Publications by authors named "Gang Xu"

1,528 Publications

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Nrf2 signaling activation by a small molecule activator compound 16 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury and death in osteoblasts.

Cell Death Discov 2022 Aug 8;8(1):353. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Orthopedics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

We explored the potential activity of compound 16 (Cpd16), a novel small molecule Nrf2 activator, in hydrogen peroxide (HO)-stimulated osteoblasts. In the primary murine/human osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 murine osteoblastic cells, Cpd16 treatment at micro-molar concentrations caused disassociation of Keap1-Nrf2 and Nrf2 cascade activation. Cpd16 induced stabilization of Nrf2 protein and its nuclear translocation, thereby increasing the antioxidant response elements (ARE) reporter activity and Nrf2 response genes transcription in murine and human osteoblasts. Significantly, Cpd16 mitigated oxidative injury in HO-stimulited osteoblasts. HO-provoked apoptosis as well as programmed necrosis in osteoblasts were significantly alleviated by the novel Nrf2 activator. Cpd16-induced Nrf2 activation and osteoblasts protection were stronger than other known Nrf2 activators. Dexamethasone- and nicotine-caused oxidative stress and death in osteoblasts were attenuated by Cpd16 as well. Cpd16-induced osteoblast cytoprotection was abolished by Nrf2 short hairpin RNA or knockout, but was mimicked by Keap1 knockout. Keap1 Cys151S mutation abolished Cpd16-induced Nrf2 cascade activation and osteoblasts protection against HO. Importantly, weekly Cpd16 administration largely ameliorated trabecular bone loss in ovariectomy mice. Together, Cpd16 alleviates HO-induced oxidative stress and death in osteoblasts by activating Nrf2 cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-022-01146-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9360014PMC
August 2022

Icetexane diterpenoids as Ca3.2 T-type calcium channel inhibitors from Salvia prattii and analgesic effect of their Semi-synthesized derivatives.

Bioorg Chem 2022 Aug 1;128:106059. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ten new icetexane diterpenoids, salpratins E-N (1-10) and a known analogue (11) were characterized from Salvia prattii Hemsl. Structurally, 1 is the first 19(4 → 3)-abeo-icetexane diterpenoid featuring with a 6/7/6 ring system. The structures of isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of spectroscopic data, ECD calculation, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Biological studies initially revealed that 1, 7, 10, and 11 are notable Ca3.2 T-type Ca channel (TTCC) inhibitors with IC values of 2.9, 5.1, 2.3, and 3.2 μM, respectively. Five icetexane related derivatives (13-17) were synthesized from an abietane type precursor, (+)-carnosic acid (12), for the purpose of overcoming the poor water solubility of aforementioned active compounds and further investigating diverse diterpenes with valuable activity. Among them, 13 and 14 showed potent inhibitions on Ca3.2, having IC values of 6.7 and 2.4 μM, respectively. Significantly, they exhibited dose-dependent (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and comparable analgesic effects as that of Z944, a TTCCs inhibitor under clinical trial for pain management, in the mouse acetic acid writhing test. These findings further enrich structural diversity and bioactivity of Salvia diterpenoids, as well as provide promising structural templates for the development of Ca3.2 analgesics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2022.106059DOI Listing
August 2022

Construction of a cross-species cell landscape at single-cell level.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Women's Hospital, and Institute of Genetics, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Individual cells are basic units of life. Despite extensive efforts to characterize the cellular heterogeneity of different organisms, cross-species comparisons of landscape dynamics have not been achieved. Here, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to map organism-level cell landscapes at multiple life stages for mice, zebrafish and Drosophila. By integrating the comprehensive dataset of > 2.6 million single cells, we constructed a cross-species cell landscape and identified signatures and common pathways that changed throughout the life span. We identified structural inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction as the most common hallmarks of organism aging, and found that pharmacological activation of mitochondrial metabolism alleviated aging phenotypes in mice. The cross-species cell landscape with other published datasets were stored in an integrated online portal-Cell Landscape. Our work provides a valuable resource for studying lineage development, maturation and aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkac633DOI Listing
August 2022

GPM6A expression is suppressed in hepatocellular carcinoma through miRNA-96 production.

Lab Invest 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Dept. of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, MOE/NHC/CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

GPM6A is a glycoprotein in endothelial cells, and its biological function in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown. Through Affymetrix gene expression microarray and bioinformatic analysis, very low GPM6A expression was found in HCC tissue. The present study aims to explore the function and regulatory mechanism of GPM6A in HCC development and progression. Levels of GPM6A expression in HCC specimens from different disorders and various hepatoma cell lines were determined, and its role on cell proliferation was evaluated in hepatoma cells stably overexpressing GPM6A. Modulation of a specific microRNA (miRNA) on its expression and function was evaluated with miRNA mimetic transfection. Herein, it is reported that much lower GPM6A levels were found in HCC tissues than pericancerous liver tissues and correlated to a poor prognosis. GPM6A overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, suppressed colony formation, migration and invasion in two hepatoma cell types. Available evidence does not support that genetic and epigenetic dysregulation contributes significantly to GPM6A inactivation in HCC. Additional findings demonstrated that miR-96-5p acted directly on the 3'-UTR of the GPM6A gene and significantly decreased its mRNA and protein levels. MiR-96-5p transfection promoted proliferation, migration and invasion of SMMC-7721 and MHCC-97H hepatoma cells; whereas the function of oncogenic microRNA-96 was significantly inhibited in GPM6A-overexpressed hepatoma cells. In conclusion, GPM6A expression in HCC is commonly suppressed regardless its base disease types, and its low expression in HCC tissues is most likely attributed to upregulated miR-96-5p. GPM6A may function as a valuable biomarker for HCC progression and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-022-00818-3DOI Listing
August 2022

Clinical potential of the Hippo-YAP pathway in bladder cancer.

Front Oncol 2022 15;12:925278. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, China.

Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the world's most frequent cancers. Surgery coupled with adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy is the current standard of therapy for BC. However, a high proportion of patients progressed to chemotherapy-resistant or even neoplasm recurrence. Hence, identifying novel treatment targets is critical for clinical treatment. Current studies indicated that the Hippo-YAP pathway plays a crucial in regulating the survival of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which is related to the progression and reoccurrence of a variety of cancers. In this review, we summarize the evidence that Hippo-YAP mediates the occurrence, progression and chemotherapy resistance in BC, as well as the role of the Hippo-YAP pathway in regulating bladder cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs). Finally, the clinical potential of Hippo-YAP in the treatment of BC was prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.925278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9336529PMC
July 2022

Smoke-induced SAV1 Gene Promoter Hypermethylation Disrupts YAP Negative Feedback and Promotes Malignant Progression of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Int J Biol Sci 2022 11;18(11):4497-4512. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of "Translational Medicine on Malignant Tumor Treatment", Guangzhou city, Guangdong, P. R. China.

YAP (gene symbol ) as a potential oncoprotein, is positively correlated with the malignancy of various tumors. However, overexpression of YAP alone in multiple normal tissue cells has failed to induce tumor formation and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Herein, we show that YAP activation directly induces transcription of its negative regulator, SAV1, to constitute a negative feedback loop, which plays a vital role in maintaining lung epithelial cell homeostasis and was dysregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Notably, smoking promotes the hypermethylation of the promoter region, which disrupts YAP negative feedback by inactivating the Hippo pathway. Besides, exogenous overexpression of SAV1 can act as a traffic protein, activating the Hippo signaling and concurrently inhibiting the WNT pathway to decrease cancer cell growth. Furthermore, using the lung cancer organoids, we found that lentivirus-mediated SAV1 gene transfer combined with methylation inhibitor and YAP-TEAD inhibitor is a potential feasible clinical medication regimen for the lung cancer patient, especially among the smoking population. Thus, this SAV1 mediated feedback loop provides an efficient mechanism to establish the robustness and homeostasis of YAP regulation and as a potential target of gene therapy for the smoking NSCLC population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.73428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9295071PMC
July 2022

Biological evaluation of acellular bovine bone matrix treated with NaOH.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2022 Jul 15;33(7):58. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Institute of Orthopedics, Fourth Medical Center of the General Hospital of CPLA, 100048, Beijing, PR China.

We mainly proceed from the view of biological effect to study the acellular bovine bone matrix (ABBM) by the low concentration of hydrogen oxidation. After cleaning the bovine bone routinely, it was cleaned with different concentrations of NaOH and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) to observe the effect of decellulization. The effect of bovine bone matrix treated with NaOH were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and compared by DNA residue detection. Cell toxicity was also evaluated in MC3T3-E1 cells by CCK-8. For the in vitro osteogenesis detection, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and alizarin red (AR) staining were performed in MC3T3-E1 cells. And the in vivo experiment, Micro CT, HE and Masson staining were used to observe whether the osteogenic effect of the materials treated with 1% NaOH solution was affected at 6 and 12 weeks. After the bovine bone was decellularized with different concentrations of NaOH solution, HE staining showed that ultrasonic cleaning with 1% NaOH solution for 30 min had the best effect of decellularization. The SEM showed that ABBM treated with 1% NaOH solution had few residual cells on the surface of the three-dimensional porous compared to ABBM treated with conventional chemical reagents. DNA residues and cytotoxicity of ABBM treated with 1% NaOH were both reduced. The results of ALP staining and AR staining showed that ABBM treated with 1% NaOH solution had no effect on the osteogenesis effect. The results of micro-CT, HE staining and Masson staining in animal experiments also showed that ABBM treated with 1% NaOH solution had no effect on the osteogenesis ability. The decellularization treatment of ABBM with the low concentration of NaOH can be more cost-effective, effectively remove the residual cellular components, without affecting the osteogenic ability. Our work may provide a novelty thought and a modified method to applicate the acellular bovine bone matrix clinically better. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-022-06678-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9287214PMC
July 2022

The impacts of health insurance and resource on the burden of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias in the world population.

Alzheimers Dement 2022 Jul 12. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Neurology & Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) presents both a burden and an opportunity for intervention. This study aims to estimate the impacts of health insurance and resources on the burden attributed to ADRD.

Method: Data were mainly collected from global databases for ADRD. Analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, random-effects, and fixed-effects model analyses were used in this study.

Results: Although the current medical expenditures were increasing and out of pocket (OOP) expenditures were declining generally in various countries, the collected global data showed an increased burden of ADRD on patients both physically and economically. Furthermore, health resources were negatively associated with disability-adjusted life years (DALY), death, and years of life lost (YLL), but were otherwise positively associated with years of life lived with disability (YLD).

Discussion: Effective measures should be considered to cope with the rising burden. Meanwhile, there is an urgent call for constructive and sustainable rational plans and global collaboration.

Highlights: We explored how health insurance and resources affect Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD)-related burden. Health insurance and resources were imbalanced among four income level groups. Health insurance and resources may decrease the total ADRD burden primarily from a reduction in death-related burden. Health insurance and resources may increase disability-related burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12730DOI Listing
July 2022

Identification of Hub Genes and Immune-Related Pathways for Membranous Nephropathy by Bioinformatics Analysis.

Front Physiol 2022 24;13:914382. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Nephrology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

We aim to explore the detailed molecular mechanisms of membrane nephropathy (MN) related genes by bioinformatics analysis. Two microarray datasets (GSE108109 and GSE104948) with glomerular gene expression data from 65 MN patients and 9 healthy donors were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. After processing the raw data, DEGs screening was conducted using the LIMMA (linear model for microarray data) package and Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed with GSEA software (v. 3.0), followed by gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was carried out to determine the hub genes, by applying the maximal clique centrality (MCC) method, which was visualized by Cytoscape. Finally, utilizing the Nephroseq v5 online platform, we analyzed subgroups associated with hub genes. The findings were further validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in renal tissues from MN or control patients. A sum of 370 DEGs (188 up-regulated genes, 182 down-regulated genes) and 20 hub genes were ascertained. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis demonstrated that DEGs of MN were preponderantly associated with cell damage and complement cascade-related immune responses. Combined with literature data and hub gene-related MN subset analysis, CTSS, ITGB2, and HCK may play important roles in the pathological process of MN. This study identified novel hub genes in MN using bioinformatics. We found that some hub genes such as CTSS, ITGB2, and HCK might contribute to MN immunopathological process, providing new insights for further study of the molecular mechanisms underlying glomerular injury of MN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.914382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263269PMC
June 2022

Novel Drug Candidate Prediction for Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma via Hub Gene Network Analysis and Connectivity Mapping.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Jul 5;14(13). Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive malignancy, and there is a need for effective systemic therapies. Gene expression profile-based analyses may allow for efficient screening of potential drug candidates to serve as novel therapeutics for patients with ICC. The RNA expression profile of ICC and normal biliary epithelial cells were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. Function annotation and enrichment pathway analyses of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were finished using the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A weighted gene co-expression network (WGCN) was constructed by WGCN analysis (WGCNA). Key genes from the DEGs and co-expression gene modules were analyzed to generate a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The association between the top 10 screened hub genes and the overall and disease-free survival of ICC patients was examined. The Connectivity Map (cMap) analysis was performed to identify possible drugs for ICC using hub genes. A total of 151 key genes were selected from the overlapping genes of 1287 GSE-DEGs, 8183 TCGA-DEGs and 1226 genes in the mixed modules. A total of 10 hub genes of interest (CTNNB1, SPP1, COL1A2, COL3A1, SMAD3, SRC, VCAN, PKLR, GART, MRPS5) were found analyzing protein-protein interaction. Using the cMap, candidate drugs screened with potential efficacy for ICC included three tyrosine kinase inhibitors (dasatinib, NVP-BHG712, tivantinib), two cannabinoid receptor agonists (palmitoylethanolamide, arachidonamide), two antibiotics (moxifloxacin, amoxicillin), one estrogen receptor agonist (levonorgestrel), one serine/threonine protein kinase inhibitor (MK-2206) and other small molecules. Key genes from network and PPI analysis allowed us to identify potential drugs for ICC. The identification of novel gene expression profiles and related drug screening may accelerate the identification of potential novel drug therapies for ICC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9265136PMC
July 2022

Awareness of tobacco control policies and anti-tobacco attitudes and behaviors among school personnel.

Tob Induc Dis 2022 9;20:54. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Adolescent smoking is a serious public health concern, and the role of personnel in reducing students'tobacco use has been proven. Anti-tobacco policies are strong factors for tobacco control but most are newly implemented in China. This study aimed to examine the awareness of anti-tobacco policies among school personnel in a southern city of China, and assess its influence on personnel's anti-tobacco attitudes and behaviors towards students.

Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2017 and January 2018 in schools of Shanghai, China. A total of 3194 subjects from 33 schools were selected by a two-stage stratified cluster randomized sampling design. Prevalence of anti-tobacco policy awareness is presented. Crude (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between policy awareness and anti-tobacco attitudes or behaviors.

Results: In all, 22.4% of surveyed participants knew four or five polices presented in the survey and 13.0% of personnel knew none of these policies. Most of the participants fully support prohibiting indoor (94.6%) and outdoor (86.3%) smoking in public places, bans on tobacco advertising (90.9%), and printing warning pictures on cigarette boxes (89.5%). Less than half of the personnel had taken action to stop students from smoking (45.7%), encourage students to quit smoking (42.4%) or participated in relevant educational activities held by schools (37.4%) in the previous year. The school personnel's anti-tobacco attitudes (AOR=1.28; 95% CI: 1.21-1.36) and behaviors (AOR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.17) were strengthened with increasing level of policy awareness.

Conclusions: The involvement of school personnel can be an important part of intervention to improve anti-tobacco campaigns on campus. The study calls for the implementation of projects or activities to improve anti-tobacco policy awareness in the school environment as part of school tobacco control strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/149926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9179323PMC
June 2022

21q22 amplification detection in three patients with acute myeloid leukemia: cytogenomic profiling and literature review.

Mol Cytogenet 2022 Jul 7;15(1):30. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Colorado Genetics Laboratory, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: 21q22 amplification is a rare cytogenetic aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). So far, the cytogenomic and molecular features and clinical correlation of 21q22 amplification in AML have not been well-characterized.

Case Presentation: Here, we describe a case series of three AML patients with amplified 21q22 identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using a RUNX1 probe. Two of these patients presented with therapy-related AML (t-AML) secondary to chemotherapy, while the third had de novo AML. There was one case each of FAB M0, M1 and M4. Morphologic evidence of dysplasia was identified in both t-AML cases. Phenotypic abnormalities of the myeloblasts were frequently observed. Extra copies of 21q22 were present on chromosome 21 and at least one other chromosome in two cases. Two showed a highly complex karyotype. Microarray analysis of 21q22 amplification in one case demonstrated alternating levels of high copy number gain split within the RUNX1 locus at 21q22. The same patient also had mutated TP53. Two patients died at 1.5 and 11 months post-treatment, while the third elected palliative care and died within 2 weeks.

Conclusions: Our results provide further evidence that 21q22 amplification in AML is associated with complex karyotypes, TP53 aberrations, and poor outcomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that 21q22 amplification is not always intrachromosomally localized to chromosome 21 and could be a result of structural aberrations involving 21q22 and other chromosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13039-022-00606-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9264596PMC
July 2022

Blood lipids and all-cause mortality among old people: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey 2008-2018.

Epidemiol Health 2022 Jul 5:e2022054. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Proper concentration of blood lipids is essential to the survival of seniors. Past studies on old people showed inconsistent relationships between blood lipids and all-cause mortality.

Methods: In this retrospective longitudinal study, 1067 Chinese elderly participants were enrolled from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey at baseline in 2008 and followed up until death or December 31, 2018. The outcome was all-cause mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to estimate Hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval values and the participants were stratified into three groups (60-80, 80-100, or ≥100 years) for further analysis. The survival probability according to lipid profiles quartiles were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier curves, and the log-rank tests were performed.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 84.84 years old and 56.98% of them were female. 578 individuals died and 277 were lost to follow up in ten years. Mean TC, HDL-C and LDL-C were higher among those who died than those survived. Participants with the second quartile of HDL-C, the highest quartile of LDL-C and TG had a 28% higher risk, 23% and 49% lower risk of for all-cause mortality, respectively. After further adjustment, the association remained except for HDL-C, and an extra association between all-cause mortality and the third quartile of TC and LDL-C and the second quartile of TG appeared (HR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.01-2.06; HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49-0.94; HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.62-0.99).

Conclusion: Old people could pay attention to keep levels of LDL-C at 1.91-2.47 mmol/L for healthy aging while maintaining TG not less than 1.66 mmol/L may benefit for survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022054DOI Listing
July 2022

[Study on the quantitative evaluation parameter system for basic acupuncture manipulations based on 3D motion tracking technology].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2022 Jul;42(7):827-33

School of Acupuncture- Moxibustion and Tuina, Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai 201203, China.

Objective: To establish a quantitative evaluation parameter system for basic acupuncture manipulations based on 3D motion tracking technology, and to further analyze the characteristics of acupuncture manipulation.

Methods: The motion tracking system Simi Motion Ver.8.5 was used to collect parameters of acupuncture manipulations, so as to establish a quantitative evaluation system mainly in spatial control parameters, time control parameters and stability parameters. Based on the evaluation parameter system, data of acupuncture manipulations (even reinforcing-reducing manipulation using lifting-thrusting technique and twirling technique) were collected from 19 teachers majored in acupuncture-moxibustion, of which the characteristics were analyzed and were compared with the results tested by traditional ATP-Ⅱ acupuncture manipulation parameter determination apparatus (ATP-Ⅱ).

Results: The evaluation parameter system could quantitatively analyze the basic acupuncture manipulations in 3 aspects, i.e. space, time and stability. Acupuncture manipulations were performed by shifting the needle body in a certain range along , and axes. The amplitude and speed of thumb movement were greater than those of index finger. The time-history of lifting was similar to thrusting, while the time-history of twirling to left was similar to twirling to right in even reinforcing-reducing manipulation. The coordinate-time curve of finger movement of the evaluation system had consistent wave pattern compared with the voltage-time curve generated by ATP-Ⅱ.

Conclusion: The quantitative evaluation parameter system based on 3D motion tracking technology can objectively evaluate basic acupuncture manipulations, and show the characteristics of different manipulations and the movement details of finger joints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20210708-k0006DOI Listing
July 2022

Spike-mediated ACE2 down-regulation was involved in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Infect 2022 Jul 3. Epub 2022 Jul 3.

Institute for Hepatology, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518112, China; Guangdong Key laboratory for anti-infection Drug Quality Evaluation, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518112, China; Shenzhen Research Center for Communicable Disease Diagnosis, Treatment of Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518112, China. Electronic address:

The ongoing global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a serious threat to human health, with patients reportedly suffering from thrombus, vascular injury and coagulation in addition to acute and diffuse lung injury and respiratory diseases. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry, is also an important regulator of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) homeostasis, which plays an unsettled role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Here, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein activated intracellular signals to degrade ACE2 mRNA. The decrease of ACE2 and higher level of angiotensin (Ang) II were verified in COVID-19 patients. High dose of Ang II induced pulmonary artery endothelial cell death in vitro, which was also observed in the lung of COVID-19 patients. Our finding indicates that the downregulation of ACE2 potentially links COVID-19 to the imbalance of RAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2022.06.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9250808PMC
July 2022

Substrate access path-guided engineering of L-threonine aldolase for improving diastereoselectivity.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jul 21;58(59):8258-8261. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

ZJU-Hangzhou Global Scientific and Technological Innovation Centre, Hangzhou, 311200, Zhejiang, China.

The L-threonine aldolase from was engineered to improve its diastereoselectivity by a CAST/ISM strategy, providing insights into the relationship between the physico-chemical properties of the substrate access path and diastereoselectivity. The steric hindrance, hydrophobic interaction and π-π interaction cooperated to improve the diastereoselectivity of the enzyme, with a diastereomeric excess (de) value reaching 96.3% from 26.8%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc02644aDOI Listing
July 2022

Hypercholesterolemia Correlates With Glomerular Phospholipase A2 Receptor Deposit and Serum Anti-Phospholipase A2 Receptor Antibody and Predicts Proteinuria Outcome in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

Front Immunol 2022 17;13:905930. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Nephrology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: The anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibody is a non-invasive diagnostic tool and prognosis predictor of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Baseline hypercholesterolemia independently predicts proteinuria outcomes in IMN patients. Thus, we investigated whether hyperlipidemia is correlated with anti-PLA2R and pathological indicators.

Methods: A total of 495 IMN patients identified by kidney biopsy in Wuhan Tongji Hospital, China, from January 2016 through December 2020 were enrolled in this study. Data on clinical features, pathology findings, and outcomes were collected.

Results: Total cholesterol (TC), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were positively related to proteinuria, indicating damage to the renal glomerulus [Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.432, 0.462, 0.315, and 0.289, respectively, < 0.001 for all]. In univariate logistic regression, low HDL-C [odds ratio (OR): 0.856; 95% CI: 0.778-0.939; = 0.001] and high TG [OR: 1.025; 95% CI: 1.006-1.044; = 0.011] were correlated with tubular atrophy, suggesting lesions on tubules. Increased TC [adjusted OR: 1.285; 95% CI: 1.119-1.475; < 0.001], non-HDL-C [adjusted OR: 1.284; 95% CI: 1.113-1.482; = 0.001], and LDL-C [adjusted OR: 1.178; 95% CI: 1.009-1.376; = 0.039] independently predicted glomerular PLA2R deposit; similar results were observed for lipids in predicting the seropositivity of anti-PLA2R antibodies. After treatment, increased HDL-C [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.764; 95% CI: 1.241-2.507; = 0.002] and decreased non-HDL-C [adjusted HR: 0.884; 95% CI: 0.795-0.983; = 0.022] independently predicted proteinuria remission.

Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia is a potentially useful biomarker for disease severity, serum anti-PLA2R antibody, glomerular PLA2R deposit, and proteinuria outcome of IMN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.905930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9248763PMC
June 2022

Optimizing Wheat Yield, Water, and Nitrogen Use Efficiency With Water and Nitrogen Inputs in China: A Synthesis and Life Cycle Assessment.

Front Plant Sci 2022 16;13:930484. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

The State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

To meet the demand of the fast increasing population, enhancing the wheat ( L.) yield and resource use efficiency by optimizing water and nitrogen (N) management can greatly improve agricultural sustainability and enhance regenerative farming in developing countries such as China. Based on 126 studies conducted in China between 1996 and 2018, using meta-analysis in combination with decision regression tree modeling and life cycle assessment (LCA), this study aimed to (1) quantify the effect of water and N input on wheat yield, water productivity (WP ), and N use efficiency (NUE ), and evaluate the subsequent environmental impact in different regions using LCA; and (2) evaluate, model, and rank the roles of environmental (e.g., soil nutrient status and climatic factors) and agronomic factors (e.g., water and N management practices) affecting wheat yield, WP , and NUE . The results showed that irrigation and N addition increased the average yield and WP by 40 and 15%, respectively, relative to control treatments with no irrigation or fertilizer application. The mean water saving potential (WSP) and N saving potential (NSP) in China were estimated at 11 and 10%, respectively. Soil nutrient status [e.g., initial soil phosphorus (P) and potassium (K)] and soil organic carbon content affected the wheat yield, WP , and NUE more significantly than climatic factors [mean annual temperature (MAT)] or water and N management practices. The structural equation-based modeling indicated that initial soil nutrient condition impacted productivity and resource use efficiency more at the below optimal water and N levels than above. The risk-factor-based feature ranking indicated that site-specific environmental and soil condition was highly informative toward model construction but split input of N or water had less impact on yield and input use efficiency. LCA demonstrated that to further mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, water- or N-saving management should be promoted in China. Collectively, our research implies that long-term soil health and nutrient enhancement should be more beneficial for increasing yield and resource use efficiency in wheat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.930484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9244784PMC
June 2022

Efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injection replacing epoetin alfa injection for the treatment of renal anemia in Chinese hemodialysis patients: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, noninferiority phase III trial.

Chronic Dis Transl Med 2022 Jun 18;8(2):134-144. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Nephrology Shanghai Changzheng Hospital Shanghai 200003 China.

Background: This study was to explore the clinical efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injection replacing epoetin alfa injection (recombinant human erythropoietin injection, rHuEPO) for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney failure in Chinese patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Method: This study was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, intergroup parallel control phase III noninferiority trial from April 19, 2013 to September 9, 2014 at 25 sites. In this study, the members of the darbepoetin alfa group underwent intravenous administration once per week or once every two weeks. The members of the control drug epoetin alfa group underwent intravenous administration two or three times per week. All subjects underwent epoetin alfa administration during the 8-week baseline period. After that, subjects were randomly assigned to the darbepoetin alfa group or epoetin alfa group. The noninferiority in the changes of the average Hb concentrations from the baseline to the end of the evaluation period (noninferiority threshold: -1.0 g/dl) was tested between the two treatments. The time-dependent hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the maintenance rate of the target Hb concentration (the proportion of subjects with Hb concentrations between 10.0 and 12.0 g/dl) were also evaluated. Iron metabolism, including changes in the serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, transferrin saturation, and comparisons of the dose adjustments between the two groups during the treatment period were analyzed further. Adverse events (AEs) were also observed and compared, and the safety was analyzed between the two treatment groups. The conversion rate switching from epoetin alfa to darbepoetin alfa was also discussed. SAS® software version 9.2 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were used for all efficacy, safety, and demographic variable analyses, including for the primary efficacy indicators.

Results: Four hundred and sixty-six patients were enrolled in this study, and ultimately 384 cases were analyzed for safety, including 267 cases in the darbepoetin alfa group and 117 cases in the epoetin alfa group. There were 211 cases in the per-protocol set, including 152 cases in the darbepoetin alfa group and 59 cases in the epoetin alfa group. The changes in the average Hb concentrations from the baseline to the end of the evaluation period were -0.07 and -0.15 g/dl in the darbepoetin alfa group and epoetin alfa group respectively. The difference between the two groups was 0.08 g/dl (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.22 to 0.39), and the lower limit of the 95% CI was -0.22 > -1.0 g/dl. The average Hb concentrations of the two groups were 10.88-11.43 g/dl (darbepoetin alfa) and 10.91-11.38 g/dl (epoetin alfa) during the study period of Weeks 0-28, with the maintenance rates of the target Hb concentration ranging within 71%-87% and 78%-95% in the darbepoetin alfa group and epoetin alfa group respectively. During the period of comparison between the two groups, the incidence of AEs in the darbepoetin alfa group was 61.42%, while in the epoetin alfa group it was 56.41%. All of the adverse events and reactions in the study were those commonly associated with hemodialysis.

Conclusion: The overall efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa for the treatment of Chinese renal anemia patients undergoing hemodialysis are consistent with those of epoetin alfa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cdt3.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9215713PMC
June 2022

Underwater robot coordination using a bio-inspired electrocommunication system.

Bioinspir Biomim 2022 07 20;17(5). Epub 2022 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Intelligent Biomimetic Design Lab, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

Due to the challenging communication and control systems, few underwater multi-robot coordination systems are currently developed. In nature, weakly electric fish can organize their collective activities using electrocommunication in turbid water. Inspired by this communication mechanism, we developed an artificial electrocommunication system for underwater robots in our previous work. In this study, we coordinate a group of underwater robots using this bio-inspired electrocommunication. We first design a time division multiple access (TDMA) network protocol for electrocommunication to avoid communication conflicts during multi-robot coordination. Then, we revise a distributed controller to coordinate a group of underwater robots. The distributed controller on each robot generates the required controls based on adjacent states obtained through electrocommunication. A central pattern generator (CPG) controller is designed to adjust the speed of individuals according to distributed control law. Simulations and experimental results show that a group of underwater robots is able to achieve coordination with the developed electrocommunication and control systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/ac7d28DOI Listing
July 2022

Dynamic immune ecosystem of dengue infection revealed by single-cell sequencing.

J Leukoc Biol 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education, College of Biomedical Information and Engineering, Hainan Women and Children's Medical Center, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Dengue is the most common human arboviral disease worldwide, which can result in severe complications. A dysfunctional immune response in dengue infective patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, but the heterogeneity and dynamics of immune infiltrates during dengue infection remain poorly characterized. Here, we identified the immune cell types in scRNA-seq data from 13127 cells of 10 dengue infective patients and discovered the dynamic immune ecosystems of dengue infection. Notably, genes that exhibited higher expression in specific cell types play important roles in response to virus infection in a module manner. Transcription factors (TFs) are the major regulators (i.e., PAX5, IRF7, KLF4, and IRF8) that can potentially regulate infection-related genes. We demonstrated that the dynamic rewired regulatory network during dengue infection. Moreover, our data revealed the complex cell-cell communications from control to fever and severe dengue patients and prevalent cell-cell communication rewiring was observed. We further identified the IFN-II and CXCL signaling pathways that medicated the communications and play important roles in dengue infection. Together, our comprehensive analysis of dynamic immune ecosystem of dengue infection provided novel insights for understanding the pathogenesis of and developing effective therapeutic strategies for dengue infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.6MA0622-738RRDOI Listing
June 2022

Discovery of dearomatized isoprenylated acylphloroglucinols with colon tumor suppressive activities in mice via inhibiting NFκB-FAT1-PDCD4 signaling activation.

Eur J Med Chem 2022 Sep 14;239:114532. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Yunnan Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, Kunming, 650201, China. Electronic address:

Dearomatized isoprenylated acylphloroglucinols (DIAPs) are specific natural products mainly distributed in the plants of genus Hypericum. In this study, guided by HPLC-UV screening, 46 DIAPs (approximately 70% of all DIAPs) including 20 new ones and an unprecedented architecture, were discovered from the roots of Hypericum henryi, which were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic, X-ray crystallography, and ECD methods. Compounds 1-7, 39, and 41-42 exhibited remarkable cytotoxicities (IC = 0.84-5.63 μM) in human colon cancer HCT116 cells, in which 2 and 6 possessed selective cytotoxicities towards colon cancer cells. The preliminary structure-activity relationships of these tested compounds were discussed. In addition, mechanistic investigations demonstrated that 2 and 6 could significantly suppress the expressions of NFκB, FAT1, and promoted novel tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 in HCT116 cells. Furthermore, in HCT116 colon xenograft-bearing mouse model, treatments with 2 and 6 reduced the growth of xenograft tumors in dose-dependent manner. Expressions of FAT1 in tumors were also decreased in mice treated with 2 and 6, suggesting their anti-tumor effects were via FAT1 signaling pathway. In conclusion, this is the first report on the mechanistic and in vivo studies of DIAP, indicating that these metabolites can be considered as a new type of anti-colon cancer lead agents for further drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2022.114532DOI Listing
September 2022

Stereotactic Radiotherapy: An Alternative Option for Refractory Ventricular Tachycardia to Drug and Ablation Therapy.

J Clin Med 2022 Jun 20;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Ionic-Molecular Function of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Institute of Cardiology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300211, China.

Refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) often occurs in the context of organic heart disease. It is associated with significantly high mortality and morbidity rates. Antiarrhythmic drugs and catheter ablation represent the two main treatment options for refractory VT, but their use can be associated with inadequate therapeutic responses and procedure-related complications. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is extensively applied in the precision treatment of solid tumors, with excellent therapeutic responses. Recently, this highly precise technology has been applied for radioablation of VT, and its early results demonstrate a favorable safety profile. This review presents the potential value of SBRT in refractory VT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9225049PMC
June 2022

Lethality of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Surpasses Conventional Zinc Oxide via Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Damage and Calcium Overload: A Comparative Hepatotoxicity Study.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 16;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Yuanmingyuan West Road No.2, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with high bioavailability and excellent physicochemical properties are gradually becoming commonplace as a substitute for conventional ZnO materials. The present study aimed to investigate the hepatotoxicity mechanism of ZnO NPs and traditional non-nano ZnO particles, both in vivo and in vitro, and identify the differences in their toxic effects. The results showed that the extent and conditions of zinc ion release from ZnO NPs were inconsistent with those of ZnO. The RNA-seq results revealed that the expression quantity of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) affected by ZnO NPs was more than in ZnO, and the overall differences in genes or transcripts in the ZnO NPs group were more pronounced than in the ZnO group. Furthermore, the cell inactivation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and intracellular calcium overload induced by ZnO NPs were more serious than ZnO in HepG2 cells. Moreover, compared with traditional ZnO, the rat liver damage induced by ZnO NPs was more significant, with evidence of higher AST and ALT levels, weaker antioxidant capacity, and more serious histopathological damage ( < 0.05). In summary, the hepatotoxicity of ZnO NPs was more serious than that of conventional ZnO, which is helpful to understand the hepatotoxicity mechanism of Zn compounds in different states and improve the risk assessment of novel nano ZnO products in a variety of applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9223789PMC
June 2022

Cascading Photoelectric Detecting and Chemiresistive Gas-Sensing Properties of Pb S I Nanowire Mesh for Multi-Factor Accurate Fire Alarm.

Small Methods 2022 Jun 22:e2200470. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China.

Accurate fire warning is very important for people's life and property safety. The most commonly used fire alarm is based on the detection of a single factor of gases, smoke particles, or temperature, which easily causes false alarm due to complex environmental conditions. A facile multi-factor route for fabricating an accurate analog fire alarm using a Pb S I nanowire mesh based on its photoelectric and gas-sensing dual function is presented. The Pb S I nanowire mesh presents excellent photoelectric detection capabilities and is sensitive to ppm-level NO at room temperature. Under the "two-step verification" circuit of light and gas factors, the bimodal simulation fire alarm based on this Pb S I nanowire mesh can resist the interference of complex environmental factors and effectively reduce the false alarm rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smtd.202200470DOI Listing
June 2022

Ultrasonic Image Feature Analysis under Deep Learning Algorithm to Evaluate the Efficacy of Drug-Coated Balloon for Treatment of Arteriosclerotic Occlusion.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 31;2022:3176716. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of the Vascular Surgery, The Affiliated Huaian No.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huaian City 223300, China.

In order to explore the adoption of ultrasonic images under deep learning (DL) algorithm to evaluate the efficacy of drug-coated balloon (DCB) for treatment of arteriosclerotic occlusion, 56 patients who underwent DCB surgery of lower limb artery were selected and all the patients received the examinations of algorithmic ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) before surgery. According to the examination methods, they were classified into algorithmic ultrasound group and DSA group. One to two months after DCB surgery, ultrasound examination was performed with the region-based faster convolutional neural network (faster R-CNN) target detection algorithm to check the therapeutic effect. The results showed that the image effect processed by the target detection algorithm based on DL was signally better than that of traditional ultrasonic processing algorithm in Dice, precision (Pre), and sensitivity, with significant difference ( < 0.05). Compared with DSA, algorithmic ultrasound showed better consistency between the two groups in the diagnosis of common femoral artery, superficial femoral artery, and popliteal artery stenosis, with statistical significance ( < 0.05). However, for the diagnosis of anterior tibial artery stenosis, the consistency between algorithmic ultrasound and DSA was general. The residual stenosis of each artery segment decreased obviously in postoperative review compared with that before surgery, and the difference was statistically significant ( < 0.05). Besides, both the pulsatility index (PI) and the blood flow velocity of the dorsalis pedis artery increased after surgery, compared with those before surgery, with significant differences ( < 0.05). To sum up, ultrasound based on DL target detection algorithm had good imaging effect and good consistency with DSA, which was of the clinical reference value. Additionally, DCB surgery was helpful to treat arteriosclerosis occlusion and improve limb blood supply, which had clinical adoption value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3176716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201733PMC
June 2022

Developing a new nomogram to predict early allograft dysfunction after liver transplantation: a nudge in the right direction.

Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr 2022 Jun;11(3):462-466

Department of Liver Surgery and Liver Transplant Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/hbsn-2022-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9186210PMC
June 2022

α-Glucosidase inhibitive diarylheptanoids from Ottelia acuminata var. acuminata, a traditional vegetable of Bai Nationality in Yunnan.

Nat Prod Bioprospect 2022 Jun 10;12(1):22. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China and Yunnan Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, China.

Diabetes is an urgent health issue characterized by ethnic and regional variations, and is inseparable from the different dietary habits. It is worthy to note that the incidence of diabetes in Bai nationality has been reported to be much lower than Han in China. As a daily vegetable of Bai, the phytochemical and antidiabetic study of Ottelia acuminata var. acuminata had not been carried out. In this study, 41 metabolites with diverse diarylheptanoid (six new ones, Otteacumienes A-F), flavone, sesquiterpenoid, coumarin, lignan, polyacetylene, and alkaloid skeletons were characterized from O. acuminata var. acuminata. Among them, the racemic nature of 3 was characterized by chiral resolution and calculated ECD methods. The biological study revealed diarylheptanoids showed significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with 5 as the most effective one (60-fold stronger than acarbose). Molecular docking studies indicated that these structures have different binding cavities with acarbose. This study demonstrated that O. acuminata var. acuminata might correlated with the low incidence diabetes of Bai and the diarylheptanoids may have potential therapeutic value for diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13659-022-00341-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9184688PMC
June 2022

Honeycomb-like 3D carbon skeletons with embedded phosphorus-rich phosphide nanoparticles as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

Nanoscale 2022 Jun 23;14(24):8744-8752. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

Phosphorus-rich iron phosphides (FeP) have been regarded as excellent anode candidates for lithium storage owing to their low cost, high natural abundance, high theoretical capacity, and reasonable redox potential. However, FeP suffers from a few challenging problems such as low reversibility, fast capacity degradation, and big volume variation. Herein, we have designed and synthesized a 3D honeycomb-like carbon skeleton with embedded FeP nanoparticles (denoted as FeP [email protected]), which can significantly promote the kinetics and maintain the structural stability during the cycling, resulting in an excellent electrochemical performance reflected by high reversibility and long-term cycling stability. FeP [email protected] shows high reversibility, delivering a reversible capacity as high as 938 mA h g at 0.5 A g. It also shows excellent cycling stability, delivering a capacity of 620 mA h g after 500 cycles at 1 A g. Moreover, the fast kinetics and lithium storage mechanism of FeP [email protected] are investigated by quantitative analysis and X-ray diffraction. Such superior performance demonstrates that FeP [email protected] could be a promising and attractive anode candidate for lithium storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2nr00969bDOI Listing
June 2022

The piston Riemann problem in a photon superfluid.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 6;13(1):3137. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Light flow in nonlinear media can exhibit quantum hydrodynamical features which are profoundly different from those of classical fluids. Here, we show that a rather extreme regime of quantum hydrodynamics can be accessed by exploring the piston problem (a paradigm in gas dynamics) for light, and its generalization, named after the celebrated mathematician Riemann, where the piston acts on a concomitant abrupt change of photon density. Our experiment reveals regimes featuring optical rarefaction (retracting piston) or shock (pushing piston) wave pairs, and most importantly the transition to a peculiar type of flow, occurring above a precise critical piston velocity, where the light shocks are smoothly interconnected by a large contrast, periodic, fully nonlinear wave. The transition to such extreme hydrodynamic state is generic for superfluids, but to date remained elusive to any other quantum fluid system. Our full-fiber setup used to observe this phenomenon in temporal domain proves to be a versatile alternative to other platforms currently employed to investigate the hydrodynamical properties of quantum fluids of light.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30734-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170689PMC
June 2022
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