Anal Biochem 2015 Jun 14;478:59-64. Epub 2015 Mar 14.
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219, USA; Institute for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23219, USA. Electronic address:
J Med Chem 2012 Oct 20;55(19):8409-17. Epub 2012 Sep 20.
J. Med. Chem.
Clofazimine (CFZ), a member of the riminophenazine class, has been studied in clinical trials for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). CFZ has several side effects which can be attributed to its extremely high lipophilicity. A series of novel riminophenazine analogues bearing a C-2 pyridyl substituent was designed and synthesized with the goal of maintaining potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) while improving upon its safety profile by lowering the lipophilicity. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity and cytotoxicity. The results demonstrated that many new compounds had potent activity against M. tuberculosis with MICs of less than 0.03 μg/mL and low cytotoxicity with IC(50) values greater than 64 μg/mL. Some compounds were tested for in vivo efficacy against MDR-TB in an experimental mouse infection model. Two compounds demonstrated equivalent or better efficacy than CFZ in this model with significantly reduced skin discoloration potential.
Clofazimine, a member of the riminophenazine class of drugs, is the cornerstone agent for the treatment of leprosy. This agent is currently being studied in clinical trials for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to address the urgent need for new drugs that can overcome existing and emerging drug resistance. However, the use of clofazimine in tuberculosis treatment is hampered by its high lipophilicity and skin pigmentation side effects. To identify a new generation of riminophenazines that is less lipophilic and skin staining, while maintaining efficacy, we have performed a systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation by synthesizing a variety of analogs of clofazimine and evaluating their anti-tuberculosis activity. The study reveals that the central tricyclic phenazine system and the pendant aromatic rings are important for anti-tuberculosis activity. However, the phenyl groups attached to the C2 and N5 position of clofazimine can be replaced by a pyridyl group to provide analogs with improved physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetic characteristics. Replacement of the phenyl group attached to the C2 position by a pyridyl group has led to a promising new series of compounds with improved physicochemical properties, improved anti-tuberculosis potency, and reduced pigmentation potential.
Molecules 2011 Aug 16;16(8):6985-91. Epub 2011 Aug 16.
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Beijing Key Laboratory of Active Substance Discovery and Drugability Evaluation, Institute of Materia Medica, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing 100050, China.