Publications by authors named "Ganrea Chanthavixay"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tissue Resources for the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes.

Front Genet 2021 21;12:666265. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

UC Davis Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

In order to generate an atlas of the functional elements driving genome expression in domestic animals, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genome (FAANG) strategy was to sample many tissues from a few animals of different species, sexes, ages, and production stages. This article presents the collection of tissue samples for four species produced by two pilot projects, at INRAE (National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment) and the University of California, Davis. There were three mammals (cattle, goat, and pig) and one bird (chicken). It describes the metadata characterizing these reference sets (1) for animals with origin and selection history, physiological status, and environmental conditions; (2) for samples with collection site and tissue/cell processing; (3) for quality control; and (4) for storage and further distribution. Three sets are identified: set 1 comprises tissues for which collection can be standardized and for which representative aliquots can be easily distributed (liver, spleen, lung, heart, fat depot, skin, muscle, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells); set 2 comprises tissues requiring special protocols because of their cellular heterogeneity (brain, digestive tract, secretory organs, gonads and gametes, reproductive tract, immune tissues, cartilage); set 3 comprises specific cell preparations (immune cells, tracheal epithelial cells). Dedicated sampling protocols were established and uploaded in https://data.faang.org/protocol/samples. Specificities between mammals and chicken are described when relevant. A total of 73 different tissues or tissue sections were collected, and 21 are common to the four species. Having a common set of tissues will facilitate the transfer of knowledge within and between species and will contribute to decrease animal experimentation. Combining data on the same samples will facilitate data integration. Quality control was performed on some tissues with RNA extraction and RNA quality control. More than 5,000 samples have been stored with unique identifiers, and more than 4,000 were uploaded onto the Biosamples database, provided that standard ontologies were available to describe the sample. Many tissues have already been used to implement FAANG assays, with published results. All samples are available without restriction for further assays. The requesting procedure is described. Members of FAANG are encouraged to apply a range of molecular assays to characterize the functional status of collected samples and share their results, in line with the FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable) data principles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.666265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256271PMC
June 2021

Tolerogenic Immunoregulation towards Salmonella Enteritidis Contributes to Colonization Persistence in Young Chicks.

Infect Immun 2021 Jul 15;89(8):e0073620. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, California, USA.

Long-term survival and the persistence of bacteria in the host suggest either host unresponsiveness or induction of an immunological tolerant response to the pathogen. The role of the host immunological response to persistent colonization of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in chickens remains poorly understood. In the current study, we performed a cecal tonsil transcriptome analysis in a model of SE persistent infection in 2-week-old chickens to comprehensively examine the dynamics of host immunological responses in the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Our results revealed overall host tolerogenic adaptive immune regulation in a major gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the cecal tonsil, during SE infection. Specifically, we observed consistent downregulation of the metallothionein 4 gene at all four postinfection time points (3, 7, 14, and 21 days postinfection [dpi]), which suggested potential pathogen-associated manipulation of the host zinc regulation as well as a possible immune modulatory effect. Furthermore, delayed activation in the B cell receptor signaling pathway and failure to sustain its active state during the lag phase of infection were further supported by an insignificant production of both intestinal and circulatory antibodies. Tug-of-war for interleukin 2 (IL-2) regulation between effector T cells and regulatory T cells appears to have consequences for upregulation in the transducer of ERBB2 (TOB) pathway, a negative regulator of T cell proliferation. In conclusion, this work highlights the overall host tolerogenic immune response that promotes persistent colonization by SE in young layer chicks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00736-20DOI Listing
July 2021

Distinct transcriptomic response to Newcastle disease virus infection during heat stress in chicken tracheal epithelial tissue.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 2;11(1):7450. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Genomics to Improve Poultry, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Newcastle disease (ND) has a great impact on poultry health and welfare with its most virulent (velogenic) strain. In addition, issues exacerbated by the increase in global temperatures necessitates a greater understanding of the host immune response when facing a combination of biotic and abiotic stress factors in poultry production. Previous investigations have revealed that the host immune response is tissue-specific. The goal of this study was to identify genes and/or signaling pathways associated with immune response to NDV (Newcastle disease virus) in the trachea, an essential organ where NDV replicate after the infection, by profiling the tissue specific transcriptome response in two genetically distinct inbred chicken lines when exposed to both abiotic and biotic stressors. Fayoumis appear to be able to respond more effectively (lower viral titer, higher antibody levels, immune gene up-regulation) and earlier than Leghorns. Our results suggest NDV infection in Fayoumis appears to elicit proinflammatory processes, and pathways such as the inhibition of cell viability, cell proliferation of lymphocytes, and transactivation of RNA, more rapidly than in Leghorns. These differences in immune response converge at later timepoints which may indicate that Leghorns eventually regulate its immune response to infection. The profiling of the gene expression response in the trachea adds to our understanding of the chicken host response to NDV infection and heat stress on a whole genome level and provides potential candidate genes and signaling pathways for further investigation into the characterization of the time-specific and pathway specific responses in Fayoumis and Leghorns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86795-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018950PMC
April 2021

Functional annotations of three domestic animal genomes provide vital resources for comparative and agricultural research.

Nat Commun 2021 03 23;12(1):1821. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Gene regulatory elements are central drivers of phenotypic variation and thus of critical importance towards understanding the genetics of complex traits. The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes consortium was formed to collaboratively annotate the functional elements in animal genomes, starting with domesticated animals. Here we present an expansive collection of datasets from eight diverse tissues in three important agricultural species: chicken (Gallus gallus), pig (Sus scrofa), and cattle (Bos taurus). Comparative analysis of these datasets and those from the human and mouse Encyclopedia of DNA Elements projects reveal that a core set of regulatory elements are functionally conserved independent of divergence between species, and that tissue-specific transcription factor occupancy at regulatory elements and their predicted target genes are also conserved. These datasets represent a unique opportunity for the emerging field of comparative epigenomics, as well as the agricultural research community, including species that are globally important food resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22100-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988148PMC
March 2021

Integrated Transcriptome and Histone Modification Analysis Reveals NDV Infection Under Heat Stress Affects Bursa Development and Proliferation in Susceptible Chicken Line.

Front Genet 2020 25;11:567812. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Two environmental factors, Newcastle disease and heat stress, are concurrently negatively impacting poultry worldwide and warrant greater attention into developing genetic resistance within chickens. Using two genetically distinct and highly inbred layer lines, Fayoumi and Leghorn, we explored how different genetic backgrounds affect the bursal response to a treatment of simultaneous Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection at 6 days postinfection (dpi) while under chronic heat stress. The bursa is a primary lymphoid organ within birds and is crucial for the development of B cells. We performed RNA-seq and ChIP-seq targeting histone modifications on bursa tissue. Differential gene expression revealed that Leghorn, compared to Fayoumi, had significant down-regulation in genes involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle, and cell division. Interestingly, we also found greater differences in histone modification levels in response to treatment in Leghorns than Fayoumis, and biological processes enriched in associated target genes of H3K27ac and H3K4me1 were similarly associated with cell cycle and receptor signaling of lymphocytes. Lastly, we found candidate variants between the two genetic lines within exons of differentially expressed genes and regulatory elements with differential histone modification enrichment between the lines, which provides a strong foundation for understanding the effects of genetic variation on NDV resistance under heat stress. This study provides further understanding of the cellular mechanisms affected by NDV infection under heat stress in chicken bursa and identified potential genes and regulatory regions that may be targets for developing genetic resistance within chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.567812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545831PMC
September 2020

A comparative analysis of chromatin accessibility in cattle, pig, and mouse tissues.

BMC Genomics 2020 Oct 7;21(1):698. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Background: Although considerable progress has been made towards annotating the noncoding portion of the human and mouse genomes, regulatory elements in other species, such as livestock, remain poorly characterized. This lack of functional annotation poses a substantial roadblock to agricultural research and diminishes the value of these species as model organisms. As active regulatory elements are typically characterized by chromatin accessibility, we implemented the Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin (ATAC-seq) to annotate and characterize regulatory elements in pigs and cattle, given a set of eight adult tissues.

Results: Overall, 306,304 and 273,594 active regulatory elements were identified in pig and cattle, respectively. 71,478 porcine and 47,454 bovine regulatory elements were highly tissue-specific and were correspondingly enriched for binding motifs of known tissue-specific transcription factors. However, in every tissue the most prevalent accessible motif corresponded to the insulator CTCF, suggesting pervasive involvement in 3-D chromatin organization. Taking advantage of a similar dataset in mouse, open chromatin in pig, cattle, and mice were compared, revealing that the conservation of regulatory elements, in terms of sequence identity and accessibility, was consistent with evolutionary distance; whereas pig and cattle shared about 20% of accessible sites, mice and ungulates only had about 10% of accessible sites in common. Furthermore, conservation of accessibility was more prevalent at promoters than at intergenic regions.

Conclusions: The lack of conserved accessibility at distal elements is consistent with rapid evolution of enhancers, and further emphasizes the need to annotate regulatory elements in individual species, rather than inferring elements based on homology. This atlas of chromatin accessibility in cattle and pig constitutes a substantial step towards annotating livestock genomes and dissecting the regulatory link between genome and phenome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07078-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541309PMC
October 2020

Integrative analysis of gut microbiome and metabolites revealed novel mechanisms of intestinal Salmonella carriage in chicken.

Sci Rep 2020 03 16;10(1):4809. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Intestinal carriage of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in the chicken host serves as a reservoir for transmission of Salmonella to humans through the consumption of poultry products. The aim of the current study was to examine the three-way interaction that occurred between host metabolites, resident gut microbiota and Salmonella following inoculation of SE in two-week-old layer chicks. Our results revealed an overall alteration in gut microbiome and metabolites in association with SE infection. Enriched colonization by different microbial members throughout the course of experimental infection highlighted significant fluctuation in the intestinal microbial community in response to Salmonella infection. As changes in community membership occurred, there was also subsequent impact on differential regulation of interlinked predicted functional activities within the intestinal environment dictated by Salmonella-commensal interaction. Alteration in the overall microbial community following infection also has a ripple effect on the host regulation of cecum-associated metabolic networks. The findings showed that there was differential regulation in many of the metabolites in association with SE colonization in chickens. Perturbation in metabolic pathways related to arginine and proline metabolism as well as TCA cycle was most prominently detected. Taken together, the present findings provided a starting point in understanding the effect of intestinal Salmonella carriage on the microbiome and metabolome of developing young layer chicks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60892-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075953PMC
March 2020

Genetics and Genomic Regions Affecting Response to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection under Heat Stress in Layer Chickens.

Genes (Basel) 2019 01 18;10(1). Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Genomics to Improve Poultry Innovation Lab, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a highly contagious avian pathogen that poses a tremendous threat to poultry producers in endemic zones due to its epidemic potential. To investigate host genetic resistance to NDV while under the effects of heat stress, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on Hy-Line Brown layer chickens that were challenged with NDV while under high ambient temperature to identify regions associated with host viral titer, circulating anti-NDV antibody titer, and body weight change. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on chromosome 1 was associated with viral titer at two days post-infection (dpi), while 30 SNPs spanning a quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 24 were associated with viral titer at 6 dpi. Immune related genes, such as CAMK1d and CCDC3 on chromosome 1, associated with viral titer at 2 dpi, and TIRAP, ETS1, and KIRREL3, associated with viral titer at 6 dpi, were located in two QTL regions for viral titer that were identified in this study. This study identified genomic regions and candidate genes that are associated with response to NDV during heat stress in Hy-Line Brown layer chickens. Regions identified for viral titer on chromosome 1 and 24, at 2 and 6 dpi, respectively, included several genes that have key roles in regulating the immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10010061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356198PMC
January 2019

Commensal Enterobacteriaceae Protect against Salmonella Colonization through Oxygen Competition.

Cell Host Microbe 2019 01;25(1):128-139.e5

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address:

Neonates are highly susceptible to infection with enteric pathogens, but the underlying mechanisms are not resolved. We show that neonatal chick colonization with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis requires a virulence-factor-dependent increase in epithelial oxygenation, which drives pathogen expansion by aerobic respiration. Co-infection experiments with an Escherichia coli strain carrying an oxygen-sensitive reporter suggest that S. Enteritidis competes with commensal Enterobacteriaceae for oxygen. A combination of Enterobacteriaceae and spore-forming bacteria, but not colonization with either community alone, confers colonization resistance against S. Enteritidis in neonatal chicks, phenocopying germ-free mice associated with adult chicken microbiota. Combining spore-forming bacteria with a probiotic E. coli isolate protects germ-free mice from pathogen colonization, but the protection is lost when the ability to respire oxygen under micro-aerophilic conditions is genetically ablated in E. coli. These results suggest that commensal Enterobacteriaceae contribute to colonization resistance by competing with S. Enteritidis for oxygen, a resource critical for pathogen expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2018.12.003DOI Listing
January 2019

Integrated Proteomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Differential Expression of Chicken Lung Tissue in Response to NDV Infection during Heat Stress.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Nov 27;9(12). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Genomics to Improve Poultry Innovation Lab, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a devastating worldwide poultry pathogen with major implications for global food security. In this study, two highly inbred and genetically distinct chicken lines, Fayoumis and Leghorns, were exposed to a lentogenic strain of NDV, while under the effects of heat stress, in order to understand the genetic mechanisms of resistance during high ambient temperatures. Fayoumis, which are relatively more resistant to pathogens than Leghorns, had larger numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during the early stages of infection when compared to Leghorns and subsequently down-regulated their immune response at the latter stages to return to homeostasis. Leghorns had very few DEGs across all observed time points, with the majority of DEGs involved with metabolic and glucose-related functions. Proteomic analysis corroborates findings made within Leghorns, while also identifying interesting candidate genes missed by expression profiling. Poor correlation between changes observed in the proteomic and transcriptomic datasets highlights the potential importance of integrative approaches to understand the mechanisms of disease response. Overall, this study provides novel insights into global protein and expression profiles of these two genetic lines, and provides potential genetic targets involved with NDV resistance during heat stress in poultry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes9120579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316021PMC
November 2018

Salmonella enterica Serovars Enteritidis Infection Alters the Indigenous Microbiota Diversity in Young Layer Chicks.

Front Vet Sci 2015 23;2:61. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis , Davis, CA , USA.

Avian gastrointestinal (GI) tracts are highly populated with a diverse array of microorganisms that share a symbiotic relationship with their hosts and contribute to the overall health and disease state of the intestinal tract. The microbiome of the young chick is easily prone to alteration in its composition by both exogenous and endogenous factors, especially during the early posthatch period. The genetic background of the host and exposure to pathogens can impact the diversity of the microbial profile that consequently contributes to the disease progression in the host. The objective of this study was to profile the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in young chickens from two genetically distinct highly inbred lines. Furthermore, the effect of the Salmonella Enteritidis infection on altering the composition makeup of the chicken microbiome was evaluated through the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. One-day-old layer chicks were challenged with S. Enteritidis and the host cecal microbiota profile as well as the degree of susceptibility to Salmonella infection was examined at 2 and 7 days post infection. Our result indicated that host genotype had a limited effect on resistance to S. Enteritidis infection. Alpha diversity, beta diversity, and overall microbiota composition were analyzed for four factors: host genotype, age, treatment, and postinfection time points. S. Enteritidis infection in young chicks was found to significantly reduce the overall diversity of the microbiota population with expansion of Enterobacteriaceae family. These changes indicated that Salmonella colonization in the GI tract of the chickens has a direct effect on altering the natural development of the GI microbiota. The impact of S. Enteritidis infection on microbial communities was also more substantial in the late stage of infection. Significant inverse correlation between Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae family in both non-infected and infected groups, suggested possible antagonistic interaction between members of these two taxa, which could potentially influences the overall microbial population in the gut. Our results also revealed that genetic difference between two lines had minimal effect on the establishment of microbiota population. Overall, this study provided preliminary insights into the contributing role of S. Enteritidis in influencing the overall makeup of chicken's gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2015.00061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4672283PMC
December 2015
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