Publications by authors named "Gang Nie"

66 Publications

Research on the drought tolerance mechanism of Pennisetum glaucum (L.) in the root during the seedling stage.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 23;22(1):568. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

Background: Drought is one of the major environmental stresses resulting in a huge reduction in crop growth and biomass production. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) has excellent drought tolerance, and it could be used as a model plant to study drought resistance. The root is a very crucial part of plant that plays important roles in plant growth and development, which makes it a focus of research.

Results: In this study, we explored the mechanism of drought tolerance of pearl millet by comparing physiological and transcriptomic data under normal condition and drought treatment at three time points (1 h, 3 h and 7 h) in the root during the seedling stage. The relative electrical conductivity went up from 1 h to 7 h in both control and drought treatment groups while the content of malondialdehyde decreased. A total of 2004, 1538 and 605 differentially expressed genes were found at 1 h, 3 h and 7 h respectively and 12 genes showed up-regulation at all time points. Some of these differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched into 'metabolic processes', 'MAPK signaling pathway' and 'plant hormone signal transduction' such as the ABA signal transduction pathway in GO and KEGG enrichment analysis.

Conclusions: Pearl millet was found to have a quick drought response, which may occur before 1 h that contributes to its tolerance against drought stress. These results can provide a theoretical basis to enhance the drought resistance in other plant species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07888-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305952PMC
July 2021

Dynamic evaluation of the protective effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide on acute alcoholic liver injury mice in vitro and in vivo by NIR fluorescence imaging.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Sep 22;413(23):5715-5724. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Nature Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, Tongji Medical College of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Acute alcoholic liver injury (AALI) is a threat to human health. Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOP) has the potential to protect the liver by enhancing the anti-oxidative system to maintain the relative balance of ROS (active oxygen species) and antioxidants in AALI mice. However, the dynamic improvement effect of DOP on AALI is still not clear and accurate medication guidance is not available, which limits the clinical application of DOP. Because of the advantages of high sensitivity, noninvasiveness, and visualization, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has been widely studied in biochemistry and biomedicine. As the glutathione (GSH) level in the liver is closely related to the progression of AALI, herein, an NIR fluorescent probe for GSH, HCG was used to dynamically evaluate the effect of DOP on AALI mice. In this study, DOP was proven to maintain the relative balance of GSH content in the liver to protect it from damage. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to assess the effect of DOP on AALI mice through a NIR fluorescence imaging technique. This study may also provide a potential NIR imaging agent for the clinical research to improve the management of liver injury-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03546-7DOI Listing
September 2021

MicroRNA-Mediated Responses to Chromium Stress Provide Insight Into Tolerance Characteristics of .

Front Plant Sci 2021 23;12:666117. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Forage Science, College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Chromium (Cr) is a heavy metal in nature, which poses a potential risk to toxicity to both animals and plants when releasing into the environment. However, the regulation of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated response to heavy metal Cr has not been studied in . In this study, based on high-throughput miRNA sequencing, a total of 104 conserved miRNAs and 158 nonconserved miRNAs were identified. Among them, there were 45 differentially expressed miRNAs in roots and 13 differentially expressed miRNAs in leaves. The hierarchical clustering analysis showed that these miRNAs were preferentially expressed in a certain tissue. There were 833 differentially expressed target genes of 45 miRNAs in roots and 280 differentially expressed target genes of 13 miRNA in leaves. After expression trend analysis, five significantly enriched modules were obtained in roots, and three significantly enriched trend blocks in leaves. Based on the candidate gene annotation and gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) function analysis, miR167a, novel_miR15, and novel_miR22 and their targets were potentially involved in Cr transportation and chelation. Besides, miR156a, miR164, miR396d, and novel_miR155 were identified as participating in the physiological and biochemical metabolisms and the detoxification of Cr of plants. The results demonstrated the critical role of miRNA-mediated responses to Cr treatment in , which involves ion uptake, transport, accumulation, and tolerance characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.666117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261058PMC
June 2021

Transcriptome characterization of candidate genes related to chromium uptake, transport and accumulation in Miscanthus sinensis.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 26;221:112445. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Miscanthus sinensis is a C4 perennial grass species that is widely used as forage, ornamental grass and bioenergy crop due to its broad adaption and great biological traits. Recent studies indicated that M. sinensis could also grow in marginal lands which were contaminated with heavy metals, and exhibited important ecological restoration potential. In this study, transcriptome characterization of candidate genes related to chromium (Cr) uptake, transport and accumulation in M. sinensis were employed to investigate the molecular mechanism of plant tolerance to heavy metal stress. The result showed that following treatment of 200 mg/L of Cr, plant roots could accumulate most Cr and localize mainly in cell walls and soluble fractions, whereas Cr in stems and leaves was primarily in soluble fractions. A total of 83,645 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained after the treatment. Many genes involved in heavy metal transport, metal ion chelation and photosynthesis were found to be Cr-induced DEGs. Co-expression and weighted correlation network analysis revealed that Glutathion metabolism and ABC transporters pathways play an important role in Cr tolerance of M. sinensis. A hypothesis schematic diagram for the Cr uptake, transport and accumulation of M. sinensis cells were suggested, which could provide a molecular and genetic basis for future candidate genes validation and breeding of such crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112445DOI Listing
September 2021

Association between genetic variants in and inflammatory bowel disease risk in Caucasians: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2021 Aug 14;17(8):915-921. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan Hubei Province, China.

Objective: The published studies regarding the relationships between zinc finger 365 (ZNF365) polymorphisms and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk in Caucasians have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify this issue.

Methods: The Electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies up to 31 November 2020. The quality of eligible studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) under different genetic models were calculated to assess the strength of associations.

Results: A total of 22 relevant case-control studies with 9542 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 13,886 controls, as well as 13,651 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 15,256 controls, were involved in our meta-analysis. rs10761659 polymorphism significantly decreased CD and UC risk (except for the heterozygous model and the dominant model in UC), and rs10995271 polymorphism was significantly associated with UC (except for the heterozygous model and dominant model) rather than CD.

Conclusions: The meta-analysis demonstrated that the rs10761659 polymorphism might be a protective factor for both UC and CD in Caucasians, while the rs10995271 polymorphism might be a risk factor for UC rather than CD in Caucasians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2021.1939012DOI Listing
August 2021

Genome-wide identification, phylogenetic analysis, and expression analysis of the SPL gene family in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).

Genomics 2021 Jul 28;113(4):2413-2425. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

SPL (SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like) is a plant-specific transcription factor family that contains the conserved SBP domain, which plays a vital role in the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, flowering development and regulation, tillering/branching, and stress responses. Although the SPL family has been identified and characterized in various plant species, limited information about it has been obtained in orchardgrass, which is a critical forage crop worldwide. In this study, 17 putative DgSPL genes were identified among seven chromosomes, and seven groups that share similar gene structures and conserved motifs were determined by phylogenetic analysis. Of these, eight genes have potential target sites for miR156. cis-Element and gene ontology annotation analysis indicated DgSPLs may be involved in regulating development and abiotic stress responses. The expression patterns of eight DgSPL genes at five developmental stages, in five tissues, and under three stress conditions were determined by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR. These assays indicated DgSPLs are involved in vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, floral development, and stress responses. The transient expression analysis in tobacco and heterologous expression assays in yeast indicated that miR156-targeted DG1G01828.1 and DG0G01071.1 are nucleus-localized proteins, that may respond to drought, salt, and heat stress. Our study represents the first systematic analysis of the SPL family in orchardgrass. This research provides a comprehensive assessment of the DgSPL family, which lays the foundation for further examination of the role of miR156/DgSPL in regulating development and stress responses in forages grasses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.05.032DOI Listing
July 2021

Overexpression of the white clover TrSAMDC1 gene enhanced salt and drought resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Aug 19;165:147-160. Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. Electronic address:

S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) mediates the biosynthesis of polyamines (PAs) and plays a positive role in plants' response to adversity stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated a SAMDC gene from white clover, which is located in mitochondria. It was strongly induced when white clover exposed to drought (15% PEG6000), salinity (200 mM NaCl), 20 μM spermidine, 100 μM abscisic acid, and 10 mM HO, especially in leaves. The INVSc1 yeast introduced with TrSAMDC1 had tolerance to drought, salt, and oxidative stress. Overexpression of TrSAMDC1 in Arabidopsis showed higher fresh weight and dry weight under drought and salt treatment and without growth inhibition under normal conditions. Leaf senescence induced by drought and saline was further delayed in transgenic plants, regardless of cultivation in 1/2 MS medium and soil. During drought and salt stress, transgenic plants exhibited a significant increase in relative water content, maximum photosynthesis efficiency (Fv/Fm), performance index on the absorption basis (PI), activities of antioxidant protective enzymes such as SOD, POD, CAT, and APX, and a significant decrease in accumulation of MDA and HO as compared to the WT. The concentrations of total PAs, putrescine, spermidine, and spermidine in transgenic lines were higher in transgenic plants than in WT under normal and drought conditions. These results suggested that TrSAMDC1 could effectively mitigate abiotic stresses without the expense of production and be a potential candidate gene for improving the drought and salt resistance of crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.05.018DOI Listing
August 2021

Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate Improves Heat Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass Through Alteration of Osmotic Adjustment, Antioxidant Defense, and Expression of Jasmonic Acid-Responsive Genes.

Front Plant Sci 2021 7;12:664519. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Forage Science, College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Perennial ryegrass ( L.) is an important cool-season grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide but usually sensitive to heat stress. Jasmonates (JAs) may have a positive effect on plant tolerance under heat stress. In this study, results showed that exogenous methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) could significantly improve heat tolerance of perennial ryegrass through alteration of osmotic adjustment, antioxidant defense, and the expression of JA-responsive genes. MeJA-induced heat tolerance was involved in the maintenance of better relative water content (RWC), the decline of chlorophyll (Chl) loss for photosynthetic maintenance, as well as maintained lower electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content under heat condition, so as to avoid further damage to plants. Besides, results also indicated that exogenous MeJA treatment could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), thus enhancing the scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species, alleviating the oxidative damage caused by heat stress. Heat stress and exogenous MeJA upregulated transcript levels of related genes (, , , and ) in JA biosynthetic pathway, which also could enhance the accumulation of JA and MeJA content. Furthermore, some NAC transcription factors and heat shock proteins may play a positive role in enhancing resistance of perennial ryegrass with heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.664519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137847PMC
May 2021

Comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotropic drugs for functional dyspepsia in adults: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(20):e26046

Mental Health Center, University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Abstract: Psychotropic drugs are frequently used for functional dyspepsia (FD); however, the efficacy of these drugs for treating FD remains controversial. We aimed to comprehensively compare the relative efficacies of different psychotropic drugs for FD in adults.To conduct this study, we searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases on March 10, 2019, and conducted a frequentist network meta-analysis on the search results. The primary outcome was treatment efficacy estimated by the proportion of patients who achieved a certain percentage decrease in symptoms or who dropped below the threshold of the global FD symptom scores. The secondary outcome was acceptability, defined as all-cause discontinuation. Odds ratios (ORs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).We deemed 10 trials to be eligible for analysis, and these trials included 970 participants and 10 psychotropic drugs. Flupentixol + melitracen (F + M) (OR, 10.00; 95% CI, 1.59 to 62.73), tandospirone (3.24, 1.38 to 7.60), imipramine (2.21, 1.02 to 4.79), and amitriptyline (1.71, 1.06 to 3.09) were significantly superior to placebo. According to the surface under the cumulative ranking curve, the most effective treatment was F + M (89.0%), whereas the least effective was R137696 (13.6%). In terms of acceptability, escitalopram (0.32, 0.11 to 0.92) was ranked as the worst drug (12.6%), followed by imipramine and sertraline.The present network meta-analysis suggests that F + M, tandospirone, imipramine, and amitriptyline are more effective than placebo as treatment for FD. Our results indicate that among the ten psychotropic drugs included, F + M is likely to be the most effective drug for alleviating dyspepsia symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137050PMC
May 2021

Genetic diversity and population structure analysis in a large collection of white clover ( L.) germplasm worldwide.

PeerJ 2021 3;9:e11325. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Grassland Science, Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

White clover is an important temperate legume forage with high nutrition. In the present study, 448 worldwide accessions were evaluated for the genetic variation and polymorphisms using 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. All the markers were highly informative, a total of 341 scored bands were amplified, out of which 337 (98.83%) were polymorphic. The PIC values ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 with an average of 0.95. For the AMOVA analysis, 98% of the variance was due to differences within the population and the remaining 2% was due to differences among populations. The white clover accessions were divided into different groups or subgroups based on PCoA, UPGMA, and STRUCTURE analyses. The existence of genetic differentiation between the originally natural and introduced areas according to the PCoA analysis of the global white clover accessions. There was a weak correlation between genetic relationships and geographic distribution according to UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses. The results of the present study will provide the foundation for future breeding programs, genetic improvement, core germplasm collection establishment for white clover.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101478PMC
May 2021

Microplastics remediation in aqueous systems: Strategies and technologies.

Water Res 2021 Jun 14;198:117144. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia. Electronic address:

In recent years, the ubiquitous detection and accumulation of microplastics (MPs) in the aquatic environment have raised significant concerns on water security and long-term ecological impacts all around the world. Nevertheless, critical reviews on strategic control and effective remediation of MPs in the aqueous phase are still lacking. In this work, we summarise the origins and types of MPs, and then introduce the methodologies for extraction, identification and quantification. More importantly, we for the first time provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the emerging MPs removal and transformation technologies. Except for biodegradation, this review presents new applications of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for MPs degradation and utilisation, including photocatalysis, photoreforming and Fenton-like reactions. Physical or catalytic thermal treatment can transform plastics into value-added nanocarbons or hydrocarbons. These transformation technologies demonstrate great potentials in dealing with MPs. The review will guide researchers to further explore the feasible approaches and develop new strategies for advanced control and remediation of MPs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117144DOI Listing
June 2021

Mechanical agitation accelerated ultrasonication for wastewater treatment: Sustainable production of hydroxyl radicals.

Water Res 2021 Jun 5;198:117124. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Electronic address:

Low efficiency in energy conversion has long been the bottleneck in sonochemistry-based water treatment technologies. In this work, we reported a simple and efficient strategy by introducing mechanical agitation into a low powered ultrasonic system to facilitate the production of cavitation bubbles. The coupled system remarkably intensifies the evolution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for degradation of refractory organic pollutants. We in-situ monitored the generation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) by selective scavenging tests and chemical trapping experiments. The operational factors such as rotation speed, gas atmosphere, solution temperature and pH were carefully evaluated for their impacts on the degradation of a plastic microcontaminant, diethyl phthalate (DEP). It was found that the degradation efficiency is closely related to the population of cavitation bubbles in the solution, which was collaboratively governed by the aforementioned factors. A high mechanical agitation speed (600 rpm), great solubility of inert gas atmosphere (Argon), and low reaction temperature (15 ºC) are beneficial to the generation of cavitation bubbles and the associated production of ROS. This work shows a facile strategy to intensify the mechanical energy-to-chemical conversion and provides new mechanistic insights into the ultrasound-based advanced oxidation without external chemical inputs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117124DOI Listing
June 2021

Transcriptome analysis revealed the regulation of gibberellin and the establishment of photosynthetic system promote rapid seed germination and early growth of seedling in pearl millet.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Apr 11;14(1):94. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 6111130, China.

Background: Seed germination is the most important stage for the formation of a new plant. This process starts when the dry seed begins to absorb water and ends when the radicle protrudes. The germination rate of seed from different species varies. The rapid germination of seed from species that grow on marginal land allows seedlings to compete with surrounding species, which is also the guarantee of normal plant development and high yield. Pearl millet is an important cereal crop that is used worldwide, and it can also be used to extract bioethanol. Previous germination experiments have shown that pearl millet has a fast seed germination rate, but the molecular mechanisms behind pearl millet are unclear. Therefore, this study explored the expression patterns of genes involved in pearl millet growth from the germination of dry seed to the early growth stages.

Results: Through the germination test and the measurement of the seedling radicle length, we found that pearl millet seed germinated after 24 h of swelling of the dry seed. Using transcriptome sequencing, we characterized the gene expression patterns of dry seed, water imbibed seed, germ and radicle, and found more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in radicle than germ. Further analysis showed that different genome clusters function specifically at different tissues and time periods. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that many genes that positively regulate plant growth and development are highly enriched and expressed, especially the gibberellin signaling pathway, which can promote seed germination. We speculated that the activation of these key genes promotes the germination of pearl millet seed and the growth of seedlings. To verify this, we measured the content of gibberellin and found that the gibberellin content after seed imbibition rose sharply and remained at a high level.

Conclusions: In this study, we identified the key genes that participated in the regulation of seed germination and seedling growth. The activation of key genes in these pathways may contribute to the rapid germination and growth of seed and seedlings in pearl millet. These results provided new insight into accelerating the germination rate and seedling growth of species with slow germination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-01946-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040237PMC
April 2021

Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the NAC transcription factor family in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 12;22(1):178. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) is one of the most important cool-season perennial forage grasses that is widely cultivated in the world and is highly tolerant to stressful conditions. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this tolerance. The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factor family is a large plant-specific gene family that actively participates in plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stress. At present, owing to the absence of genomic information, NAC genes have not been systematically studied in orchardgrass. The recent release of the complete genome sequence of orchardgrass provided a basic platform for the investigation of DgNAC proteins.

Results: Using the recently released orchardgrass genome database, a total of 108 NAC (DgNAC) genes were identified in the orchardgrass genome database and named based on their chromosomal location. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DgNAC proteins were distributed in 14 subgroups based on homology with NAC proteins in Arabidopsis, including the orchardgrass-specific subgroup Dg_NAC. Gene structure analysis suggested that the number of exons varied from 1 to 15, and multitudinous DgNAC genes contained three exons. Chromosomal mapping analysis found that the DgNAC genes were unevenly distributed on seven orchardgrass chromosomes. For the gene expression analysis, the expression levels of DgNAC genes in different tissues and floral bud developmental stages were quite different. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed distinct expression patterns of 12 DgNAC genes in response to different abiotic stresses. The results from the RNA-seq data revealed that orchardgrass-specific NAC exhibited expression preference or specificity in diverse abiotic stress responses, and the results indicated that these genes may play an important role in the adaptation of orchardgrass under different environments.

Conclusions: In the current study, a comprehensive and systematic genome-wide analysis of the NAC gene family in orchardgrass was first performed. A total of 108 NAC genes were identified in orchardgrass, and the expression of NAC genes during plant growth and floral bud development and response to various abiotic stresses were investigated. These results will be helpful for further functional characteristic descriptions of DgNAC genes and the improvement of orchardgrass in breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07485-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953825PMC
March 2021

Tumor-associated macrophages-mediated CXCL8 infiltration enhances breast cancer metastasis: Suppression by Danirixin.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 5;95:107153. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Breast Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong 266000, China. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among females and the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant immune cell population in the tumor microenvironment, including breast cancer. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) play an important role in regulating breast cancer growth and metastasis, which still remains an obstacle for successful treatment of breast cancer and requires further investigation, as well as the potential therapeutic strategies. Cytokine array validated that C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) is a pivotal chemokine secreted by TAMs, and CXCL8 could enhance breast cancer migration, invasion ability, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both animal and human breast cancer. In this study, the clinical data firstly indicated that high CXCL8 expression was significantly associated with metastasis and tumor growth in breast cancer patients. Then, we showed that TAMs-released CXCL8 could markedly elevate the migration, invasion and EMT events in breast cancer cells, as well as the self-renewal of BCSCs in vitro. These processes were markedly abrogated by the treatment of Danirixin, a reversible and selective antagonist of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2). Consistently, the in vivo analysis confirmed that CXCL8 suppression using Danirixin effectively reduced the tumor growth, lung metastasis and repressed the self-renewal of BCSCs. Collectively, TAMs/CXCL8 could enhance BCSCs self-renewal and breast cancer metastasis, and these effects could be markedly abolished by Danirixin treatment, suppressing breast cancer progression consequently. Therefore, Danirixin could be considered as a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment without obvious toxicity to major organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107153DOI Listing
June 2021

Nonpharmacological interventions for relapse prevention in unipolar depression: A network meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2021 03 13;282:1255-1262. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Mental Health Center, University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400016, China. Electronic address:

Background: The development of prophylactic interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important issue in clinical practice. We aimed to compare the relative efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions for relapse prevention in adult patients with MDD.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials investigating nonpharmachological interventions for relapse prevention were included. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed. Hazard ratios are reported as effect sizes with 95% credible intervals. Global inconsistency, local inconsistency, heterogeneity, and transitivity were evaluated. Confidence for the results comparing the active treatment with control conditions or antidepressant medicine (ADM) was assessed.

Results: Thirty-six trials were included. Most nonpharmacological interventions were various forms of psychotherapy; others were noninvasive neurostimulation techniques (3 studies with electroconvulsive therapy and 1 study with transcranial magnetic stimulation). Psychotherapy as a monotherapy following ADM or psychotherapy produced significantly better outcomes than control conditions, and there was no significant difference between psychotherapy and ADM. The combination of psychotherapy and ADM was superior to either treatment alone. The results were similar for patients with at least 3 previous episodes. Neurostimulation techniques were also superior to controls, either as a monotherapy or combined with ADM.

Conclusions: Our study provided evidence that psychotherapy as a monotherapy following ADM or psychotherapy was effective and performed as well as ADM for relapse prevention. Neurostimulation techniques also showed promising results but more studies are needed to confirm their efficacy. These findings may be informative for clinical practice and inspire future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.01.025DOI Listing
March 2021

Fingerprint identification of white clover cultivars based on SSR molecular markers.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Nov 10;47(11):8513-8521. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Grassland Science, Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is an important perennial legume forage with high productivity and quality. To strengthen the basic research on the genetic characteristics, fingerprint identification and adaptability of white clover germplasm resources, Simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers were applied to 10 white clover cultivars to assess the genetic diversity and related lines of white clover at the molecular level in order to lay a theoretical foundation for the selection of high-quality seeds and cultivars of white clover. A total of 120 different bands were amplified by 29 pairs of SSR primers with good polymorphism, of which 103 (89.5%) were polymorphic. Meanwhile, the PIC of each primer was 0.181-0.588, with an average of 0.329. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that 57% of the genetic variation occurred within cultivars and 43% occurred among cultivars. The results of cluster analysis and the principal coordinate analysis revealed that the parental relationships of the 10 cultivars, with the 'Purple' cultivar very distantly related to the other 9 cultivars and the closest parental relationship between 'Ladino' and 'Sulky'. The fingerprints constructed by three representative primers (gtrs679, gtrs319, and gtrs678) have a strong identification ability. In summary, the SSR markers had good polymorphism and could be used for DNA fingerprint analysis of white clover cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05893-7DOI Listing
November 2020

Hydroxyl radical dominated elimination of plasticizers by peroxymonosulfate on metal-free boron: Kinetics and mechanisms.

Water Res 2020 Nov 31;186:116361. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA5005, Australia.

Plasticizer pollution in drinking water and aquatic systems has raised global concerns due to the lasting and chronic hazards to marine life and public health. Metal-free materials are promising as green catalysts for wastewater purification. In this study, amorphous boron was applied as a metal-free activator to decompose peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the degradation of plasticizers in water. Integrating radical trapping and selectively quenching tests with kinetic evaluation and electrochemical analysis, hydroxyl radical was found to be the dominating reactive oxygen species (ROS). With a strong oxidative capacity, the boron/PMS system can effectively degrade both bisphenols and phthalates plasticizers. In contrast, a carbon nanotube-catalyzed PMS system mediated a nonradical pathway to oxidize the electron-rich plasticizer (bisphenol A), but ineffectively to decompose the highly recalcitrant phthalates plasticizers (diethyl phthalate). Moreover, we unveiled that the boron surface was oxidized to boron oxide during the redox reaction, and the oxide would be self-cleaned in the acidic solution to regenerate fresh boron and restore the activity during the cyclic operations. Therefore, this work not only gains new insights into the radical and nonradical oxidations by metal-free catalysis, but also provides feasible technologies for plasticizer purification in water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116361DOI Listing
November 2020

Natural variation and genomic prediction of growth, physiological traits, and nitrogen-use efficiency in perennial ryegrass under low-nitrogen stress.

J Exp Bot 2020 10;71(20):6670-6683

Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Genomic prediction of nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) has not previously been studied in perennial grass species exposed to low-N stress. Here, we conducted a genomic prediction of physiological traits and NUE in 184 global accessions of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in response to a normal (7.5 mM) and low (0.75 mM) supply of N. After 21 d of treatment under greenhouse conditions, significant variations in plant height increment (ΔHT), leaf fresh weight (LFW), leaf dry weight (LDW), chlorophyll index (Chl), chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf N and carbon (C) contents, C/N ratio, and NUE were observed in accessions , but to a greater extent under low-N stress. Six genomic prediction models were applied to the data, namely the Bayesian method Bayes C, Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian Ridge Regression, Ridge Regression-Best Linear Unbiased Prediction, Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces, and randomForest. These models produced similar prediction accuracy of traits within the normal or low-N treatments, but the accuracy differed between the two treatments. ΔHT, LFW, LDW, and C were predicted slightly better under normal N with a mean Pearson r-value of 0.26, compared with r=0.22 under low N, while the prediction accuracies for Chl, N, C/N, and NUE were significantly improved under low-N stress with a mean r=0.45, compared with r=0.26 under normal N. The population panel contained three population structures, which generally had no effect on prediction accuracy. The moderate prediction accuracies obtained for N, C, and NUE under low-N stress are promising, and suggest a feasible means by which germplasm might be initially assessed for further detailed studies in breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa388DOI Listing
October 2020

Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in White Clover ( L.) Involved in Five Abiotic Stresses.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Aug 5;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

White clover ( L.) is a widely cultivated cool-season perennial forage legume in temperate grassland systems. Many studies have analyzed the gene expression in this grass species using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The selection of stable reference genes for qRT-PCR is crucial. However, there was no detailed study on reference genes in different tissues of white clover under various abiotic stress conditions. Herein, 14 candidate reference genes ( and ) were selected and analyzed by four programs (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder). Samples were taken from two tissues (leaves and roots) under five different abiotic stresses (drought, salt, heat, cold, and heavy metal stress). Our results showed that and were the two top-ranked genes for all samples. Under various experimental conditions, the most stable gene was different; however, and were always top ranked. The most suitable reference genes should be selected according to different plant tissues and growth conditions. Validation of these reference genes by expression analysis of and confirmed their reliability. Our study will benefit the subsequent research of gene function in this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9080996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463471PMC
August 2020

Comparative transcriptome analyses reveal different mechanism of high- and low-tillering genotypes controlling tiller growth in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Aug 5;20(1):369. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Tillering is an important agronomic trait underlying the yields and reproduction of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata), an important perennial forage grass. Although some genes affecting tiller initiation have been identified, the tillering regulatory network is still largely unknown, especially in perennial forage grasses. Thus, unraveling the regulatory mechanisms of tillering in orchardgrass could be helpful in developing selective strategies for high-yield perennial grasses. In this study, we generated high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from multiple tissues of tillering stage plants to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between high- and low-tillering orchardgrass genotypes. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses connecting the DEGs to tillering number diversity were conducted.

Results: In the present study, approximately 26,282 DEGs were identified between two orchardgrass genotypes, AKZ-NRGR667 (a high-tillering genotype) and D20170203 (a low-tillering genotype), which significantly differed in tiller number. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that DEGs related to the biosynthesis of three classes of phytohormones, i.e., strigolactones (SLs), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellic acid (GA), as well as nitrogen metabolism dominated such differences between the high- and low-tillering genotypes. We also confirmed that under phosphorus deficiency, the expression level of the major SL biosynthesis genes encoding DWARF27 (D27), 9-cis-beta-carotene 9',10'-cleaving dioxygenase (CCD7), carlactone synthase (CCD8), and more axillary branching1 (MAX1) proteins in the high-tillering orchardgrass genotype increased more slowly relative to the low-tillering genotype.

Conclusions: Here, we used transcriptomic data to study the tillering mechanism of perennial forage grasses. We demonstrated that differential expression patterns of genes involved in SL, ABA, and GA biosynthesis may differentiate high- and low-tillering orchardgrass genotypes at the tillering stage. Furthermore, the core SL biosynthesis-associated genes in high-tillering orchardgrass were more insensitive than the low-tillering genotype to phosphorus deficiency which can lead to increases in SL biosynthesis, raising the possibility that there may be distinct SL biosynthesis way in tillering regulation in orchardgrass. Our research has revealed some candidate genes involved in the regulation of tillering in perennial grasses that is available for establishment of new breeding resources for high-yield perennial grasses and will serve as a new resource for future studies into molecular mechanism of tillering regulation in orchardgrass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02582-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409468PMC
August 2020

Circular RNA 000554 represses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer by regulating microRNA-182/ZFP36 axis.

FASEB J 2020 09 30;34(9):11405-11420. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Breast Disease Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, P.R. China.

Increasing evidence indicates that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a crucial role in regulating microRNAs (miRs) and mRNAs during breast cancer (BC) progression. Based on the in silico analysis of circRNA/miR/mRNA in BC, we aim to define an important role of circRNA_000554 in BC in relation to miR-182 and zinc finger protein 36 (ZFP36). Low expression of circRNA_000554 and ZFP36, and high miR-182 expression were determined in the clinical BC tissues. CircRNA_000554 acted as a sponge of miR-182, and miR-182 directly targeted ZFP36. After that, in order to evaluate the effects of circRNA_000554, miR-182, and ZFP36 on cellular process, we evaluated in vitro epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and in vivo tumor growth after delivering a series of overexpression plasmids, mimic, inhibitor, or shRNAs into BC cells. Increasing circRNA_000554 suppressed EMT, cell invasion and migration during BC by depleting miR-182 and increasing ZFP36. The inhibitory effect of circRNA_000554 on tumor growth was validated in vivo. Taken together, the present study confirms that circRNA_000554 functioned as an inhibitor of EMT in BC and suggests a molecular mechanism that circRNA_000554 bound to miR-182 to upregulate ZFP36 in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201903047RDOI Listing
September 2020

Genome-wide investigation of the NAC transcript factor family in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and expression analysis under various abiotic stressor.

Genomics 2020 11 5;112(6):4224-4231. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

NAC is one of the largest family of plant-specific transcription factors, and it plays important roles in plant development and stress responses. The study identified 72 LpNACs genes from the perennial ryegrass genome database. Gene length, MW and pI of NAC family transcription factors varied, but the gene structure and motifs were relatively conserved in bioinformatics analysis. Phylogenetic analyses of perennial ryegrass, rice and Arabidopsis were performed to study the evolutionary and functional relationships in various species. The expression of LpNAC genes that respond to various abiotic stresses including high salinity, ABA, high temperature, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and heavy metal was comprehensively analyzed. The present study provides a basic understanding of the NAC gene family in perennial ryegrass for further abiotic stress studies and improvements in breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.06.033DOI Listing
November 2020

Fast and Long-Lasting Iron(III) Reduction by Boron Toward Green and Accelerated Fenton Chemistry.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Sep 13;59(38):16517-16526. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia.

Generation of hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton system (Fe /H O ) is seriously limited by the sluggish kinetics of Fe reduction and fast Fe precipitation. Here, boron crystals (C-Boron) remarkably accelerate the Fe /Fe circulation in Fenton-like systems (C-Boron/Fe /H O ) to produce a myriad of hydroxyl radicals with excellent efficiencies in oxidative degradation of various pollutants. The surface B-B bonds and interfacial suboxide boron in the surface B icosahedra are the active sites to donate electrons to promote fast Fe reduction to Fe and further enhance hydroxyl radical production via Fenton chemistry. The C-Boron/Fe /H O system outperforms the benchmark Fenton (Fe /H O ) and Fe -based sulfate radical systems. The reactivity and stability of crystalline boron is much higher than the popular molecular reducing agents, nanocarbons, and other metal/metal-free nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202007046DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinical Features and Survival of Single Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Study of 531,605 Patients.

Clin Breast Cancer 2020 10 24;20(5):e589-e599. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Breast Disease Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the prognosis of single hormone receptor-positive (HR) breast cancer (estrogen receptor [ER] positive and progesterone receptor [PR] negative, and ERPR) compared to double HR (ERPR) and double HR (ERPR) tumors.

Methods: We included 531,605 cases of invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 2012 from the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for study and classified cases into 4 phenotypes according to expression of ER and PR: ERPR, ERPR, ERPR, and ERPR.

Results: Overall, 66,091 ERPR tumors and 9320 ERPR tumors were identified. The clinical characteristics of the ERPR group were similar to those of the double HR group, while those of the ERPR and double HR groups were similar. Overall survival of patients with single HR tumors was intermediate between that of double HR and double HR tumors. However, we observed no differences in disease-specific survival between ERPR and ERPR patients. In multivariate analysis, outcomes were similar. Relative to the double HR patient group, risk of death in the ERPR group was higher (hazard ratio, 1.422, 95% confidence interval, 1.394-1.452). However, risk of death was comparable between ERPR and ERPR patients (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.08). Multivariate Cox proportional analysis showed that survival times of patients in the younger age bracket (< 60 years), those positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and patients with tumor stage I-III were longer in the ERPR group.

Conclusion: Disease-specific survival of single HR tumor cases was longer than that of double HR tumors but poorer than double HR tumors. However, differences in disease-specific survival were not significant between the ERPR and ERPR groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2020.04.010DOI Listing
October 2020

The Intrinsic Nature of Persulfate Activation and N-Doping in Carbocatalysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 05 29;54(10):6438-6447. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA5005, Australia.

Persulfates activation by carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been evidenced as nonradical systems for oxidation of organic pollutants. Peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and peroxydisulfate (PDS) possess discrepant atomic structures and redox potentials, while the nature of their distinct behaviors in carbocatalytic activation has not been investigated. Herein, we illustrated that the roles of nitrogen species in CNT-based persulfate systems are intrinsically different. In PMS activation mediated by nitrogen-doped CNT (N-CNT), surface chemical modification (N-doping) can profoundly promote the adsorption quantity of PMS, consequently elevate potential of derived nonradical N-CNT-PMS* complexes, and boost organic oxidation efficiency via an electron-transfer regime. In contrast, PDS adsorption was not enhanced upon incorporating N into CNT due to the limited equilibrium adsorption quantity of PDS, leading to a relatively lower oxidative potential of PDS/N-CNT system and a mediocre degradation rate. However, with equivalent persulfate adsorption on N-CNT at a low quantity, PDS/N-CNT exhibited a stronger oxidizing capacity than PMS/N-CNT because of the intrinsic higher redox potential of PDS than PMS. The oxidation rates of the two systems were in great linearity with the potentials of carbon-persulfate* complexes, suggesting N-CNT activation of PMS and PDS shared the similar electron-transfer oxidation mechanism. Therefore, this study provides new insights into the intrinsic roles of heteroatom doping in nanocarbons for persulfates activation and unveils the principles for a rational design of reaction-oriented carbocatalysts for persulfate-based advanced oxidation processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01161DOI Listing
May 2020

APOBEC3B expression and its prognostic potential in breast cancer.

Oncol Lett 2020 Apr 3;19(4):3205-3214. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Breast Disease Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, P.R. China.

Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) mRNA expression is associated with the poor prognosis of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. However, the clinical relevance of APOBEC3B protein expression in patients with breast cancer remains unclear. The present study evaluated the association of APOBEC3B protein expression with clinicopathological features, as well as survival outcomes of patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, the association between APOBEC3B protein expression and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was investigated. APOBEC3B protein expression in 120 patients with breast cancer was evaluated via immunohistochemistry, using a constructed tumor microarray, and TILs were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The relevance of APOBEC3B mRNA expression in breast cancer was assessed using a Kaplan-Meier Plotter online tool, as well as the Tumor Immune Estimation Response and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases. The present study assessed APOBEC3B expression in 116 patients with breast cancer and demonstrated that protein expression was significantly associated with ER and progesterone receptor expression, as well as different subtypes of breast cancer. Notably, APOEBC3B protein expression was significantly associated with TILs. Overall, high expression levels of APOBEC3B protein and high levels of TILs were indicative of longer disease-free survival rate. High APOBEC3B mRNA expression was associated with poor relapse-free survival rate, overall survival rate and distant metastasis-free survival rate in patients with breast cancer, particularly for the Luminal A subtype. APOBEC3B mRNA expression was also indicated to be associated with the immune status of patients with breast cancer. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that APOBEC3B mRNA and protein expression levels presented different prognostic values in the survival of patients with breast cancer. However, both APOBEC3B mRNA and protein expression levels were associated with TILs in breast cancer. Therefore, APOBEC3B may be a prognostic biomarker for breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074638PMC
April 2020

Identification of candidate reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR in Miscanthus sinensis subjected to various abiotic stresses.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Apr 28;47(4):2913-2927. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Department of Grassland Science, Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has been widely used for studying gene expression at the transcript level. Its accuracy usually relies on the reference genes that are utilized for data normalization. Miscanthus sinensis, a perennial C4 grass with high biomass and strong resistance to adversities, is often utilized as a high value energy crop. However, no reliable reference genes have been investigated for normalizing gene expression for this species. In this study, 12 candidate reference genes were selected to identify their stability under five different abiotic stress treatments (drought, salt, cadmium, chromium and arsenic) by using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder softwares. The results showed that 18S rRNA and Unigene33312 were the best reference genes under drought treatments. Unigene33312 and Unigene33024 were found to be the most stably expressed genes under salt stress and Cd stress. Moreover, Unigene33024 and PP2A were the most suitable reference genes under Cr stress and Unigene33024 and Sb09g019750 were deemed more suitable reference genes under As stress. In total, considering all the samples, Unigene33024 and PP2A were the most stable genes while ACTIN and Unigene26576 were the least stable reference genes for internal control. The expression patterns of two target genes (Cu/Zn SOD and CAT) were used to further verify those selected reference genes under different conditions. The results showed that the most and the least stable reference genes had clearly different expression patterns. This work comprehensively estimated the stability of reference genes in M. sinensis which may give insight to the reference genes selection in other tissues as well as other related varieties. These suggested reference genes would assist in further putative gene expression validation in M. sinensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05392-9DOI Listing
April 2020

Insights into the Electron-Transfer Regime of Peroxydisulfate Activation on Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Oxygen Functional Groups.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 01 30;54(2):1267-1275. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials , The University of Adelaide , Adelaide SA5005 , Australia.

Carbon-driven advanced oxidation processes are appealing in wastewater purification because of the metal-free feature of the carbocatalysts. However, the regime of the emerging nonradical pathway is ambiguous because of the intricate carbon structure. To this end, this study was dedicated to unveil the intrinsic structure-performance relationship of peroxydisulfate (PDS) activation by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) toward nonradical oxidation of organics such as phenol (PE) via electron transfer. Eighteen analogical CNTs were synthesized and functionalized with different categories and contents of oxygen species. The quenching tests and chronopotentiometry suggest that an improved reactivity of surface-regulated CNTs was attributed to the reinforced electron-transfer regime without generation of free radicals and singlet oxygen. The quantitative structure-activity relationships were established and correlated to the Tafel equation, which unveils the nature of the nonradical oxidation by CNT-activated PDS complexes (CNT-PDS*). First, a decline in the concentration of oxygen groups in CNTs will make the zeta potential of the CNT become less negative in neutral solutions, which facilitated the adsorption of PDS because of weaker electrostatic repulsion. Then, the metastable CNT-PDS* was formed, which elevated the oxidation capacity of the CNT. Finally, PE would be oxidized over CNT-PDS* via electron transfer to fulfill the redox cycle. Moreover, the nonradical oxidation rate was uncovered to be exponentially related with the potential of the complexes, suggesting that the nonradical oxidation by the CNT-PDS* undergoes a mechanism analogous to anodic oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06208DOI Listing
January 2020

Genetic variability evaluation and cultivar identification of tetraploid annual ryegrass using SSR markers.

PeerJ 2019 20;7:e7742. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Annual ryegrass () is a widely used cool-season turf and forage grass with high productivity and ornamental characteristics. However, the abundant intra-cultivar genetic variability usually hampers the application of conventional techniques for cultivar identification. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe an efficient strategy for identification of six tetraploid annual ryegrass cultivars and (2) investigate the genetic diversity based on SSR markers. A total of 242 reliable bands were obtained from 29 SSR primer pairs with an average of 8.3 bands for each primer pair and the average value of polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.304. The result of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 81.99% of the genetic variation occurred in within-cultivars and 18.01% among-cultivars. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed that the first two principal axes explain 8.57% (PC1) and 6.05% (PC2) of total variation, respectively. By using multi-bulk strategy based on different filtering thresholds, the results suggested that bands frequency of 40% could be used as a reliable standard for cultivar identification in annual ryegrass. Under this threshold, 12 SSR primer pairs (00-04A, 02-06G, 02-08C, 03-05A, 04-05B, 10-09E, 12-01A, 13-02H, 13-12D, 14-06F, 15-01C and 17-10D) were detected for direct identification of six tetraploid annual ryegrass cultivars, which could be incorporated into conservation schemes to protect the intellectual property of breeders, ensure purity for consumers, as well as guarantee effective use of cultivars in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6756138PMC
September 2019
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