-inactive methoxy group functionalized ferrocene derivative maintains the liquid OEE at both reduced and oxidized states. Over threefold increase in solubility is obtained (2.8 m for ferrocene derivative OEE) and high actual discharge energy density of 188 Wh L (75% of the theoretical value) is achieved in the Li hybrid cell. The established mechanism presents new ways of designing desirable electrolytes through molecular interactions for the development of high-energy-density organic RFBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202008560DOI Listing
April 2021

Physical principle used in reliability.

iScience 2021 Jan 30;24(1):101945. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (MOE), Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

An effective approach based on the principle of maximum entropy is developed to analyze reliability in systems with dynamics of electric circuits and infectious diseases like coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797515PMC
January 2021

Effect of Surface Modification with Hydrocarbyl Groups on the Exocytosis of Nanoparticles.

Biochemistry 2021 Apr 10;60(13):1019-1030. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Designing nanoparticles (NPs) with desirable cell type-specific exocytosis properties, say promoting their exocytosis from scavenging cell types (e.g., macrophages and endothelial cells) or suppressing their exocytosis from target disease cell types (e.g., cancer cells), improves the application of nanomedicines. However, the design parameters available for tuning the exocytosis of NPs remain scarce in the "nano-cell" literature. Here, we demonstrate that surface modification of NPs with hydrocarbyl functional groups, commonly found in biomolecules and NP-based drug carriers, is a critical parameter for tuning the exocytosis of NPs from RAW264.7 macrophages, C166 endothelial cells, and HeLa epithelial cancer cells. To exclude the effect of hydrophobicity, we prepare a collection of hydrophilic NPs that bear a gold NP (AuNP) core, a dense polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell, and different types of hydrocarbyl groups (X) that are attached to the distal end of the PEG strands (termed "Au@PEG-X NPs"). For all three cell types tested, modification of NPs with straight-chain dodecane leads to a >10-fold increase in the level of cellular uptake, drastically higher than those of all other types of X tested. However, the probability of exocytosis of NPs significantly depends on the types of cell and X. Notably, NPs modified with cyclododecanes are most likely to be exocytosed by RAW264.7 and C166 cells (but not HeLa cells), accompanied by the release of intralumenal vesicles to the extracellular milieu. These data suggest a reductionist approach for rationally assembling bionanomaterials for nanomedicine applications by using hydrocarbyl functional groups as building blocks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00631DOI Listing
April 2021

Thermal Metamaterial: Fundamental, Application, and Outlook.

iScience 2020 Oct 1;23(10):101637. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (MOE), Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

Thermal metamaterials have amazing properties in heat transfer beyond naturally occurring materials owing to their well-designed artificial structures. The idea of thermal metamaterial has completely subverted the design of thermal functional devices and makes it possible to manipulate heat flow at will. In this perspective, we review the up-to-date progress of thermal metamaterials starting from 2008. We focus on both the key theoretical fundamentals and techniques for applications and give a perspective of scale-based classification on thermal metamaterials' theories and applications. We also discuss the junction between macroscale and microscale design methods and propose some prospects for the future trend of this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569327PMC
October 2020

Geometric phase and bilayer cloak in macroscopic particle-diffusion systems.

Phys Rev E 2020 Sep;102(3-1):032140

Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (MOE), Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

Particle diffusion is a fundamental process in various systems, so its effective manipulation is crucially important. For this purpose, here we design a basic structure composed of two moving rings with equal-but-opposite velocities and a stationary intermediate layer, which can realize multiple functions to control particle diffusion. On the one hand, the intermediate layer allows particle exchange between the two moving rings, which gives birth to an exceptional point of velocity. As a result, a geometric phase appears for a loop evolution of velocity containing the exceptional point. On the other hand, the two moving rings also enhance the effective diffusivity of the intermediate layer, which helps design a bilayer particle-diffusion cloak. The present cloak only requires homogeneous parameters and simple structures, and meanwhile, its on and off can be flexibly controlled by velocity. These results broaden the scope of geometric phase and provide hints for designing particle-diffusion metamaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.102.032140DOI Listing
September 2020

Interference Screw for the Treatment of Pediatric Flexible Flatfoot.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Nov - Dec;59(6):1209-1214. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Foot and Ankle Surgeon, Department of Orthopedics, Key Laboratory of Orthopedics of Zhejiang Province, The Second School of Medicine of Wenzhou Medical University, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang, China.

Flexible flatfoot is a common deformity in the pediatric population and can cause a range of symptoms and reduce the quality of life. Subtalararthroereisis may be appropriate for pediatric population whose conservative management had failed to relief their symptoms typically for at least 6 months. Subtalararthroereisis has been developed for a long time, but the use of interference screw for the treatment of pediatric flexible flatfoot has not been reported. From January, 2016 to June, 2017, we operated on 21 children (39 feet) between the ages of 8 and 14 years. The clinical assessment was based on the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hind-foot scale and the Chippaux-Smirak Index (CSI) measurements. And the anatomical parameters assessment was based on the radiographs and photographs. The postoperative AOFAS scores and CSI measurements were improved compared with preoperative AOFAS scores and CSI measurements. Postoperative anatomical parameters achieved significantly better results than preoperative anatomical parameters. In conclusion, the use of interference screw in subtalararthroereisis for the treatment of pediatric flexible flatfoot deformity is an effective, simple and minimally invasive solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2020.04.016DOI Listing
June 2020

Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 6 by Tubastatin A Attenuates the Progress of Osteoarthritis via Improving Mitochondrial Function.

Am J Pathol 2020 12 11;190(12):2376-2386. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department Hand and Plastic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Because chondrocytes are the only resident cells in articular cartilage, the steady state of these cells is important for the maintenance of joint function. In various osteoarthritis diseases, chondrocytes undergo a series of pathophysiologic changes, leading to the loss of chondrocytes and the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). This study found that Cytoplasmic localized histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is up-regulated on the articular surface in a destabilization of the medial meniscus-induced mouse osteoarthritis model. Because HDAC6 is highly related to the acetylation of tubulin and the function of the microtubule system is closely related to material transport and signal transduction, the relationship between the expression level or activity of HDAC6 and the fate of chondrocytes in vitro and in vivo were confirmed. Primary chondrocytes overexpressing DNA-HDAC6 with plasmid were constructed in vitro, and HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin A was selected to inhibit HDAC6 enzyme activity in vivo and in vitro. Subsequently, mitochondrial spatial arrangement, degradation of ECM, and pathological changes in joint were defined. The results indicate that overexpression of HDAC6 causes mitochondrial dysfunction and promotes reactive oxygen species production, leading to degradation of ECM. Tubastatin A treatment after osteoarthritis ameliorates the degradation of cartilage and improves the microenvironment and function of the joint. HDAC6 may be targeted to treat osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.08.013DOI Listing
December 2020

Phthalaldehyde-Amine Capture Reactions for Bioconjugation and Immobilization of Phthalocyanines.

Org Lett 2020 09 12;22(18):7098-7102. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.

A phthalaldehyde-substituted phthalocyanine has been synthesized that can conjugate with a range of biomolecules, including peptides, monosaccharides, lipids, and DNAs, and be immobilized on the surface of bovine serum album nanoparticles and glass slides using the versatile and efficient phthalaldehyde-amine capture reactions. The light-induced cytotoxic effects of the latter two materials have also been examined against cancer cells and bacteria, respectively, showing that they are highly efficient photosensitizing systems for photodynamic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c02398DOI Listing
September 2020

Percutaneous reduction, cannulated screw fixation and calcium sulfate cement grafting assisted by 3D printing technology in the treatment of calcaneal fractures.

J Orthop Sci 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Orthopaedics, Key Laboratory of Orthopaedics of Zhejiang Province, The Second School of Medicine of Wenzhou Medical University, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Background: Percutaneous reduction, cannulated screw fixation and calcium sulfate cement grafting (PR + CSC) for treatment of displaced and intra-articular calcaneal fractures (DIACFs) is a difficult technique, because the minimally invasive treatment has limited exposure and cannot be used to reduce articular surface under direct vision. The goal of this study was to apply 3D printing technology to preoperative planning and surgery of DIACFs, and to evaluate its effectiveness, feasibility and safety in fracture repair.

Methods: We enrolled 81 patients with DIACFs in the study from August 2015 to August 2017. Patients with DIACFs in our hospital were randomly divided into the 3D printing group (40 cases) and the conventional group (41 cases). The operation duration, blood loss volume and the number of fluoroscopy were compared. Radiological results were evaluated using radiographs and functional results were evaluated using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. The complications were also assessed. In addition, we made a questionnaire to verify the usefulness of the 3D printed model for both doctors and patients.

Results: The operation duration, blood loss volume and the number of fluoroscopy in 3D printing group were significantly less than that in the conventional group. Besides, 3D printing group achieved significantly better radiological results than conventional group both postoperatively and at the final follow-up except the calcaneal width at the final follow-up. The AOFAS score in the 3D printing group was significantly higher than that in the conventional group. In addition, the questionnaire from doctors and patients exhibited high scores of overall satisfaction of the 3D printed models. As for complications, there was no significant difference among the two groups.

Conclusion: This study suggested the clinical feasibility of PR + CSC assisted by 3D printing technology in the treatment of DIACFs.

Level Of Evidence: II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jos.2020.06.008DOI Listing
August 2020

Designing bistability or multistability in macroscopic diffusive systems.

Phys Rev E 2020 Feb;101(2-1):022119

Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (MOE), Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

We theoretically design a kind of diffusion bistability (and even multistability) in the macroscopic scale, which has a similar phenomenon but different underlying mechanism from its microscopic counterpart [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 267203 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.267203]; the latter has been extensively investigated in literature, e.g., for building nanometer-scale memory components. By introducing second- and third-order nonlinear terms (that opposite in sign) into diffusion coefficient matrices, a bistable energy or mass diffusion occurs with two different steady states identified as "0" and "1." In particular, we study heat conduction in a two-terminal three-body system and show that this bistable system exhibits a macroscale thermal memory effect with tailored nonlinear thermal conductivities. The theoretical analysis is confirmed by finite-element simulations. Also, we suggest experiments with metamaterials based on shape memory alloys. This theoretical framework blazes a trail on constructing intrinsic bistability or multistability in diffusive systems for macroscopic energy or mass management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.101.022119DOI Listing
February 2020

Dilution of the Electron Density in the π-Conjugated Skeleton of Organic Cathode Materials Improves the Discharge Voltage.

ChemSusChem 2020 May 11;13(9):2264-2270. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Center of Energy Storage Materials & Technology, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, Jiangsu, P.R. China.

Organic compounds are promising candidates as battery materials because they can be sourced from sustainable resources, have tunable structures, and are cheap. However, the working voltage of battery cells containing organic compounds as positive electrodes is relatively lower than that of those containing an inorganic counterpart. In this work, a strategy was developed to increase the discharge voltage of battery cells by diluting the electron density of N-based redox centers in conjugated organic materials. In electron-rich heterocyclic compounds that utilize N as the redox center, pentatomic rings such as carbazole derivatives exhibited a higher atomic-dipole-moment-corrected Hirshfeld charge population compared with hexatomic rings, which led to a significant increase in the oxidation potential. As a result, polymeric indolocarbazole derivatives showed a high discharge voltage of 3.7-4.3 V vs. Li /Li and good cycling performance. Such a strategy can be used to design high-voltage organic electrode materials containing other redox centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201903502DOI Listing
May 2020

A bioorthogonally activatable photosensitiser for site-specific photodynamic therapy.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Jan;56(7):1078-1081

Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N. T., Hong Kong, P. R. China.

A boron dipyrromethene based photosensitiser substituted with a 1,2,4,5-tetrazine moiety has been prepared of which the photoactivity can be activated upon an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction with trans-cyclooctene derivatives. By using a biotin-conjugated trans-cyclooctene to tag the biotin-receptor-positive HeLa cells, this photosensitiser exhibits site-specific activation through cycloaddition, leading to high photocytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc07938fDOI Listing
January 2020

Biomechanical Analysis of a Novel Syndesmotic Plate Compared With Traditional Screw and Suture Button Fixation.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 May - Jun;59(3):522-528. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Foot and Ankle Surgeon, Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Many lateral malleolus fractures have been found to have syndesmosis injuries after anatomic reduction. The main methods for the treatment of syndesmosis injuries are screw fixation and suture-button flexible fixations. In pursuit of innovation, we have designed a novel syndesmotic plate (NSP) for simultaneous fixation of lateral malleolus fractures and distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries. The purpose of this study is to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the NSP to syndesmotic screw and suture-button fixations. Twelve adult cadaveric specimens were used in this experiment. Axial loading as well as rotation torque were applied in 3 different ankle positions: neutral, dorsiflexion, and plantarflexion. After the initial specimens were tested, they were made into a pronation-abduction III fracture model as described by Lauge-Hansen. Subsequently, the specimens were fixed sequentially using a distal fibular anatomic locking plate (DFALP) combined with syndesmotic screws, DFALP combined with suture button, and NSP. Then the above tests were repeated. The syndesmotic displacement and the strain of the tibia and fibula were recorded during the experiment. In most cases, the displacements and strains of the NSP group and the screw group were smaller than the suture button groups and the native (SBGAN) (p < .05), and the displacements and strains of the NSP group were also slightly smaller than the screw group in most cases, and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. The NSP we developed has a fixed strength no less than the traditional syndesmotic screw fixation. This provides us a new idea for the treatment of distal tibiofibular syndesmosis injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2019.07.025DOI Listing
April 2021

A Dual-Ion Organic Symmetric Battery Constructed from Phenazine-Based Artificial Bipolar Molecules.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 Jul 29;58(29):9902-9906. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Center of Energy Storage Materials & Technology, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Symmetric batteries received an increasing research interest in the past few years because of their simplified fabrication process and reduced manufacturing cost. In this study, we propose the first dual-ion organic symmetric cell based on a molecular anion of 4,4'-(phenazine-5,10-diyl)dibenzoate. The alkali salt of 4,4'-(phenazine-5,10-diyl)dibenzoate allows a facile transport of cations and large anions, and remains stable in both oxidized and reduced states. The large potential difference between phenazine and benzoate results in a high cell voltage of 2.5 V and an energy density of 127 Wh kg at a current rate of 1 C. The introduction of bipolar organic materials may further consolidate the development of symmetric batteries that are fabricated from abundant elements and environmentally friendly materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201901040DOI Listing
July 2019

Tuning the Photophysical Properties of Symmetric Squarylium Dyes: Investigation on the Halogen Modulation Effects.

Chemistry 2019 Jan 11;25(2):469-473. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Molecular Plus, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, P. R. China.

A series of symmetric squarylium dyes (SQDPA-X) with different halogen (X=F, Cl, Br, I) substituents have been developed. The photophysical properties could be facilely tuned by the halogen modulation effects. The strategy of incorporating different halogen substitutions into AIE active luminogens enables a facile approach for exploring new intriguing organic fluorescent dyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201804393DOI Listing
January 2019

Stable 2D Bisthienoacenes: Synthesis, Crystal Packing, and Photophysical Properties.

Chemistry 2018 Sep 6;24(54):14442-14447. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Department of Chemistry, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, P. R. China.

Two novel 2D bisthienoacenes with annulated thiophene units at different positions were developed. Both 1,2- and 1,4-addition of the α,β-unsaturated ketone moieties lead to the major formation of four-fold alkylsilylethynyl substituted 2D heteroacenes (namely BTT-4TIPS and BTP-4TIPS). The photophysical, electrochemical properties, crystal packing structures, and charge carrier transport performances were investigated in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201802411DOI Listing
September 2018

Zn-based eutectic mixture as anolyte for hybrid redox flow batteries.

Sci Rep 2018 Apr 10;8(1):5740. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, P. R. China.

Developing greener batteries with new chemistries is a formidable challenge, and a major focus for years to come. Redox flow batteries are receiving increasing research interest for grid-scale electrochemical energy storage owing to their unique architecture. However, challenges still remain by their low energy density as well as corrosive and/or toxic electrolytes. An anolyte based on aprotic Zn deep-eutectic-solvent, which uses low cost, abundant and environmentally benign materials, exhibits a utilizable concentration of Zn ca. 1.7 M, resulting in a reversible volumetric capacity of ca. 90 A h·L. Combined with high efficiencies and relatively low redox potential of -1.12 V vs. Ag/AgCl, such an anolyte provides an alternative way to explore a family of anolytes using new chemistries for rechargeable Zn batteries that meet the criteria for grid-scale electrical energy storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24059-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5893549PMC
April 2018

Theory of transformation thermal convection for creeping flow in porous media: Cloaking, concentrating, and camouflage.

Phys Rev E 2018 Feb;97(2-1):022129

Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (MOE), Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093, China.

Heat can transfer via thermal conduction, thermal radiation, and thermal convection. All the existing theories of transformation thermotics and optics can treat thermal conduction and thermal radiation, respectively. Unfortunately, thermal convection has seldom been touched in transformation theories due to the lack of a suitable theory, thus limiting applications associated with heat transfer through fluids (liquid or gas). Here, we develop a theory of transformation thermal convection by considering the convection-diffusion equation, the equation of continuity, and the Darcy law. By introducing porous media, we get a set of equations keeping their forms under coordinate transformation. As model applications, the theory helps to show the effects of cloaking, concentrating, and camouflage. Our finite-element simulations confirm the theoretical findings. This work offers a transformation theory for thermal convection, thus revealing novel behaviors associated with potential applications; it not only provides different hints on how to control heat transfer by combining thermal conduction, thermal convection, and thermal radiation, but also benefits mass diffusion and other related fields that contain a set of equations and need to transform velocities at the same time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.97.022129DOI Listing
February 2018

[Aconite cake-separated moxibustion for knee osteoarthritis with kidney-marrow deficiency].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2018 Jan;38(1):45-9

Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, the Second Hospital of Zhuzhou City.

Objective: To observe the effects among aconite cake-separated moxibustion, moxibustion and acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with kidney-marrow deficiency and to explore the feasibility of cake-separated moxibustion as a home remedy solution.

Methods: Ninety patients were randomized into an aconite cake-separated moxibustion group, a moxibustion group and an acupuncture group, 30 cases in each one. The acupoints in the three groups were Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Dubi (ST 35) in the affected side, and bilateral Xuehai (SP 10), Liangqiu (ST 34), Heding (EX-LE 2), Shenshu (BL 23) and Zusanli (ST 36). All the treatment was given for 3 sessions, 10 days as a session with 2 to 3 days between 2 sessions, and once a day. The first 2 courses of aconite cake-separated moxibustion was applied in the hospital and the other 1 session was used at home guided by officer physician. Symptoms and physical signs classification score and life quality scores were recorded before and after treatment and 6 months after treatment, including walking pain, knee pain in stoop and squat, knee discomfort in stair activity and daily discomfort. The effects were evaluated.

Results: The symptoms and physical signs classification scores in the three groups after treatment and at follow-up were lower than those before treatment (<0.01, <0.05), and the scores in the aconite cake-separated moxibustion group were better than those in the moxibustion group and acupuncture group (all <0.01). The scores of walking pain, knee pain in stoop and squat, knee discomfort in stair activity and daily discomfort were lower in the three groups after treatment and 6 months after treatment (<0.01, <0.05), and the scores of walking pain and daily discomfort in the aconite cake-separated moxibustion group were lower than those in the moxibustion group and acupuncture group (<0.01, <0.05). After treatments, the cured and markedly effective rate in the aconite cake-separated moxibustion group was 63.3% (19/30); that in the moxibustion group was 50.0% (15/30) and one in the acupuncture group was 43.3% (13/30). The cured and markedly effective rate of aconite cake-separated moxibustion group was more promising than those in the other two groups (both <0.05). At follow-up, the cured and markedly effective rate in the aconite cake-separated moxibustion group was 56.7% (17/30), which was better than 36.7% (11/30) in the moxibustion group and 40.0% (12/30) in the acupuncture group (both <0.05).

Conclusion: Aconite cake-separated moxibustion can be used for KOA patients with kidney-marrow deficiency, which can improve patients' life quality and is better than moxibustion and acupuncture. The method is feasible as a home remedy solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.2018.01.011DOI Listing
January 2018

Precise Patterning of Organic Single Crystals via Capillary-Assisted Alternating-Electric Field.

Small 2017 07 16;13(25). Epub 2017 May 16.

Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, P. R. China.

Owing to the extraordinary properties, organic micro/nanocrystals are important building blocks for future low-cost and high-performance organic electronic devices. However, integrated device application of the organic micro/nanocrystals is hampered by the difficulty in high-throughput, high-precision patterning of the micro/nanocrystals. In this study, the authors demonstrate, for the first time, a facile capillary-assisted alternating-electric field method for the large-scale assembling and patterning of both 0D and 1D organic crystals. These crystals can be precisely patterned at the photolithography defined holes/channels at the substrate with the yield up to 95% in 1 mm . The mechanism of assembly kinetics is systematically studied by the electric field distribution simulation and experimental investigations. By using the strategy, various organic micro/nanocrystal patterns are obtained by simply altering the geometries of the photoresist patterns on substrates. Moreover, ultraviolet photodetectors based on the patterned Alq3 micro/nanocrystals exhibit visible-blind photoresponse with high sensitivity as well as excellent stability and reproducibility. This work paves the way toward high-integration, high-performance organic electronic, and optoelectronic devices from the organic micro/nanocrystals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201604261DOI Listing
July 2017

Controlled Growth of Large-Area Aligned Single-Crystalline Organic Nanoribbon Arrays for Transistors and Light-Emitting Diodes Driving.

Nanomicro Lett 2017 16;9(4):52. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University Suzhou, Suzhou, 215123 Jiangsu People's Republic of China.

Abstract: Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on organic micro-/nanocrystals have been widely reported with charge carrier mobility exceeding 1.0 cm V s, demonstrating great potential for high-performance, low-cost organic electronic applications. However, fabrication of large-area organic micro-/nanocrystal arrays with consistent crystal growth direction has posed a significant technical challenge. Here, we describe a solution-processed dip-coating technique to grow large-area, aligned 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl) anthracene (BPEA) and 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-PEN) single-crystalline nanoribbon arrays. The method is scalable to a 5 × 10 cm wafer substrate, with around 60% of the wafer surface covered by aligned crystals. The quality of crystals can be easily controlled by tuning the dip-coating speed. Furthermore, OFETs based on well-aligned BPEA and TIPS-PEN single-crystalline nanoribbons were constructed. By optimizing channel lengths and using appropriate metallic electrodes, the BPEA and TIPS-PEN-based OFETs showed hole mobility exceeding 2.0 cm V s (average mobility 1.2 cm V s) and 3.0 cm V s (average mobility 2.0 cm V s), respectively. They both have a high on/off ratio (/) > 10. The performance can well satisfy the requirements for light-emitting diodes driving.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-017-0153-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6199044PMC
August 2017

Improvement of electrochemical performance of nickel rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode active material by ultrathin TiO2 coating.

Dalton Trans 2016 Jun 26;45(23):9669-75. Epub 2016 May 26.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093, China.

LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material has been surface-modified by coating with ultrathin TiO2via atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathodes for lithium ion batteries. Within the cut-off voltage of 2.5-4.3 V, the coated sample delivers an initial discharge capacity of 187.7 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C and with a capacity retention about 85.9% after 100 cycles at 1 C, which provides a significant improvement in terms of discharge capacity and cyclability, as compared with those of the bare one. Such enhanced electrochemical performance of the coated sample is ascribed to its high-quality ultrathin coating of amorphous TiO2, which can protect the active material from HF attack, withstand the dissolution of metal ions in the electrode and favor the lithium diffusion of oxide as proved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. TiO2 coating via the ALD process provides a potential approach for battery factories to surface-modify Ni-rich electrode materials so as to realize improvements in electrochemical performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6dt01764aDOI Listing
June 2016

Side-to-Side Cold Welding for Controllable Nanogap Formation from "Dumbbell" Ultrathin Gold Nanorods.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Jun 20;8(21):13506-11. Epub 2016 May 20.

Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong , Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Cold welding has been regarded as a promising bottom-up nanofabrication technique because of its ability to join metallic nanostructures at room temperature with low applied stress and without introducing damage. Usually, the cold welding process can be done instantaneously for ultrathin nanowires (diameter <10 nm) in "head-to-head" joining. Here, we demonstrate that "dumbbell" shaped ultrathin gold nanorods can be cold welded in the "side-to-side" mode in a highly controllable manner and can form an extremely small nanogap via a relatively slow welding process (up to tens of minutes, allowing various functional applications). By combining in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis and molecular dynamic simulations, we further reveal the underlying mechanism for this "side-to-side" welding process as being dominated by atom kinetics instead of thermodynamics, which provides critical insights into three-dimensional nanosystem integration as well as the building of functional nanodevices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b01070DOI Listing
June 2016

Controllable 3D alginate hydrogel patterning via visible-light induced electrodeposition.

Biofabrication 2016 Apr 25;8(2):025004. Epub 2016 Apr 25.

Mechanical any d Biomedical Engineering Department, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.

The fabrication of alginate hydrogel in 3D has recently received increasing attention owing to its distinct efficacy as biocompatible scaffold for 3D cell culture, biomedical and tissue engineering. We report a controllable 3D alginate hydrogel patterning method by developing a visible-light induced electrodeposition chip. The chip mainly consists of a photoconductive titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) anode plate, an indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode plate and the mixed solution (1% sodium alginate and 0.25% CaCO3 nano particles) between them. After a designed visible-light pattern is projected onto the TiOPc plate, the produced H(+) by electrolysis will trigger Ca(2+) near the anode (illuminated area), and then the gelation of calcium alginate patterns, as desired, happens controllably. In addition, we further establish an exponential model to elucidate the gel growth v.s. time and current density. The results indicate that the proposed method is able to fabricate various 3D alginate hydrogel patterns in a well controllable manner, and maintain the laden cells at high survival rate (>98% right after gel formation). This research paves an alternative way for 3D alginate hydrogel patterning with high controllability and productivity, which would benefit the research in biomedical and tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/8/2/025004DOI Listing
April 2016

Z-Shaped Pentaleno-Acene Dimers with High Stability and Small Band Gap.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2016 Feb 25;55(8):2693-6. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543, Singapore.

Acene-based materials have promising applications for organic electronics but the major constrain comes from their poor stability. Herein a new strategy to stabilize reactive acenes, by fusion of an anti-aromatic pentalene unit onto the zigzag edges of two acene units to form a Z-shaped acene dimer, is introduced. The Z-shaped acene dimers are extremely stable and show a small energy gap resulting from intramolecular donor-acceptor interactions. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed their unique geometry and one-dimensional slip-stack columnar structure. Besides optical and electrochemical characterizations, solution-processed field-effect transistors were also fabricated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201508919DOI Listing
February 2016

Thienoacene-fused pentalenes: syntheses, structures, physical properties and applications for organic field-effect transistors.

Chemistry 2015 Jan 27;21(5):2019-28. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore).

Three soluble and stable thienoacene-fused pentalene derivatives (1-3) with different π-conjugation lengths were synthesized. X-ray crystallographic analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed their unique geometric and electronic structures due to the interaction between the aromatic thienoacene units and antiaromatic pentalene moiety. As a result, they all possess a small energy gap and show amphoteric redox behaviour. Time dependent (TD) DFT calculations were used to explain their unique electronic absorption spectra. These new compounds exhibited good thermal stability and ordered packing in solid state and thus their applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were also investigated. The highest field-effect hole mobility of 0.016, 0.036 and 0.001 cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) was achieved for solution-processed thin films of 1-3, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201405652DOI Listing
January 2015

Dianthraceno[a,e]pentalenes: synthesis, crystallographic structures and applications in organic field-effect transistors.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2015 Jan 19;51(3):503-6. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543, Singapore.

Two soluble and stable dianthraceno[a,e]pentalenes with two (DAP1) and six (DAP2) phenyl substituents were synthesized. Both compounds possess a small energy band gap and show amphoteric redox behaviour due to intramolecular donor-accepter interactions. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that DAP2 has a closely packed structure with multi-dimensional [C-H···π] interactions although there are no π-π interactions between the dianthraceno[a,e]pentalene cores. As a result, solution-processed field effect transistors based on DAP2 exhibited an average hole mobility of 0.65 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Under similar conditions, DAP1 showed an average field effect hole mobility of 0.001 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4cc07630cDOI Listing
January 2015

Stable 7,14-disubstituted-5,12-dithiapentacenes with quinoidal conjugation.

Org Lett 2014 Aug 14;16(15):3966-9. Epub 2014 Jul 14.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore , 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.

Two 7,14-disubstituted-5,12-dithiapentacenes (1 and 2) with quinoidal conjugation were synthesized. Their ground-state quinoidal structures were proven by X-ray crystallographic analysis. They showed very different electronic and optical properties from those of the corresponding pentacene derivatives with diene conjugation, and their stability was significantly improved. Organic field effect transistors based on solution processed thin films of 1 and 2 exhibited a hole mobility of up to 0.032 cm(-2) V(-1) s(-1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ol5017756DOI Listing
August 2014