Publications by authors named "Gang Sun"

476 Publications

UBE2C affects breast cancer proliferation through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Mammary/Head and Neck Surgery, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China Department of Institute for Cancer Research, The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011, China.

Background: Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) has been shown to be associated with the occurrence of various cancers and involved in many tumorigenic processes. This study aimed to investigate the specific molecular mechanism through which UBE2C affects breast cancer (BC) proliferation.

Methods: BC-related datasets were screened according to filter criteria in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Then differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Venn diagram analysis. By using DEGs, we conducted the following analyses including Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), protein-protein interaction (PPI), and survival analysis, and then validated the function of the hub gene UBE2C using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, transwell assay, and Western blot assay.

Results: In total, 151 DEGs were identified from the GEO and TCGA databases. The results of GO analysis demonstrated that the DEGs were significantly enriched with mitotic nuclear division, lipid droplet, and organic acid-binding. KEGG analysis showed that the peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, and proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation were significantly enriched in the signal transduction pathway category. The top three hub genes that resulted from the PPI network were FOXM1, UBE2C, and CDKN3. The results of survival analysis showed a close relationship between UBE2C and BC. The results of CCK-8 and transwell assays suggested that the proliferation and invasion of UBE2C knockdown cells were significantly inhibited (P < 0.050). The results of Western blot assay showed that the level of phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10 (p-PTEN) was obviously increased (P < 0.050), whereas the levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) were dramatically decreased (P < 0.050) in the UBE2C knockdown cell.

Conclusion: UBE2C can promote BC proliferation by activating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001708DOI Listing
October 2021

Large-scale field phenotyping using backpack LiDAR and CropQuant-3D to measure structural variation in wheat.

Plant Physiol 2021 Oct;187(2):716-738

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Engineering, College of Agriculture, Plant Phenomics Research Center, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Crop Production Co-sponsored by Province and Ministry, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Plant phenomics bridges the gap between traits of agricultural importance and genomic information. Limitations of current field-based phenotyping solutions include mobility, affordability, throughput, accuracy, scalability, and the ability to analyze big data collected. Here, we present a large-scale phenotyping solution that combines a commercial backpack Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) device and our analytic software, CropQuant-3D, which have been applied jointly to phenotype wheat (Triticum aestivum) and associated 3D trait analysis. The use of LiDAR can acquire millions of 3D points to represent spatial features of crops, and CropQuant-3D can extract meaningful traits from large, complex point clouds. In a case study examining the response of wheat varieties to three different levels of nitrogen fertilization in field experiments, the combined solution differentiated significant genotype and treatment effects on crop growth and structural variation in the canopy, with strong correlations with manual measurements. Hence, we demonstrate that this system could consistently perform 3D trait analysis at a larger scale and more quickly than heretofore possible and addresses challenges in mobility, throughput, and scalability. To ensure our work could reach non-expert users, we developed an open-source graphical user interface for CropQuant-3D. We, therefore, believe that the combined system is easy-to-use and could be used as a reliable research tool in multi-location phenotyping for both crop research and breeding. Furthermore, together with the fast maturity of LiDAR technologies, the system has the potential for further development in accuracy and affordability, contributing to the resolution of the phenotyping bottleneck and exploiting available genomic resources more effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491082PMC
October 2021

Multi-path cascaded U-net for vessel segmentation from fundus fluorescein angiography sequential images.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Sep 20;211:106422. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

College of Electrical & Information Engineering, Hunan University.

Background And Objective: Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) technique is widely used in the examination of retinal diseases. In analysis of FFA sequential images, accurate vessel segmentation is a prerequisite for quantification of vascular morphology. Current vessel segmentation methods concentrate mainly on color fundus images and they are limited in processing FFA sequential images with varying background and vessels.

Methods: We proposed a multi-path cascaded U-net (MCU-net) architecture for vessel segmentation in FFA sequential images, which is capable of integrating vessel features from different image modes to improve segmentation accuracy. Firstly, two modes of synthetic FFA images that enhance details of small vessels and large vessels are prepared, and are then used together with the raw FFA image as inputs of the MCU-net. By fusion of vessel features from the three modes of FFA images, a vascular probability map is generated as output of MCU-net.

Results: The proposed MCU-net was trained and tested on the public Duke dataset and our own dataset for FFA sequential images as well as on the DRIVE dataset for color fundus images. Results show that MCU-net outperforms current state-of-the-art methods in terms of F1-score, sensitivity and accuracy, and is able of reserving details such as thin vessels and vascular connections. It also shows good robustness in processing FFA images captured at different perfusion stages.

Conclusions: The proposed method can segment vessels from FFA sequential images with high accuracy and shows good robustness to FFA images in different perfusion stages. This method has potential applications in quantitative analysis of vascular morphology in FFA sequential images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106422DOI Listing
September 2021

Epidemiological Characteristics and Core Containment Measures of Imported COVID-19 Cases from Abroad in Early Phase in Guangdong, China.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 21;14:3955-3963. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Health Management, School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the distribution characteristics and influencing factors for the interval between entering mainland China and the diagnosis of imported COVID-19 cases in Guangdong province, in order to provide valuable experience for global pandemic in prevention and control.

Methods: We collected publicly reported data between March 1 and June 2, 2020. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the significant associated factors with the interval between entering mainland China and diagnosis of imported COVID-19 cases.

Results: As of June 2, 2020, a total of 200 imported cases were reported in Guangdong province. The average interval time was 4.25 days with a median of 2 days, the interval time of 68% cases was between 1 and 3 days. The multivariate model results show that the three following factors were critical influencing factors: nationality was foreign nationality ( = 0.037), results of initial nucleic acid detection were negative ( = 0.000) and the interval between entering mainland China and the detection of positive results (T) exceeded two days ( = 0.008).

Conclusion: The results suggested that all travelers and returning resident should be taken strict sampling and testing, and isolation measures, improved the accuracy of the initial nucleic acid test results, and the detection efficiency and shortening the interval between entering mainland China and detection of positive results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S317910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464375PMC
September 2021

Survey on sodium and potassium intake in patients with hypertension in China.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Sodium and potassium intake in hypertensive patients in China is not clear. The authors aimed to investigate the distribution of sodium and potassium intake in hypertensive patients in China, and to analyze the relationship between sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure. The study was performed in 130 hospitals from 23 provinces across China from 2016 to 2019. Finally, 9501 hypertensive patients average aged 54 years were included. 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured. Distribution of urinary electrolytes were described according to age, gender and region. The association between urinary electrolytes and blood pressure was analyzed by multivariate linear regression. Hypertensive patients exhibited an average 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion of 156.7 ± 81.5 mmol/d and 39.2 ± 20.2 mmol/d (equivalent to sodium chloride of 9.2 g/d, potassium chloride of 2.9 g/d), sodium/potassium ratio (median) of 4.14 (2.92,5.73). Urinary electrolytes were lower in women than men (sodium: 171.1 vs 138.7, p < .05; potassium: 40.3 vs 37.7, p < .05), in the elderly than in the younger (sodium: 168.7 vs 139.9, p < .05; potassium: 39.5 vs. 37.5, p < .05). For every 1 unit of Na/K ratio increase, blood pressure increased by 0.46/0.24 mmHg. Blood pressure was 2.75/1.27 mmHg higher in quartile 4 than quartile 1 of Na/K. It remains high sodium and low potassium for hypertensive patients in China. Decreased sodium, Na/K ratio and increased potassium may help for blood pressure management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14355DOI Listing
September 2021

Diffusion of Protein Molecules through Microporous Nanofibrous Polyacrylonitrile Membranes.

ACS Appl Polym Mater 2021 Mar 23;3(3):1618-1627. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Porous nanofibrous membranes have ultrahigh specific surface areas and could be broadly employed in protein purification, enzyme immobilization, and biosensors with enhanced selectivity, sensitivity, and efficiency. However, large biomolecules, such as proteins, have hindered diffusion behavior in the micro-porous media, significantly reducing the benefits provided by the nanofibrous membranes. The study of protein diffusion in polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes produced under varied humidity and polymer concentration of electrospinning revealed that heterogeneous structures of the nanofibrous membranes possess much smaller effective pore sizes than the measured pore sizes, which significantly affects the diffusion of large molecules through the system though sizes of proteins and pH conditions also have great impacts. Only when the measured membrane pore size is at least 1000 times higher than the protein size, the diffusion behavior of the protein is predictable in the system. The results provide insights into the design and applications of proper nanofibrous materials for improved applications in protein purification and immobilizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsapm.0c01394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8445001PMC
March 2021

Trial of Intensive Blood-Pressure Control in Older Patients with Hypertension.

N Engl J Med 2021 09 30;385(14):1268-1279. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

From the Hypertension Center, FuWai Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (W.Z., S.Z., Y.D., J.C.), Peking Union Medical College Hospital (S.Z.), Beijing Pinggu Hospital (Y.L.), and Beijing Hospital (W.L.), Beijing, Kailuan General Hospital, Tangshan (S.W.), Shanxi Bethune Hospital, Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences (J.R.), and the First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University (X.S.), Taiyuan, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College, Baotou (G.S.), the People's Hospital of Ji Xian District, Tianjin (J.Y.), the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University (Y.J.) and Omron Dalian (X.G.), Dalian, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi (X.X.), the Second Affiliated Hospital of Medical College Shantou University, Shantou (Y.C.), Benxi Railway Hospital, Benxi (L.Y.), Hongxinglong Center Hospital, Shuangyashan (D.L.), the First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou (L.W.), the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin (X.Y.), Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (X.Z.), Kang Ya Hospital, Yiyang (B.Z.), FuWai Yunnan Cardiovascular Hospital, Kunming (Z.G.), Zhoukou City Central Hospital, Zhoukou (H.L.), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (X.C.), Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangzhou (Y.F.), and the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an (G.T.) - all in China; the Cardiovascular Center and Divisions of Cardiology and Hospital Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (T.-D.W.); and Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan (K.K.).

Background: The appropriate target for systolic blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular risk in older patients with hypertension remains unclear.

Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned Chinese patients 60 to 80 years of age with hypertension to a systolic blood-pressure target of 110 to less than 130 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of 130 to less than 150 mm Hg (standard treatment). The primary outcome was a composite of stroke, acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction and hospitalization for unstable angina), acute decompensated heart failure, coronary revascularization, atrial fibrillation, or death from cardiovascular causes.

Results: Of the 9624 patients screened for eligibility, 8511 were enrolled in the trial; 4243 were randomly assigned to the intensive-treatment group and 4268 to the standard-treatment group. At 1 year of follow-up, the mean systolic blood pressure was 127.5 mm Hg in the intensive-treatment group and 135.3 mm Hg in the standard-treatment group. During a median follow-up period of 3.34 years, primary-outcome events occurred in 147 patients (3.5%) in the intensive-treatment group, as compared with 196 patients (4.6%) in the standard-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.92; P = 0.007). The results for most of the individual components of the primary outcome also favored intensive treatment: the hazard ratio for stroke was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.97), acute coronary syndrome 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.94), acute decompensated heart failure 0.27 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.98), coronary revascularization 0.69 (95% CI, 0.40 to 1.18), atrial fibrillation 0.96 (95% CI, 0.55 to 1.68), and death from cardiovascular causes 0.72 (95% CI, 0.39 to 1.32). The results for safety and renal outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups, except for the incidence of hypotension, which was higher in the intensive-treatment group.

Conclusions: In older patients with hypertension, intensive treatment with a systolic blood-pressure target of 110 to less than 130 mm Hg resulted in a lower incidence of cardiovascular events than standard treatment with a target of 130 to less than 150 mm Hg. (Funded by the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and others; STEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03015311.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2111437DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of hybridized local and charge transfer molecules rotation in excited state on exciton utilization.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 3;11(1):17686. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024, People's Republic of China.

The fluorescent molecules utilizing hybridized local and charge-transfer (HLCT) state as potential organic light-emitting diodes materials attract extensive attention due to their high exciton utilization. In this work, we have performed the density functional theory method on three HLCT-state molecules to investigate their excited-state potential energy surface (PES). The calculated results indicate the T and T energy gap is quite large, and the T is very close to S in the energy level. The large gap is beneficial for inhibiting the internal conversion between T and T, and quite closed S and T energies are favor for activating the T → S reverse intersystem crossing path. However, considering the singlet excited-state PES by twisting the triphenylamine (TPA) or diphenylamine (PA) group, it can be found that the TPA or PA group almost has no influence on T and T energy levels. However, the plots of S PES display two kinds of results that the S emissive state is dominated by charge-transfer (CT) or HLCT state. The CT emission state formation would decrease the S energy level, enlarge the S and T gap, and impair the triplet exciton utilization. Therefore, understanding the relationship between the S PES and molecular structures is important for designing high-performance luminescent materials utilizing HLCT state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97229-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417272PMC
September 2021

A Novel -Halamine Biocidal Nanofibrous Membrane for Chlorine Rechargeable Rapid Water Disinfection Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 19;13(34):41056-41065. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, United States.

Disinfecting pathogenic contaminated water rapidly and effectively on sites is one of the critical challenges at point-of-use (POU) situations. Currently available technologies are still suffering from irreversible depletion of disinfectants, generation of toxic by-products, and potential biofouling problems. Herein, we developed a chlorine rechargeable biocidal nanofibrous membrane, poly(acrylonitrile--5-methyl-5-(4'-vinylphenyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione) (P(AN-VAPH)), via a combination of a free radical copolymerization reaction and electrospun technology. The copolymer exhibits good electrospinnability and desirable mechanical properties. Also, the 5-methyl-5-(4'-vinylphenyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (VAPH) moieties containing unique hydantoin structures are able to be chlorinated and converted to halamine structures, enabling the P(AN-VAPH) nanofibrous membrane with rapid and durable biocidal activity. The chlorinated P(AN-VAPH) nanofibrous membranes showed intriguing features of unique 3D morphological structures with large specific surface area, good mechanical performance, rechargeable chlorination capacity (>5000 ppm), long-term durability, and desirable biocidal activity against both bacteria and viruses (>99.9999% within 2 min of contact). With these attributes, the chlorinated P(AN-VAPH) membranes demonstrated promising disinfecting efficiency against concentrated bacteria-contaminated water during direct filtration applications with superior killing capacity and high flowing flux (5000 L m h).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c10133DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparison of Public Health Containment Measures of COVID-19 in China and India.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 12;14:3323-3332. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Health Management, School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study aimed to make a comparative analysis of the public health containment measures between China and India, explore the causes of the serious COVID-19 epidemic in India, and eventually to improve global infectious disease control.

Methods: We extracted publicly available data from official websites, summarized the containment measures implemented in China and India, and assessed their effectiveness.

Results: China has responded to the COVID-19 outbreak with strict public health containment measures, including lockdown of Wuhan city, active case tracing, and large-scale testing, ultimately preventing a large increase in daily new cases and maintaining a low mortality rate per million population (as of May 5, 2021, daily new cases were 11 and mortality rate per million population was 3.37). India, although imposing a national lockdown to control the pandemic, has not implemented strict testing, tracking, and quarantine measures due to the overburdened healthcare system. Combined with massive lockdown, it has accelerated human mobility and exacerbated the epidemic, resulting in a rapid increase in daily new cases and a high mortality rate per million population (as of May 5, 2021, daily new cases were 412,431 and mortality rate per million population was 166.79).

Conclusion: China and India implemented public health containment measures to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic based on their national situations. Meanwhile, daily new cases and mortality of COVID-19 also were affected by environmental and socioeconomic. Countries make a comprehensive strategy not only in terms of the biological, pharmaceutical, health, and sanitation sectors but also based on sustainability science and environmental science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S326775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367213PMC
August 2021

Policy disparities in response to COVID-19 between Singapore and China.

Int J Equity Health 2021 08 17;20(1):185. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Health Management, School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, PR China.

Objective: The study analyzed the common points and discrepancies of COVID-19 control measures of the two countries in order to provide appropriate coping experiences for countries all over the world.

Method: This study examined the associations between the epidemic prevention and control policies adopted in the first 70 days after the outbreak and the number of confirmed cases in China and Singapore using the generalized linear model. Policy comparisons and disparities between the two countries were also discussed.

Results: The regression models show that factors influencing the cumulative number of confirmed cases in China: Locking down epicenter; activating Level One public health emergency response in all localities; the central government set up a leading group; classified management of "four categories of personnel"; launching makeshift hospitals; digital management for a matrix of urban communities; counterpart assistance. The following four factors were the key influencing factors of the cumulative confirmed cases in Singapore: The National Centre for Infectious Diseases screening center opens; border control measures; surveillance measures; Public Health Preparedness Clinics launched.

Conclusions: Through analyzing the key epidemic prevention and control policies of the two countries, we found that the following factors are critical to combat COVID-19: active case detection, early detection of patients, timely isolation, and treatment, and increasing of medical capabilities. Countries should choose appropriate response strategies with health equity in mind to ultimately control effectively the spread of COVID-19 worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-021-01525-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369872PMC
August 2021

The re-emergence from the COVID-19 epidemic of Beijing Xinfadi Market.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(31):e26718

Department of Health Management, School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China.

Abstract: To provide references for global pandemic prevention and control, this study aimed to analyze the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of 103 new confirmed cases between June 12 and June 15, 2020, in Beijing. All confirmed cases in this study were tested with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and extracting data from the Beijing Municipal Health Commission (June 11 to July 6, 2020). We selected the 103 typical confirmed cases (excluding imported cases) between June 12 and June 15 for statistical analysis and explored differences among different clinical cases. A cluster of COVID-19 was reported in Beijing between June 12 and June 15, 2020, involving 103 confirmed cases. Patients aged 21 to 65 years old and the mean age was 42.38 ± 11.507, the male-to-female sex ratio was 1.40:1. All confirmed cases had a direct or indirect exposure history in the Beijing Xinfadi Market (BXM), and the clinical manifestations of 97% confirmed cases was diagnosed as mild or moderate. Different clinical classification in age (P = .041), exposure history (P = .025), fever (P = .020), and cough (P = .000) were the statistically significant difference, but there was no statistically significant difference in gender (P = .501), the type of diagnosis (P = .478), expectoration (P = .979), fatigue (P = .906), dizziness or headache (P = .848), muscle pain (P = .825), sore throat or throat discomfort (P = .852), chills (P = .933), diarrhea (P = .431) and runny nose or nasal congestion (P = .898). This study shows that Beijing's epidemic scope was mainly concentrated in the Xinfadi Market. The initial cases were epidemiologically related to the BXM, the clinical classification of most cases was mild and moderate, and the differences in age, exposure history, fever, and cough among different clinical cases were statistically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341365PMC
August 2021

Sample-to-Answer Robotic ELISA.

Anal Chem 2021 08 11;93(33):11424-11432. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Micro-Nano Innovations (MiNI) Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, United States.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), as one of the most used immunoassays, have been conducted ubiquitously in hospitals, research laboratories, etc. However, the conventional ELISA procedure is usually laborious, occupies bulky instruments, consumes lengthy operation time, and relies considerably on the skills of technicians, and such limitations call for innovations to develop a fully automated ELISA platform. In this paper, we have presented a system incorporating a robotic-microfluidic interface (RoMI) and a modular hybrid microfluidic chip that embeds a highly sensitive nanofibrous membrane, referred to as the Robotic ELISA, to achieve human-free sample-to-answer ELISA tests in a fully programmable and automated manner. It carries out multiple bioanalytical procedures to replace the manual steps involved in classic ELISA operations, including the pneumatically driven high-precision pipetting, efficient mixing and enrichment enabled by back-and-forth flows, washing, and integrated machine vision for colorimetric readout. The Robotic ELISA platform has achieved a low limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mL in the detection of a low sample volume (15 μL) of chloramphenicol within 20 min without human intervention, which is significantly faster than that of the conventional ELISA procedure. Benefiting from its modular design and automated operations, the Robotic ELISA platform has great potential to be deployed for a broad range of detections in various resource-limited settings or high-risk environments, where human involvement needs to be minimized while the testing timeliness, consistency, and sensitivity are all desired.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422985PMC
August 2021

Home blood pressure telemonitoring for improving blood pressure control in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2021 Sep 5;23(9):1744-1751. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Research Institute of Hypertension, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College, Baotou, Inner Mongolia, P.R. China.

The blood pressure (BP) control rate among treated hypertensives in China remains low at 37.5%. The relationship between home blood pressure telemonitoring (HBPT) and BP control is controversial. The authors aimed to investigate the relationship between HBPT and BP control in middle-aged and elderly hypertensives. In total, 252 hypertension patients aged between 60 and 79 years were enrolled. The patients were given either HBPT through interactive platforms between physicians and patients (telemonitoring group, n = 126) or conventional management (routine management group, n = 126). All patients were followed-up for 15 months. BP control was defined as home systolic blood pressure < 135 mm Hg and home diastolic blood pressure < 85 mm Hg. At baseline, there were no significant differences in the baseline BP control rate (p = .083). However, after 15 months, the BP control rate improved in both groups, and the telemonitoring group (71.3%) had a significantly higher BP control than the routine management group (49.8%) (p < .001). The change of BP control rate from baseline in the routine management group increased by 26.1%, and that of the telemonitoring group increased by 35.4%. The results of the fully adjusted binary logistic regression showed that HBPT was positively associated with BP control after adjusting for confounders (OR = 4.15, 95% CI 2.05-8.39). Similar results were observed after 3, 9, and 12 months. The association of HBPT with BP control was similar in subgroups. In conclusions, HBPT is recommended for BP control in middle-aged and elderly hypertensives in the community setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14341DOI Listing
September 2021

Incorporation of Antimicrobial Bio-Based Carriers onto Poly(vinyl alcohol--ethylene) Surface for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 26;13(30):36275-36285. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616, United States.

A biobased rechargeable antimicrobial modification approach was developed using a covalent immobilization of food grade yeast cell wall particles on a model plastic film. We demonstrate the applications of this modification approach on poly(vinyl alcohol--ethylene) surface to inactivate inoculated bacteria with or without the presence of organic content, reducing the cross-contamination between food contact surface and model fresh produce, and inhibiting the growth of biofilms on the film surface. These biobased cell wall particle modified plastic films can enhance the binding of chlorine to the plastic surface in the form of -halamine, extend the stability of chlorine against high organic content and ambient storage, and improve the rechargeability of the plastic films. Upon charging with chlorine, these modified plastic films inactivated 5 log of model Gram-negative bacteria ( O157:H7) and Gram-positive bacteria ( used as a surrogate of pathogenic ) within 2 min of surface inoculation in water and within 20 min in an organic-rich aqueous environment. The modified plastic films prevented the transfer of bacteria and eliminated cross-contamination from the contaminated films to a spinach leaf surface, while 3 log CFU/leaf of bacteria were transferred from a contaminated native film to a noninoculated spinach surface. In addition, these modified plastic films reduced the adhesion of cells by 2.7-3.6 log CFU/cm compared with control films during extended incubation for biofilm formation. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility of this biobased food grade modification approach to reduce microbial contamination and improve produce safety in the food processing industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07311DOI Listing
August 2021

Detection of the Microvascular Changes of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 06;10(7):31

Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, P.R. China.

Purpose: To investigate microvascular parameters that are related to the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).

Methods: In total, 105 eyes from 105 diabetic patients were recruited in this prospective cross-sectional study, including 37 eyes with no clinical signs of DR (NoDR), 43 eyes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), and 25 eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Angiogram images from the parafoveal superficial capillary plexus (SCP), the deep capillary plexus (DCP), and the radial peripapillary capillary plexus were analyzed, and metrics were compared among groups. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify the best OCTA parameters that could distinguish DR severity among groups.

Results: Parafoveal vessel diameter index in the SCP and vessel density (VD) in the DCP showed the strongest correlation with the severity of DR (P < 0.01). Extrafoveal avascular area in the SCP was the parameter that could most distinguish NoDR from NPDR (P < 0.01) with sensitivity and specificity of 83.72% and 78.38%, respectively. VD in the DCP also was the most sensitive biomarker to distinguish NPDR from PDR (P < 0.01) with sensitivity and specificity of 84.00% and 79.07%, respectively.

Conclusions: The microvascular changes in the SCP and DCP in DR may have different characteristics that could be identified with specific OCTA parameters. OCTA serves as a promising technology to discriminate eyes with different severity of DR.

Translational Relevance: Our study investigated OCTA metrics and severity of DR. At different stages of DR, ophthalmologists may focus on specific OCTA parameters to predict the progression of retinopathy in individual patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.7.31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254014PMC
June 2021

Unique "posture" of rose Bengal for fabricating personal protective equipment with enhanced daylight-induced biocidal efficiency.

Mater Adv 2021 Apr 30;2(11):3569-3578. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California Davis CA 95616 USA +1 530 752 0840.

The aggregation-caused self-quenching of photosensitizers (PS), especially on a solid substrate, has highly limited their photo-induced biocidal efficiency in practical applications. Here, we designed a unique "posture" of rose Bengal (RB) on cotton-based super-adsorptive fibrous equipment, with RB being separately captured in the mesopores of porous organic polymers (POPs). The resultant daylight-induced biocidal cotton fabric with enhanced efficiency was named as DBwEE-Cotton. The enhanced biocidal activity of the DBwEE-Cotton was achieved based on two mechanisms: (1) the separation of RB in mesopores on the fabric avoids the aggregation-caused self-quenching; and (2) other than singlet oxygen generation, RB is forced to undergo type I photoreaction by surrounding the RB with massive amounts of good hydrogen donors (, POP) under daylight irradiation. Given the enhanced production efficiency of reactive oxygen species by the DBwEE-Cotton, 99.9999% of and bacteria were killed within 20 min of daylight exposure. The DBwEE-Cotton also presents excellent wash and light durability with no biocidal function loss. The development of DBwEE-Cotton provides a facile strategy of avoiding aggregation-caused self-quenching and modulating photoreactions of PS on a flexible substrate, which may guide the design of novel personal protective equipment (PPE) integrated with improved biocidal efficiency, wearability, and repeated and long-term applicability for protecting people from lethal infectious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ma00100kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186280PMC
April 2021

Hubei's Core Response Policies in the Early Stage of COVID-19.

Biomed Res Int 2021 28;2021:6610045. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Health Management, School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

Background: This study is aimed at confirming the effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical interventions during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hubei, China.

Methods: The data are all from the epidemic information released by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China and the Health Commission of Hubei Province. We used the multivariable linear regression by the SPSS 19.0 software: the cumulative number of confirmed cases, the cumulative number of cured cases, and the number of daily severe cases were taken as dependent variables, and the six policies, including the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council, lockdown Wuhan city, the first-level response to public health emergencies, the expansion of medical insurance coverage to suspected patients, mobile cabin hospitals, and counterpart assistance in Hubei province, were gradually entered into multiple linear regression models as independent variables.

Results: The factors influencing the cumulative number of diagnosed cases ranged from large to small: mobile cabin hospitals and the expansion of medical insurance coverage to suspected patients. The factors influencing the cumulative number of cured cases ranged from large to small: counterpart support medical teams in Hubei province and mobile cabin hospitals. The factors influencing the number of daily severe cases ranged from large to small: mobile cabin hospitals and the expansion of medical insurance coverage to suspected patients.

Conclusion: The mobile cabin hospital is a major reason for the successfully defeating COVID-19 in China. As COVID-19 pandemic spreads globally, the mobile cabin hospital is a successful experience in formulating policies to defeat COVID-19 for other countries in the outbreak phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6610045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168471PMC
July 2021

A Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Drug-Drug Interaction Model for the CB2 Agonist Lenabasum.

Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2021 Jul 18;46(4):513-525. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Corbus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 500 River Ridge Drive, Norwood, MA, 02062, USA.

Background And Objectives: Lenabasum is a synthetic agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) with anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties. Utilizing Simcyp, we developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model based on physicochemical properties, cell culture data, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) phenotyping, inhibition, and induction data.

Methods: Clinical data from healthy volunteers treated with 20 mg of lenabasum in a single ascending dose (SAD) study were used for model development. The model was verified using lenabasum SAD (10 and 40 mg) data as well as multiple dose (20 mg three times per day) data. Lenabasum is a CYP substrate, and the model predicted lenabasum clearance of 51% by CYP2C9, 37% by CYP2C8, and 12% by CYP3A4. Lenabasum is also an inhibitor of these isozymes.

Results: The model accurately described the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (C) for lenabasum within 1.19-fold and 1.25-fold accuracy, respectively, of the observed clinical values. The simulations of CYP inducers predicted that the strongest interaction would occur with rifampin, with the AUC decreasing to 0.36 of the control value, whereas the simulations of CYP inhibitors predicted that the greatest effect would occur with fluconazole, with a 1.43-fold increase in AUC.

Conclusions: Our model is a useful tool for predicting the pharmacokinetics of lenabasum and adjustments to its dosing in possible drug-drug interaction scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13318-021-00693-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Notch pathway activation promotes the differentiation of beagle dog periodontal ligament stem cells to Schwann cells.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jul;30(7):721-726

Department of Dentistry, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China.

Background: Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have demonstrated the potential for differentiation into many cell types, though the molecular mechanism of their neural differentiation in particular remains largely unknown.

Objectives: The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating cell differentiation and development. In this article, we explore its potential role in the differentiation of PDLSCs to Schwann cells (SCs).

Material And Methods: The PDLSCs were either transfected with viral vectors carrying genetic material for Notch Delta ligands, thereby induced their overexpression, or treated with DAPT (a Notch-pathway-specific inhibitor) to inhibit γ-secretase. The potential effects of Notch signaling on myelination and SCs differentiation were then investigated using western blotting, immunostaining and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the expression of SC-specific marker genes.

Results: Specifically inhibiting Notch signaling with DAPT decreased the expression of SC-specific marker genes GFAP, S100 and P75, as well as of SC-myelin-related genes PMP22, MBP, connexin, and P0 in cells undergoing induced differentiation from PDLSCs. Conversely, activating Notch signaling through overexpression of Delta ligands enhanced the expression of SC-specific marker genes as well as myelin-related genes in cells undergoing induced differentiation from PDLSCs. This promotion was reversed by DAPT.

Conclusions: The Notch signaling pathway positively regulated the process of PDLSC differentiation into SCs, and the activation of this signaling was important in maintaining the differentiation of PDLSCs to SCs, and then SC myelination. These results may improve the method of obtaining pure SCs from PDLSCs for transplantation application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/131219DOI Listing
July 2021

Changes in Home Blood Pressure Monitored Among Elderly Patients With Hypertension During the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Longitudinal Study in China Leveraging a Smartphone-Based Application.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2021 05 18;14(5):e007098. Epub 2021 May 18.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension Center, FuWai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China (S.Z., J.B., W.Z., J.C.).

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted clinical care worldwide. Evidence of how this health crisis affected common conditions like blood pressure (BP) control is uncertain.

Methods: We used longitudinal BP data from an ongoing randomized clinical trial to examine variations in home BP monitored via a smartphone-based application (app) in a total of 7394 elderly patients with hypertension aged 60 to 80 years stratified by their location in Wuhan (n=283) compared with other provinces of China (n=7111). Change in morning systolic BP (SBP) was analyzed for 5 30-day phases during the pandemic, including preepidemic (October 21 to November 20, 2019), incubation (November 21 to December 20, 2019), developing (December 21, 2019 to January 20, 2020), outbreak (January 21 to February 20, 2020), and plateau (February 21 to March 21, 2020).

Results: Compared with non-Wuhan areas of China, average morning SBP (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index) in Wuhan patients was significantly higher during the epidemic growth phases, which returned to normal at the plateau. Between-group differences in ΔSBP were +2.5, +3.0, and +2.1 mm Hg at the incubation, developing, and outbreak phases of COVID-19 (<0.001), respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed a similar trend in trajectory pattern of SBP in both the intensive and standard BP control groups of the trial. Patients in Wuhan also had an increased regimen change in antihypertensive drugs during the outbreak compared with non-Wuhan patients. Expectedly, Wuhan patients were more likely to check their BP via the app, while doctors were less likely to monitor the app for BP control during the pandemic.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a short-term increase in morning SBP among elderly patients with hypertension in Wuhan but not other parts of China. Further study will be needed to understand if these findings extended to other parts of the world substantially affected by the virus. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03015311.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.007098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136456PMC
May 2021

LncRNA SAMD12-AS1 promotes the progression of gastric cancer via DNMT1/p53 axis.

Arch Med Res 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of General Surgery, The No.967 Hospital of PLA Joint Logistics Support Force, Postgraduate Culture Base of Jinzhou Medical University, Dalian, China; Department of General Surgery, The No.967 Hospital of PLA Joint Logistics Support Force, Postgraduate Culture Base of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China. Electronic address:

Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are essential modulators of cancers initiation and progression via regulating gene expression and biological behaviors. LncRNA SAMD12-AS1 has been validated to promote the progression of several cancers, while its role in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. This study aims to explore the role of LncRNA SAMD12-AS1 in GC.

Methods: qRT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression of lncRNA SAMD12-AS1 in GC tissues and cell lines, with Kaplan-Meier curve analyzing the correlation between LncRNA SAMD12-AS1 and prognosis. CCK-8 assay, and flow cytometry were applied to detect GC cells proliferation, cell cycle. Binding of RNA and proteins were detected via RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay. Protein levels of oncogenesis-related genes were determined via western blotting.

Results: SAMD12-AS1 was highly up-regulated in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. High SAMD12-AS1 expression was closely related to TNM stage, and shorter survival span of patients with GC. Moreover, SAMD12-AS1 was also found to promote the oncogenic role of GC cells via inhibiting the P53 signaling pathway. Mechanistically, SAMD12-AS1 might performed its biological roles in GC via directly interacting with DNMT1 and facilitating DNMT1 repress the P53 signaling pathway.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that SAMD12-AS1 promoted GC progression via DNMT1/P53 axis, indicating SAMD12-AS1 may be envisioned as a novel biomarker of, and therapeutic target for GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.04.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Guangdong's experience in defeating the COVID-19.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 05;100(18):e25881

Department of Health Management, School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104283PMC
May 2021

Large-Scale Preparation of Highly Stable Recombinant Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor in BL21(DE3) plysS Strain.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 13;9:641505. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Wenzhou Medical University, Chashan University Park, Wenzhou, China.

In this study, the optimum human gene encoding haFGF was cloned in pET3c and transferred to BL21(DE3) plysS. To enhance the yield of fermentation and the expression level of the target protein, the fermentation parameters, including temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, glucose concentration, ammonium chloride concentration, induction time, and inducer (IPTG) concentration, were optimized. The optimized fermentation parameters were used in large-scale fermentation (30 L). Ion-exchange and heparin-affinity column chromatography techniques were used for separation and purification of rhaFGF protein. HPLC, isoelectric focusing electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry were used to detect the purity, isoelectric point, and molecular weight and peptide map of rhaFGF protein, respectively. Mitogenic activity of rhaFGF protein was detected in NIH-3T3 cells and a full-thickness injury wound diabetic rat model. The production and expression level of rhaFGF in the 30-L scale fermentation reached 80.4 ± 2.7 g/L culture and 37.8% ± 1.8%, respectively. The RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE purity of the final rhaFGF product almost reached 100%, and the final pure protein yield was 158.6 ± 6.8 mg/L culture. Finally, the cell and animal experiments showed that rhaFGF retained a potent mitogenic activity. The large-scale process of rhaFGF production reported herein is relatively stable and time-saving, and thus, it can be used as an efficient and economic strategy for the synthesis of rhaFGF at the industrial level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.641505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072344PMC
April 2021

How real are liquid groundstates? Ultra-fast crystal growth and the susceptibility of energy minima in liquids.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(15):154503

School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

We calculate the degree to which the final structure of the local groundstate in a liquid is a function of the strength of a perturbing potential applied during energy minimization. This structural susceptibility is shown to correlate well with the observed tendency of the liquid adjacent to a crystal interface to exhibit a crystalline groundstate, a feature that has been strongly linked to the observation of ultra-fast crystal growth in pure metals and ionic melts. It is shown that the structural susceptibility increases dramatically as the interaction potential between atoms is softened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0049009DOI Listing
April 2021

Policy Disparities in Response to COVID-19 between China and South Korea.

J Epidemiol Glob Health 2021 06 29;11(2):246-252. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Health Management, School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, P.R. China.

Objectives: This study analyzed the effects of COVID-19 non-pharmaceutical measures between China and South Korea to share experiences with other countries in the struggle against SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: We used the generalized linear model to examine the associations between non-pharmaceutical measures adopted by China and South Korea and the number of confirmed cases. Policy disparities were also discussed between these two countries.

Results: The results show that the following factors influence the number of confirmed cases in China: lockdown of Wuhan city (LWC); establishment of a Leading Group by the Central Government; raising the public health emergency response to the highest level in all localities; classifying management of "four categories of personnel"; makeshift hospitals in operation (MHIO); pairing assistance (PA); launching massive community screening (LMCS). In South Korea, these following factors were the key influencing factors of the cumulative confirmed cases: raising the public alert level to orange (three out of four levels); raising the public alert to the highest level; launching drive-through screening centers (LDSC); screening all members of Shincheonji religious group; launching Community Treatment Center (LCTC); distributing public face masks nationwide and quarantining all travelers from overseas countries for 14 days.

Conclusion: Based on the analysis of the generalized linear model, we found that a series of non-pharmaceutical measures were associated with contain of the COVID-19 outbreak in China and South Korea. The following measures were crucial for both of them to fight against the COVID-19 epidemic: a strong national response system, expanding diagnostic tests, establishing makeshift hospitals, and quarantine or lockdown affected areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.210322.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242108PMC
June 2021

Fabrication of polydopamine-based NIR-light responsive imprinted nanofibrous membrane for effective lysozyme extraction and controlled release from chicken egg white.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 1;357:129613. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address:

The development of highly efficient performance matrix for protein adsorption and scalable throughput adsorbent is highly desired, especially in pharmaceuticals and food industries. In this work, we present a simple methodology to prepare a nanofibrous membrane based surface molecular imprinted matrix (MIP) for selective separation of lysozyme. The MIP was developed by coating carboxylated poly (vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) nanofibrous mat (EVOH-CCA NFM) with a near infrared (NIR)-light responsive polydopamine (PDA) layer. The open porous nanofibrous structure and a thin PDA layer endowed the MIPs with adsorption capacity (500 mg.g) within 150 min. The developed surface MIPs not only showed imprinting factor (IF = 4) with reusability upon 5 cycles, but also capability of extracting lysozyme from egg-white directly. The MIPs showed controlled release of extracted lysozyme triggered by the NIR-light responsive property of the PDA layer. Moreover, the released lysozyme possesses good bioactivity, evidenced by efficient decomposition of micrococcus bacterial cell wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129613DOI Listing
April 2021

Effective tetracycline removal from liquid streams of dairy manure via hierarchical poly (vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene)/polyaniline metal complex nanofibrous membranes.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 1;597:9-20. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, USA. Electronic address:

Antibiotic residues from animal wastes enter underground and surface water streams, posing high risks to public health. Novel technologies capable of removing the residues from the matrix of concern such as animal waste should be developed. This research investigates the development of nanofiber absorbent for removing tetracycline (TC) antibiotic residues from liquid streams of dairy manure produced in a typical dairy farm. Hierarchically structured nanofibrous adsorbent was developed through growing a uniform polyaniline (PAni) nanodots on poly (vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (EVOH) nanofiber membrane (NFM). Moreover, Cu ions were chelated on the developed EVOH/PAni-Cl NFM to improve TC adsorption efficiency and selectivity. The TC adsorption capacities of EVOH/PAni-Cl-Cu and EVOH/PAni-Cl) NFM were 1100 mg g and 600 mg g within 120 min., respectively. The NFMs adsorption efficiency was investigated using dairy wastewater. Initial TC concentrations in dairy wastewater sample varied between 20 and 50 ppm. The EVOH/PAni-Cl-Cu NFM showed TC removal of 86% from dairy manure samples at 25 ppm initial TC concentration within 60 min. during batch mode treatment. Results showed that the dynamic binding efficiency of 450 mg g can be achieved at an initial TC concentration of 50 ppm. Furthermore, the NFM displayed efficient chemical and physical stability even after 8 cycles of reusing without significant changes in its performance or hazardous Cu leaching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.03.165DOI Listing
September 2021

-Halamine Polypropylene Nonwoven Fabrics with Rechargeable Antibacterial and Antiviral Functions for Medical Applications.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 06 14;7(6):2329-2336. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, California 95616, United States.

Embedding medical and hygiene products with regenerable antimicrobial functions would have significant implications for limiting pathogen contaminations and reducing healthcare-associated infections. Herein, we demonstrate a scalable and industrially feasible methodology to fabricate chlorine rechargeable melt-blown polypropylene (PP) nonwoven fabrics, which have been widely used in hygienic and personal protective products, via a combination of a melt reactive extrusion process and melt-blown technique. Methacrylamide (MAM) was employed as a precursor of halamine monomers and covalently grafted onto the PP backbone to form polypropylene-grafted methacrylamide (PP-g-MAM), which could be chlorinated, yielding biocidal acyclic halamines. Subsequently, the resultant PP-g-MAM was manufactured into nonwoven fabrics with varying fiber diameters by adjusting the hot air flowing speed during the melt-blowing process. The chlorinated nonwoven fabrics (PP-g-MAM-Cl) exhibited integrated properties such as a robust mechanical property, good thermal stability, high chlorination capability (>850 ppm), and desirable chlorine rechargeability. More importantly, such chlorinated nonwoven fabrics showed a promising antibacterial and antiviral efficiency, achieving 6 log CFU reduction of bacteria (both and ) and 7 log PFU reductions of a virus (T7 bacteriophages) within 15 and 5 min of contact, respectively, revealing great potential to serve as a reusable antimicrobial material for medical protection applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c00117DOI Listing
June 2021

Glass polyamorphism in gallium: Two amorphous solid states and their transformation on the potential energy landscape.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):134503

International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Using the potential energy landscape (PEL) formalism and molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate a phase transformation between two amorphous solid states of gallium, namely, a low-density amorphous solid (LDA) and a high-density amorphous solid (HDA), and compare with its equilibrium counterpart, the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT). It is found that on the PEL, the signatures of the out-of-equilibrium LDA-HDA transition are reminiscent of those of the equilibrium LLPT in terms of pressure, inherent structure pressure, inherent structure energy, and shape function, indicating that the LDA-HDA transformation is a first-order-like transition. However, differences are also found between the out-of-equilibrium phase transition and the equilibrium one, for example, the path from LDA to HDA on the PEL cannot be accessed by the path from LDL to HDL. Our results also suggest that the signatures of the out-of-equilibrium transition in gallium are rather general features of systems with an accessible LLPT-not only systems with pairwise interactions but also those with many-body interactions. This finding is of crucial importance for obtaining a deeper understanding of the nature of transitions in the polyamorphic family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0038058DOI Listing
April 2021
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