Publications by authors named "Gang Peng"

211 Publications

Two approaches for the synthesis of levo-praziquantel.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

National Engineering Research Center for Process Development of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, PR China.

We report herein the development of two pathways for the preparation of levo-praziquantel (R-PZQ), which involves three-/four-step processes of a mechanochemical (asymmetric) aza-Henry/acylation reaction, a hydrogenation reaction, (chiral resolution) and a solvent-free acylation-ring closing reaction. The key intermediate (R)-1-aminomethyl tetrahydroisoquinoline could be obtained either by chiral resolution with a rational reuse of the S-isomer or by mechanochemical enantioselective synthesis that refrained from using a bulky toxic solvent. The efficiency and scalability of both the developed routes were demonstrated and desired target product was obtained in a satisfactory yield with excellent enantiopurity (>99%), offering practical, concise and environmentally friendly alternatives to access R-PZQ.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00453kDOI Listing
April 2021

Association of epigenetic age acceleration with risk factors, survival, and quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Emory University School of Nursing.

Purpose: Epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) is robustly linked with mortality and morbidity. This study examined risk factors of EAA and its association with overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and quality of life (QOL) in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) receiving radiotherapy.

Methods And Materials: Patients without distant metastasis were enrolled and followed before and end of radiotherapy, and 6-months and 12-months post-radiotherapy. EAA was calculated with DNAmPhenoAge at all four times. Risk factors included demographics, lifestyle, clinical characteristics, treatment-related symptoms, and blood biomarkers. Survival data were collected until August 2020; QOL was measured using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-HNC.

Results: Increased comorbidity, HPV-unrelated, and severer treatment-related symptoms were associated with higher EAA (p=0.03 to <0.001). A non-linear association (quadratic) between body mass index (BMI) and EAA was observed: decreased BMI (when BMI<35,p=0.04) or increased BMI (when BMI≥35,p=0.01), was linked to higher EAA. Increased EAA (per year) was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio (HR)=1.11,95% CI=[1.03,1.18],p=0.004; HR=1.10,95% CI=[1.01,1.19], p=0.02, for EAA at 6-months and 12-months post-treatment, respectively), PFS (HR=1.10, 95% CI=[1.02,1.19], p=0.02; HR=1.14, 95% CI=[1.06,1.23], p<0.001; HR=1.08,95% CI=[1.02,1.14], p=0.01, for EAA before, end, and 6-months post-radiotherapy, respectively), and QOL over time (β=-0.61,p=0.001). An average of 3.25-3.33 years of age acceleration across time, which was responsible for 33% to 44% higher HRs of OS and PFS, was observed in those who died or developed recurrences compared to those who did not (all p<0.001).

Conclusion: Compared to demographic and lifestyle factors, clinical characteristics were more likely to contribute to faster biological aging in patients with HNC. Acceleration in epigenetic age resulted in more aggressive adverse events including OS and PFS. EAA could be considered as a marker for cancer outcomes, and decelerating aging could improve survival and QOL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Prognostic value of pretreatment prognostic nutritional index and lactated dehydrogenase in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 23;10(4):4122-4133. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: To evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment prognostic nutritional index (PNI), lactated dehydrogenase (LDH) and their combination (PNI-LDH) in patients with locally advanced NPC receiving induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).

Methods: A total of 213 patients diagnosed with locally advanced (III-IVA) NPC between January 2013 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The optimal PNI and LDH cutoff values were determined by the quartiles. The association between PNI and LDH and the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients was examined. Survival curves were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test between the different PNI and LDH subgroups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the Cox proportional hazards regression model to evaluate the prognostic impact on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Furthermore, the prognostic values of the PNI, LDH, and PNI-LDH were evaluated by comparing the AUC area.

Results: The optimal cut-off values of PNI and LDH were 52 and 177, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that patients with a higher PNI had inferior OS (P=0.027), PFS (P=0.040), LRFS (P=0.015) and DMFS (P=0.040), and patients with a higher LDH level had poorer OS (P=0.040), PFS (P=0.001), LRFS (P=0.001) and DMFS (P=0.001). Furthermore, EBV DNA positive, stage IVA were independent prognostic factors for survival outcomes in the multivariate analyses. Moreover, we further demonstrated that low PNI-high LDH in locally advanced NPC patients was significantly related to poor OS (P=0.012), PFS (P=0.001), LRFS (P=0.001) and DMFS (P=0.001). The AUC of the PNI, LDH and PNI-LDH were 0.653 (P=0.021), 0.647 (P=0.028) and 0.751 (P=0.001), respectively, indicating that PNI-LDH is superior to either score alone.

Conclusions: Pretreatment PNI and LDH could be considered as valuable predictors for survival outcomes in locally advanced NPC patients. The combination of them, superior to either score alone, can be used as a supplement to the traditional TNM staging system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2033DOI Listing
April 2021

Surface Energy of Curved Surface Based on Lennard-Jones Potential.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Although various phenomena have confirmed that surface geometry has an impact on surface energy at micro/nano scales, determining the surface energy on micro/nano curved surfaces remains a challenge. In this paper, based on Lennard-Jones (L-J) pair potential, we study the geometrical effect on surface energy with the homogenization hypothesis. The surface energy is expressed as a function of local principle curvatures. The accuracy of curvature-based surface energy is confirmed by comparing surface energy on flat surface with experimental results. Furthermore, the surface energy for spherical geometry is investigated and verified by the numerical experiment with errors within 5%. The results show that (i) the surface energy will decrease on a convex surface and increase on a concave surface with the increasing of scales, and tend to the value on flat surface; (ii) the effect of curvatures will be obvious and exceed 5% when spherical radius becomes smaller than 5 nm; (iii) the surface energy varies with curvatures on sinusoidal surfaces, and the normalized surface energy relates with the ratio of wave height to wavelength. The curvature-based surface energy offers new insights into the geometrical and scales effect at micro/nano scales, which provides a theoretical direction for designing NEMS/MEMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998149PMC
March 2021

Integral perception, but separate processing: The perceptual normalization of lexical tones and vowels.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Jun 30;156:107839. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Chinese and Bilingual Studies, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1068 Xueyuan Boulevard, Shenzhen, 518055, China. Electronic address:

In tonal languages, speech variability arises in both lexical tone (i.e., suprasegmentally) and vowel quality (segmentally). Listeners can use surrounding speech context to overcome variability in both speech cues, a process known as extrinsic normalization. Although vowels are the main carriers of tones, it is still unknown whether the combined percept (lexical tone and vowel quality) is normalized integrally or in partly separate processes. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the time course of lexical tone normalization and vowel normalization to answer this question. Cantonese adults listened to synthesized three-syllable stimuli in which the identity of a target syllable - ambiguous between high vs. mid-tone (Tone condition) or between /o/ vs. /u/ (Vowel condition) - was dependent on either the tone range (Tone condition) or the formant range (Vowel condition) of the first two syllables. It was observed that the ambiguous tone was more often interpreted as a high-level tone when the context had a relatively low pitch than when it had a high pitch (Tone condition). Similarly, the ambiguous vowel was more often interpreted as /o/ when the context had a relatively low formant range than when it had a relatively high formant range (Vowel condition). These findings show the typical pattern of extrinsic tone and vowel normalization. Importantly, the EEG results of participants showing the contrastive normalization effect demonstrated that the effects of vowel normalization could already be observed within the N2 time window (190-350 ms), while the first reliable effect of lexical tone normalization on cortical processing was observable only from the P3 time window (220-500 ms) onwards. The ERP patterns demonstrate that the contrastive perceptual normalization of lexical tones and that of vowels occur at least in partially separate time windows. This suggests that the extrinsic normalization can operate at the level of phonemes and tonemes separately instead of operating on the whole syllable at once.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.107839DOI Listing
June 2021

Neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech and nonspeech in children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

Autism Res 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences & Center for Neurobehavioral Development, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA.

The presence of vowel exaggeration in infant-directed speech (IDS) may adapt to the age-appropriate demands in speech and language acquisition. Previous studies have provided behavioral evidence of atypical auditory processing towards IDS in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), while the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech and nonspeech in 24 4- to 11-year-old children with ASD and 24 typically-developing (TD) peers. The EEG data were recorded using an alternating block design, in which each stimulus type (exaggerated/non-exaggerated sound) was presented with equal probability. ERP waveform analysis revealed an enhanced P1 for vowel formant exaggeration in the TD group but not in the ASD group. This speech-specific atypical processing in ASD was not found for the nonspeech stimuli which showed similar P1 enhancement in both ASD and TD groups. Moreover, the time-frequency analysis indicated that children with ASD showed differences in neural synchronization in the delta-theta bands for processing acoustic formant changes embedded in nonspeech. Collectively, the results add substantiating neurophysiological evidence (i.e., a lack of neural enhancement effect of vowel exaggeration) for atypical auditory processing of IDS in children with ASD, which may exert a negative effect on phonetic encoding and language learning. LAY SUMMARY: Atypical responses to motherese might act as a potential early marker of risk for children with ASD. This study investigated the neural responses to such socially relevant stimuli in the ASD brain, and the results suggested a lack of neural enhancement responding to the motherese even in individuals without intellectual disability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2509DOI Listing
March 2021

Primary thymic atypical carcinoid with rare multiple bone metastasis: A case report and literature review.

Mol Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 25;14(4):78. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, P.R. China.

Primary thymic atypical carcinoid (TAC) is a type of extremely rare neuroendocrine tumor. Approximately one-third of patients with TAC tumors are asymptomatic, and no treatments of TAC have been rigorously tested in multicenter clinical trials. To date, there has been no previous case report of TACs with multiple skull metastases. The present report describes a case of a 56-year-old male patient with a primary TAC and multiple axial skeleton metastases, including multiple bilateral metastases to the parietal bones, outer wall of the orbital cavities, and the petrous apex, as well as metastases to the suprasellar region and the clivus. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of TAC. Single-photon emission computed tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed multiple bone metastases. The patient refused chemotherapy and radiotherapy and only accepted alleviative treatment, and died 89 days after diagnosis. This type of cancer is highly malignant with an extremely short natural course and high disease-related mortality. In addition, a review of the literature was performed to provide a reference for proper diagnosis and treatment of TACs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947951PMC
April 2021

Prognostic efficacy of the combination of the pretreatment systemic Immune-Inflammation Index and Epstein-Barr virus DNA status in locally advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients.

J Cancer 2021 22;12(8):2275-2284. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Cancer Center, Union hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

The systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV DNA) levels has been used as a prognostic marker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, but there is no in-depth study in locally advanced NPC patients and no research on the predictive value of their combination. Our study aimed to evaluate the prognostic efficacy of the pretreatment SII, EBV DNA levels and their combination in locally advanced NPC patients receiving induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). 319 patients diagnosed with locally advanced NPC receiving IC followed by CCRT were retrospectively reviewed (213 in the training cohort and 106 in the validation cohort). The cut-off value for the SII was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Correlations between characteristics of patients were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Survival curves for the SII, EBV DNA levels and their combination were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the Cox proportional hazards regression model to evaluate the prognostic impact on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). A prognostic nomogram was generated and its prediction ability was measured by the concordance index (C-index). The optimal cutoff point for the SII was 402.10. A higher SII and EBV DNA positivity were demonstrated to be related to poorer survival outcomes ( < 0.05). Multivariate analyses showed that a higher SII, EBV DNA positivity and their combination were powerful independent risk factors for OS and PFS ( < 0.05). The SII - EBV DNA had the largest area under the curve (AUC) compared to either score alone. The incorporation of the SII - EBV DNA into established nomogram achieved higher C-index in the prediction of OS and PFS, indicating its superior for predicting survival. All results were found in the training cohort and confirmed in the validation cohort. The pretreatment SII and EBV DNA levels are promising factors for predicting survival in locally advanced NPC patients. The combination of them, which was superior to either score alone, was a complement to the conventional TNM staging system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.52539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7974890PMC
February 2021

A risk score based on baseline risk factors for predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 Apr 10:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopedics, The First People's Hospital of Jingmen affiliated to Hubei Minzu University, Jingmen, China.

Background: To develop a sensitive and clinically applicable risk assessment tool identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a high risk of mortality at hospital admission. This model would assist frontline clinicians in optimizing medical treatment with limited resources.

Methods: 6415 patients from seven hospitals in Wuhan city were assigned to the training and testing cohorts. A total of 6351 patients from another three hospitals in Wuhan, 2169 patients from outside of Wuhan, and 553 patients from Milan, Italy were assigned to three independent validation cohorts. A total of 64 candidate clinical variables at hospital admission were analyzed by random forest and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses.

Results: Eight factors, namely, xygen saturation, blood rea nitrogen, espiratory rate, admission before the date the national aximum number of daily new cases was reached, ge, rocalcitonin, -reactive protein (CRP), and absolute eutrophil counts, were identified as having significant associations with mortality in COVID-19 patients. A composite score based on these eight risk factors, termed the OURMAPCN-score, predicted the risk of mortality among the COVID-19 patients, with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.93). The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality between patients with OURMAPCN-score >11 compared with those with scores ≤ 11 was 18.18 (95% CI 13.93-23.71;  < .0001). The predictive performance, specificity, and sensitivity of the score were validated in three independent cohorts.

Conclusions: The OURMAPCN score is a risk assessment tool to determine the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients based on a limited number of baseline parameters. This tool can assist physicians in optimizing the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with limited hospital resources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2021.1904862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054492PMC
April 2021

Identifying molecular features that are associated with biological function of intrinsically disordered protein regions.

Elife 2021 Feb 22;10. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

In previous work, we showed that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins contain sequence-distributed molecular features that are conserved over evolution, despite little sequence similarity that can be detected in alignments (Zarin et al., 2019). Here, we aim to use these molecular features to predict specific biological functions for individual IDRs and identify the molecular features within them that are associated with these functions. We find that the predictable functions are diverse. Examining the associated molecular features, we note some that are consistent with previous reports and identify others that were previously unknown. We experimentally confirm that elevated isoelectric point and hydrophobicity, features that are positively associated with mitochondrial localization, are necessary for mitochondrial targeting function. Remarkably, increasing isoelectric point in a synthetic IDR restores weak mitochondrial targeting. We believe feature analysis represents a new systematic approach to understand how biological functions of IDRs are specified by their protein sequences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.60220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932695PMC
February 2021

Fibrous dysplasia mimicking bone metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report and literature review.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2021 1;14(2):247-251. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430022, Hubei, China.

Fibrous dysplasia of bone (FDB) is a rare bone disease that may be misdiagnosed as bone metastasis in terms of some symptoms and imaging features. Therefore, the differential diagnosis between FDB and bone metastasis may be a challenge. To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature to date regarding concomitant nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with FDB. The aim of this study was to report the case of a NPC patient with FDB, to highlight correct diagnosis and treatment. A 28-year-old young woman was investigated for accidental nasal bleeding. A mass on the right neck and local pain on right femur, and she was submitted to a standard imaging examination suggesting the presence of a solitary right femur metastasis from NPC. Then the patient was submitted to four cycles of chemotherapy, with a partial response (PR) for the mass in neck but no change in the bone metastasis. Because the bone lesion was single, pathologic biopsy was taken to confirm diagnosis. Surprisingly, it was a FDB instead of tumor. At five-year follow-up, she is free of recurrent disease. In this case, we believe that although NPC with FDB is rare, it should not be omitted when bone metastasis is suspected, especially when the metastasis is solitary, because it is crucial for diagnostic staging and treatment choice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868781PMC
February 2021

Timing of Newborn Blood Collection Alters Metabolic Disease Screening Performance.

Front Pediatr 2020 20;8:623184. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Blood collection for newborn genetic disease screening is preferably performed within 24-48 h after birth. We used population-level newborn screening (NBS) data to study early postnatal metabolic changes and whether timing of blood collection could impact screening performance. Newborns were grouped based on their reported age at blood collection (AaBC) into early (12-23 h), standard (24-48 h), and late (49-168 h) collection groups. Metabolic marker levels were compared between the groups using effect size analysis, which controlled for group size differences and influence from the clinical variables of birth weight and gestational age. Metabolite level differences identified between groups were correlated to NBS data from false-positive cases for inborn metabolic disorders including carnitine transport defect (CTD), isovaleric acidemia (IVA), methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), and phenylketonuria (PKU). Our results showed that 56% of the metabolites had AaBC-related differences, which included metabolites with either decreasing or increasing levels after birth. Compared to the standard group, the early-collection group had elevated marker levels for PKU (phenylalanine, Cohen's = 0.55), IVA (C5, Cohen's = 0.24), MMA (C3, Cohen's = 0.23), and CTD (C0, Cohen's = 0.23). These findings correlated with higher false-positive rates for PKU ( < 0.05), IVA ( < 0.05), and MMA ( < 0.001), and lower false-positive rate for CTD ( < 0.001) in the early-collection group. Blood collection before 24 h could affect screening performance for some metabolic disorders. We have developed web-based tools integrating AaBC and other variables for interpretive analysis of screening data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.623184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854909PMC
January 2021

Translation and cross-cultural adaption of the Chinese version of the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0: a tool for oral symptom assessment in head and neck cancer patients.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Jan 21;19(1):27. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Background: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) who are receiving radiotherapy commonly face detrimental complications, including oral issues. However, oral symptoms are not well understood given the lack of available specific assessment instruments. The Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version (VHNSS) 2.0 is an instrument specifically developed to identify oral symptoms in HNC patients receiving radiotherapy in the United States.

Objective: To perform the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original English version of VHNSS 2.0 into a Chinese version (Mainland China).

Methods: The translation and cultural adaptation process involved translation by independent translators, construction of a consensus version, back translation into the original English version, analysis by the expert committee and a pretest. The pretest was administered to 90 patients with HNC to assess the feasibility and practicality of the tool.

Results: The final Chinese version approved by the expert committee was well understood by all participants in the study. The instrument had satisfactory content validity, with indexes of 0.83 for semantic and idiomatic equivalence, 0.90 for cultural equivalence, and 0.91 for conceptual equivalence. Furthermore, this version had good internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.74 to 0.95.

Conclusion: The Chinese version of VHNSS 2.0 was translated and cross-culturally adapted for use in China. This translation is a feasible instrument to assess oral health-related quality of life in HNC patients undergoing radiotherapy and will be useful for symptom management by clinicians and researchers in China.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-021-01673-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818719PMC
January 2021

Cytogenomic Abnormalities in 19 Cases of Salivary Gland Tumors of Parotid Gland Origin.

Case Rep Genet 2020 2;2020:8897541. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) of parotid origin are a group of diverse neoplasms which are difficult to classify due to their rarity and similar morphologic patterns. Chromosome analysis can detect clonal abnormalities, and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis can define copy number alterations (CNAs) from tumor specimens. Of the 19 cases of various types of SGTs submitted for cytogenomic analyses, an abnormal clone was detected in nine cases (47%), and CNAs were detected in 14 cases (74%). Recurrent rearrangements involving the PLAG1 gene at 8q12, recurrent CNAs including deletions of 6q, 9p (CDKN2A), and 17p (TP53), loss of Y chromosome, and gain of chromosome 7 were defined from these cases. Combined karyotyping and aCGH analyses could improve diagnostic yield. Future study for more precisive correlation of SGT classification with cytogenomic abnormalities will facilitate better diagnosis and treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8897541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725583PMC
December 2020

Bimodal Benefits Revealed by Categorical Perception of Lexical Tones in Mandarin-Speaking Kindergarteners With a Cochlear Implant and a Contralateral Hearing Aid.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2020 12 13;63(12):4238-4251. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences and Center for Neurobehavioral Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Purpose Pitch reception poses challenges for individuals with cochlear implants (CIs), and adding a hearing aid (HA) in the nonimplanted ear is potentially beneficial. The current study used fine-scale synthetic speech stimuli to investigate the bimodal benefit for lexical tone categorization in Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners using a CI and an HA in opposite ears. Method The data were collected from 16 participants who were required to complete two classical tasks for speech categorical perception (CP) with CI + HA device condition and CI alone condition. Linear mixed-effects models were constructed to evaluate the identification and discrimination scores across different device conditions. Results The bimodal kindergarteners showed CP for the continuum varying from Mandarin Tone 1 and Tone 2. Moreover, the additional acoustic information from the contralateral HA contributes to improved lexical tone categorization, with a steeper slope, a higher discrimination score of between-category stimuli pair, and an improved peakedness score (i.e., an increased benefit magnitude for discriminations of between-category over within-category pairs) for the CI + HA condition than the CI alone condition. The bimodal kindergarteners with better residual hearing thresholds at 250 Hz level in the nonimplanted ear could perceive lexical tones more categorically. Conclusion The enhanced CP results with bimodal listening provide clear evidence for the clinical practice to fit a contralateral HA in the nonimplanted ear in kindergarteners with unilateral CIs with direct benefits from the low-frequency acoustic hearing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00224DOI Listing
December 2020

Catalytic Performances of Cu/MCM-22 Zeolites with Different Cu Loadings in NH-SCR.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Oct 30;10(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Key Laboratory of Hubei Province for Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China.

The NH-SCR activities and hydrothermal stabilities of five Cu/MCM-22 zeolites with different Cu loadings ( = 2-10 wt%) prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method were systematically investigated. The physicochemical properties of Cu/MCM-22 zeolites were analyzed by XRD, nitrogen physisorption, ICP-AES, SEM, NH-TPD, UV-vis, H-TPR and XPS experiments. The Cu species existing in Cu/MCM-22 are mainly isolated Cu, CuO and unreducible copper species. The concentrations of both isolated Cu and CuO species in Cu/MCM-22 increase with Cu contents, but the increment of CuO species is more distinct, especially in high Cu loadings (>4 wt%). NH-SCR experimental results demonstrated that the activity of Cu/MCM-22 is sensitive to Cu content at low Cu loadings (≤4 wt%). When the Cu loading exceeds 4 wt%, the NH-SCR activity of Cu/MCM-22 is irrelevant to Cu content due to the severe pore blockage effects caused by aggregated CuO species. Among the five Cu/MCM-22 zeolites, 4Cu/MCM-22 with moderate Cu content has the best NH-SCR performance, which displays higher than 80% NO conversions in a wide temperature window (160-430 °C). Furthermore, the hydrothermal aging experiments (Cu/MCM-22 was treated at 750 °C for 10 h under 10% water vapor atmosphere) illustrated that all the Cu/MCM-22 zeolites exhibit high hydrothermal stability in NH-SCR reactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10112170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694057PMC
October 2020

Preoperative CT feature of incomplete overlying enhancing mucosa as a high-risk predictor in gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the stomach.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 30;31(5):3276-3285. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Ultrasound and Radiology, Daqing Oilfield General Hospital, No. 9 Zhongkang Road, Saertu District, Daqing, 163000, Heilongjiang, China.

Objectives: To determine whether the CT finding of overlying enhancing gastric mucosa (OEGM) can be used to predict risk stratifications by observing CT features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach.

Methods: Clinical characteristics and CT features within pathologically demonstrated GISTs were retrospectively reviewed. Risk stratifications were classified into non-high group and high-risk group according to the modified National Institutes of Health criteria. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed in order to determine significant predictors for high-risk stratification. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, subgroup analysis, and pathologic-radiologic correlation analysis were all executed.

Results: A total of 147 patients were finally enrolled as test subjects. Within the univariate analysis, high-risk tumors tended to have a larger diameter, irregular shape, exophytic growth pattern, present necrosis, incomplete OEGM, tumor vessels, heterogeneous enhancement, and present rupture. According to ROC curve analysis, incomplete OEGM showed the largest area under curve values for diagnosing lesions (0.835; 95% CI, 0.766-0.904; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that the incomplete OEGM was the strongest independent predictor for high-risk stratification of gastric GISTs (OR = 21.944; 95% CI, 4.344-110.863; p < 0.001). Within the subgroup analysis, incomplete OEGM was more frequently associated with tumors size > 10 cm, irregular shape, exophytic growth pattern, high mitotic count, and disrupted mucosa on pathology.

Conclusions: The CT feature of incomplete OEGM is an independent predictive factor for high-risk stratification of gastric GISTs and strongly correlated with pathological mucosal changes.

Key Points: • Preoperative CT features can be helpful in assessment of risk stratifications of gastric GISTs. • OEGM is an independent predictor for high-risk stratification of gastric GISTs. • Incomplete OEGM likely indicates high-risk stratification of gastric GISTs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07377-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Reduced Sensitivity to Between-Category Information but Preserved Categorical Perception of Lexical Tones in Tone Language Speakers With Congenital Amusia.

Authors:
Fei Chen Gang Peng

Front Psychol 2020 30;11:581410. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Research Centre for Language, Cognition, and Neuroscience, Department of Chinese and Bilingual Studies, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

Previous studies have shown that for congenital amusics, long-term tone language experience cannot compensate for lexical tone processing difficulties. However, it is still unknown whether such difficulties are merely caused by domain-transferred insensitivity in lower-level acoustic processing and/or by higher-level phonological processing of linguistic pitch as well. The current P300 study links and extends previous studies by uncovering the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning lexical tone perception difficulties in Mandarin-speaking amusics. Both the behavioral index () and P300 amplitude showed reduced within-category as well as between-category sensitivity among the Mandarin-speaking amusics regardless of the linguistic status of the signal. The results suggest that acoustic pitch processing difficulties in amusics are manifested profoundly and further persist into the higher-level phonological processing that involves the neural processing of different lexical tone categories. Our findings indicate that long-term tone language experience may not compensate for the reduced acoustic pitch processing in tone language speakers with amusia but rather may extend to the neural processing of the phonological information of lexical tones during the attentive stage. However, from both the behavioral and neural evidence, the peakedness scores of the and P300 amplitude were comparable between amusics and controls. It seems that the basic categorical perception (CP) pattern of native lexical tones is preserved in Mandarin-speaking amusics, indicating that they may have normal or near normal long-term categorical memory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.581410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554517PMC
September 2020

Effects of the on Integration Ability of Brain Functions in Children With ADHD.

J Atten Disord 2020 Oct 21:1087054720964561. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Objective: The present study aimed to examine the effects of on the integration ability of intrinsic brain functions in children with ADHD, and whether the integration ability was associated with working memory (WM).

Methods: A sliding time window method was used to calculate the spatial and temporal concordance among five rs-fMRI regional indices in 55 children with ADHD and 20 healthy controls.

Results: The exhibited significant interaction effects with ADHD diagnosis on the voxel-wise concordance in the right posterior central gyrus, fusiform gyrus and lingual gyrus. Specifically, for children with ADHD, G-carriers showed increased voxel-wise concordance in comparison to TT homozygotes in the right precentral gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. The voxel-wise concordance was also found to be related to WM.

Conclusion: Our findings provided a new insight into the neural mechanisms of the brain function of ADHD children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087054720964561DOI Listing
October 2020

Light-induced irreversible structural phase transition in trilayer graphene.

Light Sci Appl 2020 13;9:174. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Chongqing 2D Materials Institute, Liangjiang New Area, 400714 Chongqing, China.

A crystal structure has a profound influence on the physical properties of the corresponding material. By synthesizing crystals with particular symmetries, one can strongly tune their properties, even for the same chemical configuration (compare graphite and diamond, for instance). Even more interesting opportunities arise when the structural phases of crystals can be changed dynamically through external stimulations. Such abilities, though rare, lead to a number of exciting phenomena, such as phase-change memory effects. In the case of trilayer graphene, there are two common stacking configurations (ABA and ABC) that have distinct electronic band structures and exhibit very different behaviors. Domain walls exist in the trilayer graphene with both stacking orders, showing fascinating new physics such as the quantum valley Hall effect. Extensive efforts have been dedicated to the phase engineering of trilayer graphene. However, the manipulation of domain walls to achieve precise control of local structures and properties remains a considerable challenge. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that we can switch from one structural phase to another by laser irradiation, creating domains of different shapes in trilayer graphene. The ability to control the position and orientation of the domain walls leads to fine control of the local structural phases and properties of graphene, offering a simple but effective approach to create artificial two-dimensional materials with designed atomic structures and electronic and optical properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00412-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7553909PMC
October 2020

The role of the gut microbiome in cancer-related fatigue: pilot study on epigenetic mechanisms.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Jun 20;29(6):3173-3182. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

School of Nursing, Emory University, 1520 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, 30322, USA.

Purpose: Recent evidence supports a key role of gut microbiome in brain health. We conducted a pilot study to assess associations of gut microbiome with cancer-related fatigue and explore the associations with DNA methylation changes.

Methods: Self-reported Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and stool samples were collected at pre-radiotherapy and one-month post-radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. Gut microbiome data were obtained by sequencing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene. DNA methylation changes in the blood were assessed using Illumina Methylation EPIC BeadChip.

Results: We observed significantly different gut microbiota patterns among patients with high vs. low fatigue across time. This pattern was characterized by low relative abundance in short-chain fatty acid-producing taxa (family Ruminococcaceae, genera Subdoligranulum and Faecalibacterium; all p < 0.05), with high abundance in taxa associated with inflammation (genera Family XIII AD3011 and Erysipelatoclostridium; all p < 0.05) for high-fatigue group. We identified nine KEGG Orthology pathways significantly different between high- vs. low-fatigue groups over time (all p < 0.001), including pathways related to fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, inflammation, and brain function. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on the top differentially methylated CpG sites that were associated with the taxa and fatigue. All biological processes from the GSEA were related to immune responses and inflammation (FDR < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our results suggest different patterns of the gut microbiota in cancer patients with high vs. low fatigue. Results from functional pathways and DNA methylation analyses indicate that inflammation is likely to be the major driver in the gut-brain axis for cancer-related fatigue.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05820-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055716PMC
June 2021

Differential Protein Expression in Striatal D1- and D2-Dopamine Receptor-Expressing Medium Spiny Neurons.

Proteomes 2020 Oct 13;8(4). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Yale/NIDA Neuroproteomics Center, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.

Many neurological disorders and diseases including drug addiction are associated with specific neuronal cell types in the brain. The striatum, a region that plays a critically important role in the development of addictive drug-related behavior, provides a good example of the cellular heterogeneity challenges associated with analyses of specific neuronal cell types. Such studies are needed to identify the adaptive changes in neuroproteomic signaling that occur in response to diseases such as addiction. The striatum contains two major cell types, D1 and D2 type dopaminoceptive medium spiny neurons (MSNs), whose cell bodies and processes are intermingled throughout this region. Since little is known about the proteomes of these two neuronal cell populations, we have begun to address this challenge by using fluorescence-activated nuclear sorting (FANS) to isolate nuclei-containing fractions from striatum from D1 and D2 "Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification" (TRAP) mice. This approach enabled us to devise and implement a robust and reproducible workflow for preparing samples from specific MSN cell types for mass spectrometry analyses. These analyses quantified at least 685 proteins in each of four biological replicates of 50 K sorted nuclei from two D1 mice/replicate and from each of four biological replicates of 50 K sorted nuclei from two D2 mice/replicate. Proteome analyses identified 87 proteins that were differentially expressed in D1 versus D2 MSN nuclei and principal component analysis (PCA) of these proteins separated the 8 biological replicates into specific cell types. Central network analysis of the 87 differentially expressed proteins identified Hnrnpd and Hnmpa2b1 in D1 and Cct2 and Cct7 in D2 as potential central interactors. This workflow can now be used to improve our understanding of many neurological diseases including characterizing the short and long-term impact of drugs of abuse on the proteomes of these two dopaminoceptive neuronal populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/proteomes8040027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709116PMC
October 2020

Prognostic value and immune cell infiltration of hypoxic phenotype-related gene signatures in glioblastoma microenvironment.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 11 3;24(22):13235-13247. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant intracranial tumour with the highest proportion and lethality. It is characterized by invasiveness and heterogeneity. However, the currently available therapies are not curative. As an essential environmental cue that maintains glioma stem cells, hypoxia is considered the cause of tumour resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Growing evidence shows that immunotherapy focusing on the tumour microenvironment is an effective treatment for GBM; however, the current clinicopathological features cannot predict the response to immunotherapy and provide accurate guidance for immunotherapy. Based on the ESTIMATE algorithm, GBM cases of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set were classified into high- and low-immune/stromal score groups, and a four-gene tumour environment-related model was constructed. This model exhibited good efficiency at forecasting short- and long-term prognosis and could also act as an independent prognostic biomarker. Additionally, this model and four of its genes (CLECL5A, SERPING1, CHI3L1 and C1R) were found to be associated with immune cell infiltration, and further study demonstrated that these four genes might drive the hypoxic phenotype of perinecrotic GBM, which affects hypoxia-induced glioma stemness. Therefore, these might be important candidates for immunotherapy of GBM and deserve further exploration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7701576PMC
November 2020

Wnt Signaling Regulates Ipsilateral Pathfinding in the Zebrafish Forebrain through slit3.

Neuroscience 2020 11 17;449:9-20. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, and Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The nervous system relies upon correct interconnections to exert its normal function. During vertebrate embryonic development, highly stereotyped scaffolds of axon tracts are formed early in the brain to set the foundation for the neuronal interconnections. During zebrafish early development, anterior dorsal telencephalic (ADt) neurons extend axons along the ipsilateral supraoptic tract (SOT) and the contralateral anterior commissure (AC). Our previous study shows axonal outgrowths along the AC/SOT tracts are coordinated by the guidance molecules Dcc-Netrin and Robo2-Slit, but it is not known how the expressions of these guidance molecules are regulated in the forebrain tissues. Here we show ectopic activation of Wnt signaling abolishes the ipsilateral SOT originating from the ADt neurons. Further mechanistic studies show ectopic activation of Wnt signaling significantly reduces Slits' expression, whilst mis-expression of Slit3 rescues SOT outgrowth. Together, our findings indicate Wnt signaling controls the ipsilateral axonal outgrowth through the regulation of slits' expression in the zebrafish forebrain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.09.028DOI Listing
November 2020

Peri-implantation cytokine profile differs between singleton and twin IVF pregnancies.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2021 03 4;85(3):e13348. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Division of Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Problem: It is unknown whether maternal cytokine production differs between twin and singleton gestations in the implantation phase. A difference in maternal serum cytokine concentrations in twins would imply a dose-response to the invading embryos, as opposed to a general immune reaction.

Method Of Study: A prospective longitudinal cohort of women aged 18-45 at an academic fertility center undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) underwent routine collection of serial serum samples starting 9 days after ET and then approximately every 48 hours thereafter. Cryopreserved aliquots of these samples were assayed for interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) using the SimplePlex immunoassay platform. Pregnancies were followed until delivery. Serial measures of serum concentrations of IL-10, CXCL10, and TNF-α in singleton or di-di twin pregnancies from 9 to 15 days after IVF-ET were compared.

Results: Maternal serum levels of CXCL10 are significantly lower in women with di-di twin pregnancies in early implantation compared to those with singleton gestation (day 9-11, P = .02). Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were comparable at all studied time points (P > .05).

Conclusion: Maternal serum levels of CXCL10 are significantly lower in the earliest implantation phase in di-di twins compared to singleton conceptions. Given the known anti-angiogenic role of CXCL10, we hypothesize that lower CXCL10 levels in twin implantations allow an environment that is conducive for the greater vascularization required for the establishment of dual placentation in di-di twins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aji.13348DOI Listing
March 2021

Nonvolatile Multilevel Photomemory Based on Lead-Free Double Perovskite CsAgBiBr Nanocrystals Wrapped Within SiO as a Charge Trapping Layer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 15;12(39):43967-43975. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

National & Local United Engineering Laboratory of Flat Panel Display Technology, Institute of Optoelectronic Display, College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

Floating gate transistor photomemory (FGTPM) has been regarded as one of the most prospective nonvolatile photomemory devices because of its compatibility with transistor-based circuits, nondestructive reading, and multilevel storage. Until now, owing to the excellent photoelectric properties, lead-based perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) have been applied in most of the perovskite-based FGTPM devices and embedded in the polymer matrix as the charge trapping layer. However, the polymer matrix and its solvent would degrade the structure of the PNCs, resulting in the loss of their unique photoresponse ability. In addition, lead-based perovskites have environmental unfriendliness and poor stability. Hence, a novel nonvolatile FGTPM based on oligomeric silica (OS) wrapped lead-free double perovskite CsAgBiBr NCs was demonstrated for the first time. Acting synchronously as the protection layer for the discrete CsAgBiBr NCs and charge tunneling layer for the FGTPM device, the OS layer can achieve controllable thickness by adjusting the process parameters, leading to an adjustment of storage properties with a larger memory window (58 V). Owing to the excellent photoresponse ability of the CsAgBiBr@OS composite layer, the FGTPM device exhibited high-performance with repeatable multilevel nonvolatile photomemory and precise photoresponse ability of wavelength/time/power-dependent photoirradiation without extra gate biasing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c12185DOI Listing
September 2020

Highly Sensitive Amperometric -Ketoglutarate Biosensor Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide-Gold Nanocomposites.

Int J Anal Chem 2020 1;2020:4901761. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, China.

Herein, a rapid and highly sensitive amperometric biosensor for the detection of -ketoglutarate (-KG) was constructed via an electrochemical approach, in which the glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) was modified on the surface of reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle composite (rGO-Au composite). The rGO-Au composite was one-step electrodeposited onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electrochemical techniques. In addition, the rGO-Au/GCE was also found to electrocatalyze the oxidation of -nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) at the peak potential of 0.3 V, which was negatively shifted compared with that at bare GCE or Au/GCE, illustrating better catalytic performance of rGO-Au. After the modification of GLUD, the GLUD/rGO-Au/GCE led to effective amperometric detection of -KG through monitoring the NADH consumption and displayed a linear response in the range of 66.7 and 494.5 M, with the detection limit of 9.2 M. Moreover, the prepared GLUD/rGO-Au/GCE was further evaluated to be highly selective and used to test -KG in human serum samples. The recovery and the RSD values were calculated in the range of 97.9-102.4% and 3.8-4.5%, respectively, showing a great prospect for its real application.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4901761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416262PMC
August 2020

Factors affecting bone maturation in Chinese girls aged 4-8 years with isolated premature thelarche.

BMC Pediatr 2020 07 29;20(1):356. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Endocrinology, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, No. 7019, Yitian Road, Futian District, 518038, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: In isolated premature thelarche (IPT) girls, bone age (BA) is considered consistent with chronological age. However, some IPT girls confirmed by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test could show another trend. We analysed BA and possible potentiating factors in a selected group of girls aged 4-8 years with IPT.

Methods: IPT girls confirmed by GnRH stimulation test aged 4-8 years hospitalized from January 2015 to April 2018 at Shenzhen Children's Hospital were included in this retrospective study. They were divided into two groups with advanced BA of 2 years as the cut-off. Body mass index (BMI) and hormone levels were the main outcome measures, and regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors. IPT girls were divided into subgroups according to the levels of BMI standard deviation score (SDS), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) SDS and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) SDS for comparisons of advanced BA.

Results: Overall, 423 subjects were included and classified into the advanced BA group (48.7%, n = 206) and control group (51.3%, n = 217). The advanced BA group had significantly higher BMI SDS, serum DHEAS SDS, IGF-1 SDS, androstenedione and fasting insulin and significantly lower sex hormone binding globulin (all p < 0.001). Serum IGF-1 SDS (OR = 1.926, p<0.001), BMI SDS (OR = 1.427, p = 0.001) and DHEAS SDS (OR = 1.131, p = 0.005) were independent risk factors for significantly advanced BA. In the multiple linear regression model, serum IGF-1 SDS, BMI SDS and DHEAS SDS were the strongest predictors of advanced BA, accounting for 19.3% of the variance. According to BMI, 423 patients were classified into three groups: normal weight (56.03%, n = 237), overweight (19.15%, n = 81) and obesity (24.82%, n = 105). The proportion of advanced BA in obesity group was significantly higher than those of normal weight and overweight groups (χ = 18.088, p<0.001). In the subgroup with normal weight, higher serum IGF-1 SDS (p = 0.009) and DHEAS SDS (p = 0.003) affected BA advancement independent of BMI SDS.

Conclusions: Girls with IPT confirmed by GnRH stimulation test aged 4-8 years might have significantly advanced BA. Obesity was highly associated with advanced BA. Age-specific serum IGF-1 SDS and DHEAS SDS were risk factors for BA advancement independent of BMI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02256-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7388507PMC
July 2020

In-Hospital Use of Statins Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Mortality among Individuals with COVID-19.

Cell Metab 2020 08 24;32(2):176-187.e4. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Wuhan Third Hospital & Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Statins are lipid-lowering therapeutics with favorable anti-inflammatory profiles and have been proposed as an adjunct therapy for COVID-19. However, statins may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry by inducing ACE2 expression. Here, we performed a retrospective study on 13,981 patients with COVID-19 in Hubei Province, China, among which 1,219 received statins. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after propensity score-matching, we found that the risk for 28-day all-cause mortality was 5.2% and 9.4% in the matched statin and non-statin groups, respectively, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.58. The statin use-associated lower risk of mortality was also observed in the Cox time-varying model and marginal structural model analysis. These results give support for the completion of ongoing prospective studies and randomized controlled trials involving statin treatment for COVID-19, which are needed to further validate the utility of this class of drugs to combat the mortality of this pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311917PMC
August 2020