Publications by authors named "Gang Wu"

1,705 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Neoplastic Esophagogastric Anastomotic Strictures After Esophagectomy.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:668593. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Neoplastic esophagogastric anastomotic strictures after resection of esophageal cancer is a very difficult problem in clinical practice. We aim at to investigate the safety and feasibility of arterial infusion chemotherapy in treatment of neoplastic esophagogastric anastomotic strictures after esophagectomy.

Methods: From October 2014 to December 2019, 50 patients with Neoplastic esophagogastric anastomotic strictures after resection of esophageal cancer were assessed retrospectively. Preoperative dysphagia was grade III in 34 cases and grade IV in 16 cases. Thirty-eight patients had different degrees of dyspnea before surgery Twenty-five patients had intolerable (grade IV) dyspnea and airway stenting was undertaken before surgery. Thirteen patients had tolerable dyspnea that did not require airway stenting, and preoperative dyspnea was grade III.

Results: All patients were successfully treated with arterial infusion chemotherapy, no paraplegia or death occurred. The dysphagia grade of 50 patients after AIC was compared: one case had grade I, 40 cases had grade II, and nine cases had grade III. Thirteen patients had tolerable dyspnea that did not necessitate airway stenting. Dyspnea was classified as grade I in five cases and grade II in eight cases. After 1-3 courses of AIC, 50 patients were followed up for a complete response (eight cases), partial response (28) and stable disease (14 cases). Total objective effective rate (complete response+ partial response) and disease control rate(complete response + partial response + stable disease)were 72.0% and 100.0%, respectively. The median duration of follow-up was 8.5 months. One-year survival was 46.0%.

Conclusion: Arterial infusion chemotherapy is safe and efficacious treatment for Neoplastic esophagogastric anastomotic strictures after esophagectomy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.668593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187754PMC
May 2021

Include macrofungi in biodiversity targets.

Science 2021 Jun;372(6547):1160

Key Laboratory of Biosafety, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China, Nanjing 210042, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abj5479DOI Listing
June 2021

CDC42EP3 is a key promoter involved in the development and progression of gastric cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of gastrointestinal surgery, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450003, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and severely endangers human health. Due to the low rate of diagnosis, most patients with gastric cancer are diagnosed as advanced. CDC42 effector protein 3 (CDC42EP3) has been revealed to be involved in several types of human cancers' development and progression. However, the function of CDC42EP3 in GC is not yet clear. CDC42EP3 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), qRT-PCR and Western blot assay in tumor tissues and cell lines of GC. CDC42EP3 knockdown cell models were constructed by lentivirus transfection. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the MTT assay. The wound-healing assay and the transwell assay were utilized to assess the cell migration. Also, the cell apoptosis and the cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. Moreover, the mechanism was investigated by Human Apoptosis Antibody Array. The in vivo experiments were conducted to verify the effects of CDC42EP3 knockdown on the tumor growth of GC. The expression level of CDC42EP3 was up-regulated in tumor tissues. High CDC42EP3 expression was positively related to more advanced tumor grade. CDC42EP3 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation and migration, promoted cell apoptosis and suppressed the tumor growth. On the other hand, it was also found that the silencing of CDC42EP3 inhibited HSP27 and IGF-1sR expression as well as promoted Caspase3, p53, TNF-α, TNF-β, TRAILR-1 and TRAILR-2 expression. CDC42EP3 was revealed to work as a tumor promoter in the development and progression of GC, which could be a promising therapeutic target for the therapy of GC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgab048DOI Listing
June 2021

Enhancer hijacking drives oncogenic BCL11B expression in lineage ambiguous stem cell leukemia.

Cancer Discov 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Data Science, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

Lineage ambiguous leukemias are high-risk malignancies of poorly understood genetic basis. Here, we describe a distinct subgroup of acute leukemia with expression of myeloid, T lymphoid and stem cell markers driven by aberrant allele-specific deregulation of BCL11B, a master transcription factor responsible for thymic T-lineage commitment and specification. Mechanistically, this deregulation was driven by chromosomal rearrangements that juxtapose BCL11B to super-enhancers active in hematopoietic progenitors, or focal amplifications that generate a super-enhancer from a non-coding element distal to BCL11B. Chromatin conformation analyses demonstrate long range interactions of rearranged enhancers with the expressed BCL11B allele, and association of BCL11B with activated hematopoietic progenitor cell cis-regulatory elements, suggesting BCL11B is aberrantly co-opted into a gene regulatory network that drives transformation by maintaining a progenitor state. These data support a role for ectopic BCL11B expression in primitive hematopoietic cells mediated by enhancer hijacking as an oncogenic driver of human lineage ambiguous leukemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-21-0145DOI Listing
June 2021

CovidExpress: an interactive portal for intuitive investigation on SARS-CoV-2 related transcriptomes.

bioRxiv 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in humans could cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since its first discovery in Dec 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic and caused 3.3 million direct/indirect deaths (2021 May). Amongst the scientific community’s response to COVID-19, data sharing has emerged as an essential aspect of the combat against SARS-CoV-2. Despite the ever-growing studies about SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, to date, only a few databases were curated to enable access to gene expression data. Furthermore, these databases curated only a small set of data and do not provide easy access for investigators without computational skills to perform analyses. To fill this gap and advance open-access to the growing gene expression data on this deadly virus, we collected about 1,500 human bulk RNA-seq datasets from publicly available resources, developed a database and visualization tool, named CovidExpress ( https://stjudecab.github.io/covidexpress ). This open access database will allow research investigators to examine the gene expression in various tissues, cell lines, and their response to SARS-CoV-2 under different experimental conditions, accelerating the understanding of the etiology of this disease in order to inform the drug and vaccine development. Our integrative analysis of this big dataset highlights a set of commonly regulated genes in SARS-CoV-2 infected lung and nasal tissues, including OASL that were under-studied in COVID-19 related reports. Our results also suggested a potential FURIN positive feedback loop that might explain the evolutional advantage of SARS-CoV-2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.14.444026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168395PMC
May 2021

An Editing-Site-Specific PCR Method for Detection and Quantification of -Edited Rice.

Foods 2021 May 27;10(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China.

Genome-edited plants created by genome editing technology have been approved for commercialization. Due to molecular characteristics that differ from classic genetically modified organisms (GMOs), establishing regulation-compliant analytical methods for identification and quantification of genome-edited plants has always been regarded as a challenging task. An editing-site-specific PCR method was developed based on the unique edited sequence in -edited rice plants. Test results of seven primer/probe sets indicated that this method can identify specific -edited rice from other -edited rice and wild types of rice with high specificity and sensitivity. The use of LNA (locked nucleic acid) in a probe can efficiently increase the specificity of the editing-site-specific PCR method at increased annealing temperature which can eliminate non-specific amplification of the non-target. The genome-edited ingredient content in blinded samples at the level of 0.1% to 5.0% was accurately quantified by this method on the ddPCR platform with RSD of <15% and bias in the range of ±17%, meeting the performance requirements for GMO detection method. The developed editing-site-specific PCR method presents a promising detection and quantification technique for genome-edited plants with known edited sequence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061209DOI Listing
May 2021

Human Salivary Histatin-1-Functionalized Gelatin Methacrylate Hydrogels Promote the Regeneration of Cartilage and Subchondral Bone in Temporomandibular Joints.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 May 19;14(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Pathology, Amsterdam UMC and Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU), Amsterdam Movement Science, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The avascular structure and lack of regenerative cells make the repair of osteochondral defects in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) highly challenging in the clinic. To provide a viable treatment option, we developed a methacrylated gelatin (Gel-MA) hydrogel functionalized with human salivary histatin-1 (Hst1). Gel-MA is highly biocompatible, biodegradable, and cost-effective. Hst1 is capable of activating a series of cell activities, such as adhesion, migration, differentiation, and angiogenesis. To evaluate the efficacy of Hst1/Gel-MA, critical-size osteochondral defects (3 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth) of TMJ in New Zealand white rabbits were surgically created and randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups: (1) control (no filling material); (2) Gel-MA hydrogel; (3) Hst1/Gel-MA hydrogel. Samples were retrieved 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-surgery and subjected to gross examination and a series of histomorphometric and immunological analyses. In comparison with the control and Gel-MA alone groups, Hst1/Gel-MA hydrogel was associated with significantly higher International Cartilage Repair Society score, modified O'Driscoll score, area percentages of newly formed bone, cartilage, collagen fiber, and glycosaminoglycan, and expression of collagen II and aggrecan. In conclusion, Hst1/Gel-MA hydrogels significantly enhance bone and cartilage regeneration, thus bearing promising application potential for repairing osteochondral defects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14050484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159088PMC
May 2021

Advanced Nanocarbons for Enhanced Performance and Durability of Platinum Catalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

Small 2021 Jun 1:e2006805. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, 14260, USA.

Insufficient stability of current carbon supported Pt and Pt alloy catalysts is a significant barrier for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). As a primary degradation cause to trigger Pt nanoparticle migration, dissolution, and aggregation, carbon corrosion remains a significant challenge. Compared with enhancing Pt and PtM alloy particle stability, improving support stability is rather challenging due to carbon's thermodynamic instability under fuel cell operation. In recent years, significant efforts have been made to develop highly durable carbon-based supports concerning innovative nanostructure design and synthesis along with mechanistic understanding. This review critically discusses recent progress in developing carbon-based materials for Pt catalysts and provides synthesis-structure-performance correlations to elucidate underlying stability enhancement mechanisms. The mechanisms and impacts of carbon support degradation on Pt catalyst performance are first discussed. The general strategies are summarized to tailor the carbon structures and strengthen the metal-support interactions, followed by discussions on how these designs lead to enhanced support stability. Based on current experimental and theoretical studies, the critical features of carbon supports are analyzed concerning their impacts on the performance and durability of Pt catalysts in fuel cells. Finally, the perspectives are shared on future directions to develop advanced carbon materials with favorable morphologies and nanostructures to increase Pt utilization, strengthen metal-support interactions, facilitate mass/charge transfer, and enhance corrosion resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202006805DOI Listing
June 2021

Chronic Jetlag-Induced Alterations in Pancreatic Diurnal Gene Expression.

Physiol Genomics 2021 05 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States

Cell-autonomous circadian clocks exist in nearly every organ and function to maintain homeostasis through a complex series of transcriptional-translational feedback loops. The response of these peripheral clocks to external perturbations, such as chronic jetlag and shiftwork, has been extensively investigated. However, an evaluation of the effects of chronic jetlag on the mouse pancreatic transcriptome is still lacking. Herein we report an evaluation of the diurnal variations encountered in the pancreatic transcriptome following exposure to an established chronic jetlag protocol. We found approximately 5.4% of the pancreatic transcriptome was rhythmic. Following chronic jetlag, we found the number of rhythmic transcripts decreased to approximately 3.6% of the transcriptome. Analysis of the core clock genes, which orchestrate circadian physiology, revealed that nearly all exhibited a shift in the timing of peak gene expression - known as a phase shift. Similarly, over 95% of the rhythmically expressed genes in the pancreatic transcriptome exhibited a phase shift, many of which were found to be important for metabolism. Evaluation of the genes involved in pancreatic exocrine secretion and insulin signaling revealed many pancreas-specific genes were also rhythmically expressed and several displayed a concomitant phase shift with chronic jetlag. Phase differences were found 9 days after normalization, indicating a persistent failure to reentrain to the new light-dark cycle. This study is the first to evaluate the endogenous pancreatic clock and rhythmic gene expression in whole pancreas over 48 hours, and how the external perturbation of chronic jetlag affects the rhythmic expression of genes in the pancreatic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00022.2021DOI Listing
May 2021

Targeting the Transnitrosylation Cascade Provides a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer's Disease.

Neurosci Bull 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine, Key Laboratory of Education Ministry of China for Neurological Disorders, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00710-yDOI Listing
May 2021

Apatinib Plus Gefitinib as First-Line Treatment in Advanced EGFR-Mutant NSCLC: The Phase III ACTIVE Study (CTONG1706).

J Thorac Oncol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Blocking vascular endothelial growth factor pathway can enhance the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR-mutant NSCLC. ACTIVE is the first phase 3 study conducted in the People's Republic of China evaluating apatinib, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, plus gefitinib as first-line therapy in EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

Methods: Treatment-naive patients with stage IIIB or IV nonsquamous NSCLC, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and EGFR exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R mutation were randomized 1:1 to receive oral gefitinib (250 mg/d), plus apatinib (500 mg/d; apatinib [A] + gefitinib [G] group), or placebo (placebo [P] + gefitinib [G] group). Stratification factors were mutation type, sex, and performance status. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by blinded independent radiology review committee (IRRC). Secondary end points were investigator-assessed PFS, overall survival, quality of life (QoL), safety, etc. Next-generation sequencing was used to explore efficacy predictors and acquired resistance.

Results: A total of 313 patients were assigned to the A + G (n = 157) or P + G group (n = 156). Median IRRC PFS in the A + G group was 13.7 months versus 10.2 months in the P + G group (hazard ratio 0.71, p = 0.0189). Investigator- and IRRC-assessed PFS were similar. Overall survival was immature. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events greater than or equal to grade 3 were hypertension (46.5%) and proteinuria (17.8%) in the A + G group and increased alanine aminotransferase (10.4%) and aspartate aminotransferase (3.2%) in the P + G group. QoL in the two groups had no statistical differences. Post hoc analysis revealed PFS benefits tended to favor the A + G group in patients with TP53 exon 8 mutation.

Conclusions: Apatinib + gefitinib as first-line therapy had superior PFS in advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC versus placebo + gefitinib. Combination therapy brought more adverse events but did not interfere QoL.

Trial Registration: NCT02824458.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.05.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Development and assessment of a duplex droplet digital PCR method for quantification of GM rice Kemingdao.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Key Laboratory of Biology and genetic improvement of oil crops of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430062, Hubei, China.

The implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling policies requires accurate quantitative methods to measure the GMO content in test samples. A Kemingdao/phospholipase D (KMD/PLD) duplex ddPCR method was established with rice genomic DNA (gDNA) of homozygous KMD as template by optimizing the annealing temperature and cycle number. Duplex ddPCR showed a linear response over the dynamic range from 68 to 175,000 copies, covering four orders of magnitude. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for duplex ddPCR were determined to be 9 copies and 34 copies of the rice haploid genome, respectively. A very high dilution factor would result in unacceptable bias and coefficients of variation for determining copy number of the gDNA solution, and more than 1000 copies of the DNA template in one reaction is preferred to obtain accurate quantitative results by duplex PCR. Five blinded DNA samples with copy number ratio of 10%, 5%, 1%, 0.1%, and 0.05%, and three blinded real-life matrix samples with mass fraction of 5%, 1%, and 0.5% were quantified by duplex ddPCR, simplex ddPCR, and qPCR. These three methods all gave comparable GMO content and copy numbers within the required precision, but the duplex ddPCR showed the narrowest uncertainty interval and provided the highest precision in comparison to simplex ddPCR and qPCR. The ddPCR is a more appealing and reliable technology for the accurate quantification of GMO content than simplex ddPCR and qPCR considering the uncertainty and precision of quantitative results, the time consumption of generating droplets, and the cost of ddPCR reagents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03390-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Corrigendum: Pinocembrin Decreases Ventricular Fibrillation Susceptibility in a Rat Model of Depression.

Front Pharmacol 2021 4;12:647320. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.547966.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.647320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129570PMC
May 2021

Enhanced Thermoelectric and Mechanical Performances in Sintered BiSbTe-AgSbSe Composite.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 20;13(21):24937-24944. Epub 2021 May 20.

Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, China.

Bismuth telluride alloys have dominated the industrial application of thermoelectric cooling, but the relatively poor mechanical performance of commercial zone-melting material seriously limits the device integration and stability. Here, we exhibit synergistically enhanced thermoelectric and mechanical performances of sintered BiSbTe-AgSbSe composites. It is found that the increased hole concentration improves the σ to 40 μW cm K at room temperature, and the emerged various defects effectively suppress the to 0.57 W m K at 350 K. All effects harvest a highest = 1.2 at 350 K along with an average = 1.0 between 300-500 K in the = 0.2 sample. Notably, AgSbSe addition not only optimizes the thermoelectric properties, but also enhances the mechanical performance with a Vickers hardness of 0.75 GPa. Furthermore, the isotropy of thermoelectric properties is also observably promoted by solid-phase reaction combined with high-energy ball milling and hot pressing. Our study reveals a viable strategy to improve the comprehensive performance of sintered bismuth telluride materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05525DOI Listing
June 2021

Diversity, novelty, antimicrobial activity, and new antibiotics of cultivable endophytic actinobacteria isolated from psammophytes collected from Taklamakan Desert.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Apr 6;11(2):241-250. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China.

Three hundred and twenty endophytic actinobacterial strains were isolated from psammophytes collected from Taklamakan Desert and identified. Among them, three strains already had been identified as new species of two genera and sixteen isolates showed relatively low 16S rRNA similarities < 98.6% to validly described species. Seventy-five of the isolates were selected as representative strains to screen antibacterial activity and mechanism. Forty-seven strains showed antagonistic activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria. Two strains produced bioactive compounds inducing DNA damage, and two strains produced bioactive compounds with inhibitory activity on protein biosynthesis. Notably, the strain sp. 8P21H-1 that demonstrated both strong antibacterial activity and inhibitory activity on protein biosynthesis was prioritized for exploring new antibiotics. Under the strategy of integrating genetics-based discovery program and MS/MS-based molecular networking, two new streptogramin-type antibiotics, i.e., acetyl-griseoviridin and desulphurizing griseoviridin, along with known griseoviridin, were isolated from the culture broth of strain 8P21H-1. Their chemical structures were determined by HR-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. Desulphurizing griseoviridin and griseoviridin exhibited antibacterial activities by inhibiting translation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2020.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116205PMC
April 2021

SMSIR: Spherical Measure Based Spherical Image Representation.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 May 18;PP. Epub 2021 May 18.

This paper presents a spherical measure based spherical image representation(SMSIR) and sphere-based resampling methods for generating our representation. On this basis, a spherical wavelet transform is also proposed. We first propose a formal recursive definition of the spherical triangle elements of SMSIR and a dyadic index scheme. The index scheme, which supports global random access and needs not to be pre-computed and stored, can efficiently index the elements of SMSIR like planar images. Two resampling methods to generate SMSIR from the most commonly used ERP(Equirectangular Projection) representation are presented. Notably, the spherical measure based resampling, which exploits the mapping between the spherical and the parameter domain, achieves higher computational efficiency than the spherical RBF(Radial Basis Function) based resampling. Finally, we design high-pass and low-pass filters with lifting schemes based on the dyadic index to further verify the efficiency of our index and deal with the spherical isotropy. It provides novel Multi-Resolution Analysis(MRA) for spherical images. Experiments on continuous synthetic spherical images indicate that our representation can recover the original image signals with higher accuracy than the ERP and CMP(Cubemap) representations at the same sampling rate. Besides, the resampling experiments on natural spherical images show that our resampling methods outperform the bilinear and bicubic interpolations concerning the subjective and objective quality. Particularly, as high as 2dB gain in terms of S-PSNR is achieved. Experiments also show that our spherical image transform can capture more geometric features of spherical images than traditional wavelet transform.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3079797DOI Listing
May 2021

Erratum: Microporous polysaccharide multilayer coated BCP composite scaffolds with immobilised calcitriol promote osteoporotic bone regeneration both and : Erratum.

Theranostics 2021 20;11(13):6524-6525. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Orthopaedics of Zhejiang Province, Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 109, Xueyuanxi road, 325027 Wenzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7150/thno.29566.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.61641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120221PMC
April 2021

The Thickness of Surface Grafting Layer on Bio-materials directly Mediates the Immuno-reacitivity of Macrophages .

Open Life Sci 2020 3;15:198-208. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Anatomy, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Biomechanics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 China.

Introducing the surface grafting layers to regulate bio-compatibility and bio-function is an important step in the tissue engineering field. However, whether the thickness variation of the introduced biomimetic layer impacts the behavior of the adhered immune effector cells is yet to be dissected fully. In this study, we used a surface-induced atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method to synthetize and graft poly-phenoxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) brushes having different lengths on the glass substrates. Primary murine peritoneal macrophages were collected and cultured on the PHEMA brushes and we investigated the influence of polymer brushes having different lengths on macrophages phenotype and function. Our results demonstrated that the thicker brushes (200 nm and 450 nm) are superior to the thinner layers (50 nm) for macrophages survival, proliferation, cell elongation and migration. Moreover, the thicker brushes are more beneficial for macrophage's activities and functions, presented by the increased production of M1-associated cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1, the elevated cell phagocytosis and the activation molecule F4/80 expression, and the reduced macrophages apoptosis in thicker brushes-sustained macrophages. Our data suggests that the thickness of the substrate grafting layer directly impacts macrophages recruitment and pro-inflammatory function, which is important in determining the intrinsic immuno-compatibilities of the surface modified-biomaterials and mediates material-host interactions .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/biol-2020-0020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114785PMC
May 2020

The force effects of two types of polyethylene terephthalate glyc-olmodified clear aligners immersed in artificial saliva.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10052. Epub 2021 May 12.

Shanghai Brismile Dental Clinic, No. 285 Jianguo West Rd, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Numerous factors can influence the force exerted by clear aligners on teeth. This study aimed to investigate the stability of the force delivered by two different material appliances. 90 clear aligners with 2 materials and three different activations were designed and fabricated. Then, a device was employed to measure the force generated by the two types of PET-G material appliances immersed in artificial saliva for 0, 3, 7, 10, 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy was applied to observe the morphologic alterations on the aligner surfaces, respectively. The forces generated by different activation appliance exhibited differently, 0.0 mm < 0.1 mm < 0.2 mm. In addition, increasing the immersion times and the orthodontic force also decreased, but the forces decreased differently. Compared with the forces of conventional PETG appliances with 0.20 mm activation, the modified PETG appliances with the same activation exhibited significantly higher mean force. When comparing the mean force for modified PETG appliances after 10 and 14 days with conventional PETG appliances, the delivery forces exhibited significant differences (P < 0.05). The force delivered by both materials decreased obviously following artificial saliva immersion, and the force generated by modified aligners exhibited better stability than conventional aligners.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89425-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115163PMC
May 2021

Impaired learning and memory in mice induced by nano neodymium oxide and possible mechanisms.

Environ Toxicol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Preclinical Medicine and Forensic, Baotou Medical College, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.

A growing number of individuals are now exposed to neodymium (Nd) owing to its extensive applications. However, the biological effects of Nd on humans, especially on learning and memory, remain elusive. To investigate whether Nd exposure affects learning and memory, in this study female ICR mice were exposed to nano Nd O via intranasal instillation at doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight, daily for 45 days. According to Morris water maze data, learning and memory parameters were significantly reduced in the 150 mg/kg nano-Nd O group than the sham control. Furthermore, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed that Nd levels were significantly higher in the hippo campus of the 100 and 150 mg/kg exposed group than the sham control; however, no significant differences were observed in the hippocampal histopathology between these groups. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species were elevated in hippocampal tissues of experimental groups than the sham control, 447.3 in high dose group and 360.0 in control group; however, malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased only in mice exposed to 100 and 150 mg/kg Nd O . High-performance liquid chromatography data demonstrated that levels of glutamic acid, glycine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid were higher in the hippocampus of mice exposed to 150 mg/kg Nd O than the sham control. Our findings indicated that the neuronal injury was induced by disruption of the oxidation-antioxidation homeostasis and altered amino acid neurotransmitter levels in the hippocampus, which could result in the poor cognitive performance demonstrated by exposed mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23148DOI Listing
May 2021

Radiological model based on the standard magnetic resonance sequences for detecting methylguanine methyltransferase methylation in glioma using texture analysis.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hainan General Hospital (Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University), Haikou, China.

This study aims to build a radiological model based on standard MR sequences for detecting methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation in gliomas using texture analysis. A retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in a cohort of 53 glioma patients who underwent standard preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Conventional visual radiographic features and clinical factors were compared between MGMT promoter methylated and unmethylated groups. Texture analysis extracted the top five most powerful texture features of MR images in each sequence quantitatively for detecting the MGMT promoter methylation status. The radiomic signature (Radscore) was generated by a linear combination of the five features and estimates in each sequence. The combined model based on each Radscore was established using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, nomogram, calibration, and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to evaluate the performance of the model. No significant differences were observed in any of the visual radiographic features or clinical factors between different MGMT methylated statuses. The top five most powerful features were selected from a total of 396 texture features of T1, contrast-enhanced T1, T2, and T2 FLAIR. Each sequence's Radscore can distinguish MGMT methylated status. A combined model based on Radscores showed differentiation between methylated MGMT and unmethylated MGMT both in the glioblastoma (GBM) dataset as well as the dataset for all other gliomas. The area under the ROC curve values for the combined model was 0.818, with 90.5% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity, in the GBM dataset, and 0.833, with 70.2% sensitivity and 90.6% specificity, in the overall gliomas dataset. Nomogram, calibration, and DCA also validated the performance of the combined model. The combined model based on texture features could be considered as a noninvasive imaging marker for detecting MGMT methylation status in glioma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14918DOI Listing
May 2021

T1 mapping is useful for staging deep venous thrombosis in the lower extremities.

Acta Radiol 2021 Apr 28:2841851211004425. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, PR China.

Background: The discrimination of acute and chronic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is of great importance. Quantitative imaging is an urgent requirement in reflecting intrinsic characteristics of thrombosis.

Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of T1 mapping in staging DVT in the lower extremities.

Material And Methods: A total of 57 patients with DVT in the lower extremities (26 men, 31 women; mean age = 53.3 years) underwent T1-weighted imaging and T1 mapping for obtaining T1 signal intensity (SI) and T1 time of thrombus. The relative SI (rSI) of DVT was obtained by calculating the ratio of thrombus SI to muscle SI. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare rSI and T1 time of DVT between acute group (patients with limb edema ≤ 2 weeks) and chronic group (patients with limb edema > 2 weeks). A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for further evaluation.

Results: DVT rSI was significantly higher in the acute group versus the chronic group (2.8 ± 1.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6; <0.05). DVT T1 time was significantly lower in the acute group versus the chronic group (819.4 ± 223.7 ms vs. 1264.8 ± 270.7 ms; <0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 for T1 time and 0.75 for rSI. When using 1015 ms as the cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity of T1 time were 91% (32/35) and 86% (19/22), respectively.

Conclusion: T1 mapping is a potential technique in discriminating acute from chronic DVT in the lower extremities and warrants further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02841851211004425DOI Listing
April 2021

[Chinese Experts Consensus on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors 
for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (2020 Version)].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2021 Apr 26;24(4):217-235. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Cancer Center, Eastern Theater General Hospital of the Chinese PLA, Nanjing 210002, China.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common pathological type of lung cancer. The systemic antitumor therapy of advanced NSCLC has undergone renovations of chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy, which results in greatly improved survival for patients with advanced NSCLC. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), especially targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), has changed the treatment paradigm of NSCLC. ICIs have become the standard treatment for advanced NSCLC without epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) mutation or anaplastic lymphomakinase(ALK) translocation in the first- or second-line setting, and for locally advanced NSCLC following concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. ICIs are also promising in adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy. More and more ICIs have been approved domestically for the treatment of NSCLC. Led by the NSCLC expert committee of Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO), this consensus was developed and updated based on thoroughly reviewing domestic and foreign literatures, clinical trial data, systematic reviews, experts' discussion and the consensus(2019 version). This consensus will aid domestic clinicians in the treatment of NSCLC with ICIs.
.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2021.101.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105610PMC
April 2021

Molecular Classification Improves Risk Assessment in Adult BCR-ABL1-negative B-ALL.

Blood 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Genomic classification has improved risk assignment of pediatric but not adult B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The international UKALLXII/ECOG-ACRIN E2993 (NCT00002514) trial accrued 1229 BCR-ABL1-negative adolescent/adult B-ALL patients (aged 14-65 years). While 93% of patients achieved remission, 41% relapsed at a median of 13 months (range 28 days to 12 years). Five-year overall survival (5yr-OS) was 42% (95% CI, 39, 44). Transcriptome sequencing (n=238), gene expression profiling (n=210), cytogenetics (n=197) and fusion PCR (n=274) enabled genomic subtyping of 282 patient samples, of which 264 were eligible for trial, accounting for 64.5% of E2993 patients. Among patients in the outcome analysis, 29.5% of cases had favorable outcomes with 5yr-OS of 65-80% and were deemed standard-risk (DUX4-rearranged [9.2%], ETV6-RUNX1/-like [2.3%], TCF3-PBX1 [6.9%], PAX5 P80R [4.1%], high-hyperdiploid [6.9%]); 50.2% had high-risk genotypes with 5yr-OS of 0-27% (Ph-like [21.2%], KMT2A-AFF1 [12%], low-hypodiploid/near-haploid [14.3%], BCL2/MYC-rearranged [2.8%]); and 20.3% had intermediate-risk genotypes with 5yr-OS of 33-45% (PAX5alt [12.4%], ZNF384/-like [5.1%], MEF2D-rearranged [2.8%]). IKZF1 alterations occurred in 86% of Ph-like and TP53 mutations occurred in low-hypodiploid (54%) and BCL2/MYC-rearranged patients (33%), but were not independently associated with outcome. Of patients considered high-risk for relapse based on presenting age and WBC count, 40% harbored subtype-defining genetic alterations associated with standard- or intermediate-risk outcomes. We identified distinct immunophenotypic features for DUX4-rearranged, PAX5 P80R, ZNF384-R/-like and Ph-like genotypes. These data in a large adult B-ALL cohort treated with a non-risk-adapted approach on a single trial show the prognostic importance of genomic analyses which may translate into future therapeutic benefits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020010144DOI Listing
April 2021

Pruriception and neuronal coding in nociceptor subtypes in human and nonhuman primates.

Elife 2021 04 23;10. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States.

In humans, intradermal administration of β-alanine (ALA) and bovine adrenal medulla peptide 8-22 (BAM8-22) evokes the sensation of itch. Currently, it is unknown which human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons express the receptors of these pruritogens, MRGPRD and MRGPRX1, respectively, and which cutaneous afferents these pruritogens activate in primate. In situ hybridization studies revealed that MRGPRD and MRGPRX1 are co-expressed in a subpopulation of TRPV1+ human DRG neurons. In electrophysiological recordings in nonhuman primates (), subtypes of polymodal C-fiber nociceptors are preferentially activated by ALA and BAM8-22, with significant overlap. When pruritogens ALA, BAM8-22, and histamine, which activate different subclasses of C-fiber afferents, are administered in combination, human volunteers report itch and nociceptive sensations similar to those induced by a single pruritogen. Our results provide evidence for differences in pruriceptive processing between primates and rodents, and do not support the spatial contrast theory of coding of itch and pain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.64506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064749PMC
April 2021

A comparison of radiographic features between non-survivors and survivors from ICU.

Eur J Radiol Open 2021 13;8:100338. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

The clinical and imaging data of 121 ICU patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (63 survivors and 58 non-survivors) were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical results and radiographic features were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were more likely to develop ARDS (53 [91 %] vs. 22 [35 %], P < 0.0001), shock (6 [10 %] vs. 0, P = 0.009), cardiac injury(18 [31 %] vs. 6 [10 %], P = 0.003), acute kidney injury(21 [36 %] vs. 10 [16 %], P = 0.01), and pneumothorax(5 [9%] vs. 0, P = 0.017). There were typical radiographic features for ICU patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Extensive air-space opacities could be seen in all patients. Middle and lower lung involvement was significantly more serious than upper lung (score 6.8 ± 1.9, 7.2 ± 2.1, and 5.7 ± 1.7, respectively, P < 0.0001). Based on X-ray involvement score, non-survivors were in a more critical condition than survivors (20.3 ± 4.6 vs. 19.1 ± 3.1, P = 0.038).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejro.2021.100338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043078PMC
April 2021

A personalized 3D-printed plate for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis: Design, fabrication, biomechanical evaluation and postoperative assessment.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 3;133:104368. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, 100191, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Human Motion Analysis and Rehabilitation Technology of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing Key Laboratory of Rehabilitation Technical Aids for Old-Age Disability, National Research Centre for Rehabilitation Technical Aids, 100176, Beijing, China; Rehabilitation Hospital, National Research Center for Rehabilitation Technical Aids, 100176, Beijing, China; School of Engineering Medicine, Beihang University, 100191, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Personalized plates (P-Plates) could provide improved clinical outcomes in joint fusion by enabling perfect geometric matching between irregular bone and implants. However, there is no unified application framework for P-Plates for joint fusion. The objective of this study was to develop such a framework for P-Plates for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis. A patient-specific bone model was constructed based on CT images, and the P-Plate was preliminarily designed to match the bones. Finite element method was used to optimize the stress distribution and to evaluate the biomechanical performance of the P-Plate by comparing it with a traditional plate (T-Plate). Then, the P-Plate was manufactured via electron beam melting and implanted into the foot of a patient. Increasing the size of the preliminary designed plate alleviated the stress concentration and reduced the risk of failure. The maximum stresses of the plate and screw (214.3 MPa, 99.05 MPa) and the maximum tensile force of the screw in the P-Plate (181.4 N) fixation system were lower than those in the T-Plate (217.4 MPa, 255.4 MPa, and 230.1 N, respectively). The P-Plate was well-matched to the bone, and no complications occurred. The P-Plate achieved American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society and Short-Form-36 scores of 64 and 75, respectively, 36 months post operation, which suggests that it could improve clinical outcomes. The design and fabrication methods, as well as mechanical and postoperative performance evaluation methods, for the P-Plate were systematically developed and provide a reference for constructing a unified application framework for P-Plate use in tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104368DOI Listing
June 2021

A randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of regenerated and non-regenerated oxidized cellulose gauze for the secondary treatment of local bleeding in patients undergoing hepatic resection.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2021 Apr 30;100(4):193-199. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Purpose: Oxidized cellulose is available in many forms, but manufactured using either a regenerated or non-regenerated process. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 2 different hemostatic agents for the treatment of local bleeding in patients undergoing hepatic resection.

Methods: This was a monocentric, parallel-group, randomized, and controlled clinical trial to compare oxidized regenerated cellulose gauze (ORCG) with oxidized non-regenerated cellulose gauze (ONRCG) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. The primary endpoint was the time to hemostasis at the target bleeding site. The secondary endpoints were the postoperative drainage volume on the first 2 days after surgery and the hospital stay.

Results: There was no significant difference between the ORCG and ONRCG groups in time to hemostasis from column analysis (238.8 ± 121.6 seconds 193.7 ± 85.3 seconds, P = 0.068), and there were no differences in the rates of hemostatic success between the 2 groups at 120 seconds (18.4% 24.3%; odds ratio [OR], 0.703; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.231-2.136) and 300 seconds (71.1% 89.2%; OR, 0.298; 95% CI, 0.085-1.041). However, the ONRCG group was superior to the ORCG group in hemostasis according to the survival analysis (log-rank test, P = 0.044). Moreover, there were also no significant differences between the 2 groups in postoperative drainage volume on the first 2 days (P = 0.436, P = 0.381) and hospital stay (P = 0.537, P = 0.200).

Conclusion: ONRCG was not inferior to ORCG as a hemostatic agent in patients undergoing liver resection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2021.100.4.193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019981PMC
April 2021

Pollution characteristics and ecological risks associated with heavy metals in the Fuyang river system in North China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 29;281:116994. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, & CAS-HKU Joint Laboratory of Metallomics on Health and Environment, & Beijing Metallomics Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

The Fuyang River system (FRS) in north China, for a long time, is seriously polluted with organic compounds and heavy metals due to industrialization. However, the information on heavy metal pollution in this area is still limited, and health risks raised by trace elements are neglected up to now. To characterize the heavy metal pollutants and assess their potential ecological risks scientifically in FRS, surface sediments were collected from 66 sampling sites selected according to the hydrological and anthropogenic conditions along the river. A total of twelve metal pollutants (e.g., Cr, As, and Hg) in the sediments were detected among the distributaries. A combining application of geoaccumulation index (I), ratio of secondary phase and primary phase (RSP), and the ecological risk factor (Er) in this study gave systematic assessment results of single or combined pollution status raised by heavy metals in this area. The results show that Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Co, and Sn are mainly dispersed in the river reaches of Xingtai City and pose potential health risks in midstream, as per the geoaccumulation index and Pearson's correlation analyses. In particular, Cd accumulates strongly in sediments of Ming River and Aixinzhuang dam from Xingtai City. In upstream and downstream of FRS, the potential ecological risk is low, except in Yongnian County where high ecological risk was caused by Cd and Hg. These findings provide new insights into the pollution characteristics and assessment of the potential ecological risks induced by heavy metals along FRS, which suggest new directions should strategically tend to typical pollutants control by policy formulation and taking effective measures to prevent and manage heavy metal pollution in North China.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116994DOI Listing
July 2021

Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Hetiamacins A-F.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 17;6(12):8239-8245. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

Herein, we report a concise and stereoselective approach for the asymmetric total synthesis of hetiamacins A-F on the basis of the total synthesis of amicoumacin C, which could be synthesized from a known l-aspartic acid derivative. The synthesis of hetiamacin A was accomplished by an 11-step sequence that featured 1,3-oxazinane ring formation of amicoumacin B followed by amidation in one pot. Hetiamacins B-F were synthesized from amicoumacin A in only one step.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c06267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015134PMC
March 2021