Publications by authors named "Gang Lu"

645 Publications

First identification and genomic characterization of equine hepacivirus subtype 2 in China.

Arch Virol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Equine hepacivirus (EqHV) is a newly discovered hepatitis C virus-like virus that can infect equines. EqHV strains circulating worldwide have been classified into subtypes 1-3. In previous studies, we detected the presence of EqHV strains of subtype 1 and 3 in China. To determine whether EqHV strains of subtype 2 are prevalent in China, serum samples were collected from 133 racehorses in Guangdong province in 2021 and were tested for EqHV RNA by RT-PCR, and the positive rate was 9% (12/133). Sequencing of the NS3 gene revealed that one field strain (GD2021) had a high degree of genetic similarity to EqHV strains of subtype 2. Subsequent genome sequencing and analysis demonstrated that strain GD2021 belongs to subtype 2. The present study enriches our knowledge about the genetic diversity of EqHV in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05228-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Atomically Isolated Rh Sites within Highly Branched Rh Sb Nanostructures Enhance Bifunctional Hydrogen Electrocatalysis.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 12:e2105049. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

Breaking the bottleneck of hydrogen oxidation/evolution reactions (HOR/HER) in alkaline media is of tremendous importance for the development of anion exchange membrane fuel cells/water electrolyzers. Atomically dispersed active sites are known to exhibit excellent activity and selectivity toward diverse catalytic reactions. Here, a class of unique Rh Sb nanocrystals with multiple nanobranches (denoted as Rh Sb NBs) and atomically dispersed Rh sites are reported as promising electrocatalysts for alkaline HOR/HER. Rh Sb NBs/C exhibits superior HER performance with a low overpotential and a small Tafel slope, outperforming both Rh NBs/C and commercial Pt/C. Significantly, Rh Sb NBs show outstanding HOR performance of which the HOR specific activity and mass activity are about 9.9 and 10.1 times to those of Rh NBs/C, and about 4.2 and 3.7 times to those of Pt/C, respectively. Strikingly, Rh Sb NBs can also exhibit excellent CO tolerance during HOR, whose activity can be largely maintained even at 100 ppm CO impurity. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the unsaturated Rh sites on Rh Sb NBs surface are crucial for the enhanced alkaline HER and HOR activities. This work provides a unique catalyst design for efficient hydrogen electrocatalysis, which is critical for the development of alkaline fuel cells and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202105049DOI Listing
September 2021

Preparation and applications of freestanding Janus nanosheets.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816, China.

In the family of Janus nanomaterials, Janus nanosheets possess not only the advantages of Janus nanomaterials, but also the advantages of two-dimensional nanosheets, endowing them with many extraordinary properties. Therefore, Janus nanosheets have great potential in the fields of interfacial engineering, catalysis, and molecular recognition. This review summarizes and discusses the recent advances in both the preparation and applications of freestanding Janus nanosheets. After a short introduction to different types of Janus nanosheets, a variety of methods for preparing freestanding Janus nanosheets are introduced, including the surface reaction, interface reaction, emulsion reaction, self-assembly, and stripping of non-Janus nanosheets, as well as selective grafting of existing Janus nanosheets. Then, the wide applications of Janus nanosheets in the fields of emulsification, catalysis, polymer reinforcement, nanomotors, and molecular recognition are summarized in detail. Finally, a discussion on the remaining challenges and future perspectives in this field is included. This review will not only deepen the understanding of Janus nanosheets, but also benefit the designs and fabrications of extraordinary and multi-functional Janus nanosheets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr04284jDOI Listing
September 2021

Sub-Monolayer YO /MoO on Ultrathin Pt Nanowires Boosts Alcohol Oxidation Electrocatalysis.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 22:e2103762. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

A crucial issue restricting the application of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) is the low activity of Pt-based electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation reaction caused by the reaction intermediate (CO*) poisoning. Herein, a new strategy is demonstrated for making a class of sub-monolayer YO /MoO -surface co-decorated ultrathin platinum nanowires (YO /MoO -Pt NWs) to effectively eliminate the CO poisoning for enhancing methanol oxidation electrocatalysis. By adjusting the amounts of YO and MoO decorated on the surface of ultrathin Pt NWs, the optimized 22% YO /MoO -Pt NWs achieve a high specific activity of 3.35 mA cm and a mass activity of 2.10 A mg , as well as the enhanced stability. In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and CO stripping studies confirm the contribution of YO and MoO to anti-CO poisoning ability of the NWs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations further reveal that the surface Y and Mo atoms with oxidation states allow COOH* to bind the surface through both the carbon and oxygen atoms, which can lower the free energy barriers for the oxidation of CO* into COOH*. The optimal NWs also show the superior activities toward the electro-oxidation of ethanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103762DOI Listing
August 2021

Ultra-structural morphology analysis of human cranial bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells during neural differentiation.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Oct 18;763:136179. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, PR China. Electronic address:

Neural differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells has been widely studied. However, a comparative characterization of ultrastructural changes during neural differentiation has not been performed. In this study, we conducted scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis to show the morphological changes in mesenchymal stromal cells upon induction of neural differentiation. In addition, transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated ultrastructural differences between human cranial bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and iliac crest bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. We propose that enriched microvesicles in cranial bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells may be responsible for the increased efficiency of neural differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136179DOI Listing
October 2021

Improving the Stability of Non-Noble-Metal M-N-C Catalysts for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells through M-N Bond Length and Coordination Regulation.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 15:e2006613. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China.

An effective and universal strategy is developed to enhance the stability of the non-noble-metal M-N /C catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) by improving the bonding strength between metal ions and chelating polymers, i.e., poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) homopolymer and poly(acrylic acid-maleic acid) (P(AA-MA)) copolymer with different AA/MA ratios. Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveal that the optimal P(AA-MA)-Fe-N catalyst with a higher Fe -polymer binding constant possesses longer FeN bonds and exclusive Fe-N /C moiety compared to PAA-Fe-N, which consists of ≈15% low-coordinated Fe-N /N structures. The optimized P(AA-MA)-Fe-N catalyst exhibits outstanding ORR activity and stability in both half-cell and PEMFC cathodes, with the retention rate of current density approaching 100% for the first 37 h at 0.55 V in an H -air fuel cell. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the Fe-N /C site could optimize the difference between the adsorption energy of the Fe atoms on the support (E ) and the bulk cohesive energy (E ) relative to Fe-N /N moieties, thereby strongly stabilizing Fe centers against demetalation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202006613DOI Listing
August 2021

Hepatitis B virus detected in a golden monkey fatal case, China.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Oct 9;94:105032. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510642, People's Republic of China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control for Severe Clinical Animal Diseases, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China; Guangdong Technological Engineering Research Center for Pet, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is distributed worldwide and poses a significant threat to human health. Cross-species transmission of HBV from human to non-human primates could occur, which has been confirmed in three individual events. In this study, HBV DNA was detected in one golden monkey fatal case in China. The following genetic sequencing and analysis demonstrated the virus had a close genetic relationship with HBV genotype C in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggested that HBV is related with a non-human primate fatal case in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105032DOI Listing
October 2021

Novel parvovirus in cats, China.

Virus Res 2021 Oct 5;304:198529. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control for Severe Clinical Animal Diseases, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China; Guangdong Technological Engineering Research Center for Pet, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Parvovirus is a common element of the feline virus group and usually causes gastroenteritis and leukopenia in cats. In this study, we identified a novel protoparvovirus from the Chinese domestic cats, which is genetically similar to canine bufavirus (98.0%-99.8%), but sharing low amino acid identities in the viral structural proteins 2 (VP2) (36.1-37.2%) to the well-known canine parvovirus type 2 and feline panleukopenia virus. This virus was provisionally designated as feline bufavirus (FBuV). Screening of fecal samples revealed a prevalence of 7.4% (19/257) in domestic cats. Diarrhea was present in 52.6% (10/19) of cats positive for FBuV. However, statistical analysis showed no association between FBuV and clinical signs. VP2 gene of the 19 field FBuV was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that FBuV determined from China had a genetic diversity. This study will strengthen the understanding of the epidemiology and genetic diversity of bufavirus and provide a foundation for further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198529DOI Listing
October 2021

Morpho-Physiological and Transcriptome Changes in Tomato Anthers of Different Developmental Stages under Drought Stress.

Cells 2021 Jul 17;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Drought limits the growth and productivity of plants. Reproductive development is sensitive to drought but the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear in tomatoes. Here, we investigated the effect of drought on tomato floral development using morpho-physiological and transcriptome analyses. Drought-induced male sterility through abnormal anther development includes pollen abortion, inadequate pollen starch accumulation and anther indehiscence which caused floral bud and opened flower abortions and reduced fruit set/yield. Under drought stress (DS), pollen mother cell to meiotic (PMC-MEI) anthers survived whereas tetrad to vacuolated uninucleate microspore (TED-VUM) anthers aborted. PMC-MEI anthers had lower ABA increase, reduced IAA and elevated sugar contents under DS relative to well-watered tomato plants. However, TED-VUM anthers had higher ABA increase and IAA levels, and lower accumulation of soluble sugars, indicating abnormal carbohydrate and hormone metabolisms when exposed to drought-stress conditions. Moreover, RNA-Seq analysis identified altogether >15,000 differentially expressed genes that were assigned to multiple pathways, suggesting that tomato anthers utilize complicated mechanisms to cope with drought. In particular, we found that tapetum development and ABA homeostasis genes were drought-induced while sugar utilization and IAA metabolic genes were drought-repressed in PMC-MEI anthers. Our results suggest an important role of phytohormones metabolisms in anther development under DS and provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism underlying drought resistance in tomatoes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10071809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305550PMC
July 2021

Moiré excitons in defective van der Waals heterostructures.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(32)

Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330-8268

Excitons can be trapped by moiré potentials in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures, forming ordered arrays of quantum dots. Excitons can also be trapped by defect potentials as single photon emitters. While the moiré and defect potentials in vdW heterostructures have been studied separately, their interplay remains largely unexplored. Here, we perform first-principles calculations to elucidate the interplay of the two potentials in determining the optoelectronic properties of twisted MoS/WS heterobilayers. The binding energy, charge density, localization, and hybridization of the moiré excitons can be modulated by the competition and cooperation of the two potentials. Their interplay can also be tuned by vertical electric fields, which can either de-trap the excitons or strongly localize them. One can further tailor the interplay of the two potentials via defect engineering to create one-dimensional exciton lattices with tunable orientations. Our work establishes defect engineering as a promising strategy to realize on-demand optoelectronic responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2105468118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364154PMC
August 2021

Multiple Reaction Pathways of Eight-Membered Rhodacycles in Rh-Catalyzed Annulations of 2-Alkenyl Phenols/Anilides with Alkynes.

J Org Chem 2021 Aug 27;86(15):10484-10491. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China.

Density functional theory calculations were performed to study the competing pathways of rhodacycle intermediates generated in Rh(III)-catalyzed annulations of 2-alkenyl phenols and 2-alkenyl anilides with alkynes. The results show that the multiple pathways of eight-membered rhodacycles can be subtly tuned to give specific cyclic products. The seven-membered oxacyclic and spirocyclic products from 2-alkenyl phenols are formed by favoring the pathway of dissociating the Rh-O bond of O-contained rhodacycles, which are followed by antarafacial nucleophilic attack. The indoline product from 2-alkenyl anilides is generated through the pathway of intramolecular olefin migratory insertion of the N-contained rhodacycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c01143DOI Listing
August 2021

Altered Actinobacteria and Firmicutes Phylum Associated Epitopes in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:632482. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Recent evidence suggests that inflammation was participated in the pathogenesis of PD, thus, to understand the potential mechanism of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), we performed a metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from PD patient and controls. Using a two-stage metagenome-wide association strategy, fecal DNA samples from 69 PD patients and 244 controls in three groups (comprising 66 spouses, 97 age-matched, and 81 normal samples, respectively) were analyzed, and differences between candidate gut microbiota and microbiota-associated epitopes (MEs) were compared. In the study, 27 candidate bacterial biomarkers and twenty-eight candidate epitope peptides were significantly different between the PD patients and control groups. Further, enriched 4 and 13 MEs in PD were positively associated with abnormal inflammatory indicators [neutrophil percentage (NEUT.1), monocyte count/percentage (MONO/MONO.1), white blood cell count (WBC)] and five candidate bacterial biomarkers (c_Actinobacteria, f_Bifidobacteriaceae, , o_Bifidobacteriales, p_Actinobacteria) from Actinobacteria phylum, and they were also positively associated with histidine degradation and proline biosynthesis pathways, respectively. Additionally, enriched 2 MEs and 1 ME in PD were positively associated with above inflammatory indicators and two bacteria (f_Lactobacillaceae, ) from Firmicutes phylum, and they were also positively associated with pyruvate fermentation to propanoate I and negatively associated with isopropanol biosynthesis, respectively. Of these MEs, two MEs from GROEL2, RPSC were derived from , triggered the T cell immune response, as previously reported. Additionally, other candidate epitope peptides derived from and may also have potential immune effects in PD. In all, the altered MEs in PD may relate to abnormalities in immunity and glutamate and propionate metabolism, which furthers our understanding of the pathogenesis of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.632482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284394PMC
July 2021

AIE + ESIPT activity-based NIR Cu sensor with dye participated binding strategy.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Aug;57(62):7685-7688

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of the Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China.

A novel activity-based Cu2+ fluorescent probe featuring multidentate binding sites was synthesized. It functions through chelation with Cu2+, which in turn specifically triggers hydrolysis of the probe to release a near-infrared emission with AIE + ESIPT properties. The probe was found to be capable of ratiometric imaging of Cu2+ in living HeLa cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02233dDOI Listing
August 2021

MiR-20a-5p Regulates MPP-Induced Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in HT22 Cells by Targeting IRF9/NF-B Axis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 21;2021:6621206. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

College of Acu-Moxibustion and Massage, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang 712046, Shaanxi, China.

Substantial evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) can be used as biological markers of Parkinson's disease (PD) and contribute to the risk assessment, early diagnosis, and treatment. We aimed to explore the role and potential mechanism of miR-20a-5p on inflammation and oxidative stress in 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridine ion- (MPP-) induced HT22 cells. HT22 cells were pretreated with miR-20a-5p mimic and/or pcDNA-IRF9 for 24 h and then treated with MPP (0.5 mM) for 24 h. The cell viability and apoptosis were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and Annexin V FITC/PI staining flow cytometry assay, respectively. The expression and secretion of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress-related factors were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein expression levels were detected using Western blot analysis. Here, we discovered that MPP led to mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and cell damage of HT22 cells, which were alleviated by miR-20a-5p overexpression. We further clarified that interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) was a target gene of miR-20a-5p. IRF9 contributed to MPP-induced mitochondrial disruption, inflammation, and cell apoptosis. Moreover, IRF9 hindered the improvement of miR-20a-5p overexpression on MPP-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, the decrease of p-P65 level induced by miR-20a-5p mimic was significantly reversed by IRF9 overexpression. These findings demonstrate that miR-20a-5p contributes to MPP-induced mitochondrial disruption and cell damage, and miR-20a-5p might be a novel therapeutic target for PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6621206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238586PMC
June 2021

Pten Regulates Cardiomyocyte Differentiation by Modulating Non-CG Methylation via Dnmt3.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Sep 11;8(17):e2100849. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

CUHK-SDU Joint Laboratory on Reproductive Genetics, School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

The regulation of cardiomyocyte differentiation is a fundamental aspect of cardiac development and regenerative medicine. PTEN plays important roles during embryonic development. However, its role in cardiomyocyte differentiation remains unknown. In this study, a low-cost protocol for cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is presented and it is shown that Pten deletion potently suppresses cardiomyocyte differentiation. Transcriptome analysis shows that the expression of a series of cardiomyocyte marker genes is downregulated in Pten cardiomyocytes. Pten ablation induces Dnmt3b expression via the AKT/FoxO3a pathway and regulates the expression of a series of imprinted genes, including Igf2. Double knockout of Dnmt3l and Dnmt3b rescues the deficiency of cardiomyocyte differentiation of Pten ESCs. The DNA methylomes from wild-type and Pten embryoid bodies and cardiomyocytes are analyzed by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Pten deletion significantly promotes the non-CG (CHG and CHH) methylation levels of genomic DNA during cardiomyocyte differentiation, and the non-CG methylation levels of cardiomyocyte genes and Igf2 are increased in Pten cardiomyocytes. Igf2 or Igf1r deletion also suppresses cardiomyocyte differentiation through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, and IGF2 supplementation partially rescues the cardiomyocyte differentiation. Finally, Pten conditional knockout mice are generated and the role of PTEN in cardiomyocyte differentiation is verified in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425920PMC
September 2021

Genetic and pharmacological interrogation of cancer vulnerability using a multiplexed cell line screening platform.

Commun Biol 2021 07 2;4(1):834. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Bristol Myers Squibb, San Diego, CA, USA.

The multiplexed cancer cell line screening platform PRISM demonstrated its utility in testing hundreds of cell lines in a single run, possessing the potential to speed up anti-cancer drug discovery, validation and optimization. Here we described the development and implementation of a next-generation PRISM platform combining Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated gene editing, cell line DNA barcoding and next-generation sequencing to enable genetic and/or pharmacological assessment of target addiction in hundreds of cell lines simultaneously. Both compound and CRISPR-knockout PRISM screens well recapitulated the results from individual assays and showed high consistency with a public database.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02352-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253734PMC
July 2021

Single-Oocyte Gene Expression Suggests That Curcumin Can Protect the Ovarian Reserve by Regulating the PTEN-AKT-FOXO3a Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 18;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

CUHK-SDU Joint Laboratory on Reproductive Genetics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

A better understanding of the mechanism of primordial follicle activation will help us better understand the causes of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), and will help us identify new drugs that can be applied to the clinical treatment of infertility. In this study, single oocytes were isolated from primordial and primary follicles, and were used for gene profiling with TaqMan array cards. Bioinformatics analysis was performed on the gene expression data, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to analyze and predict drugs that affect follicle activation. An ovarian in vitro culture system was used to verify the function of the drug candidates, and we found that curcumin maintains the ovarian reserve. Long-term treatment with 100 mg/kg curcumin improved the ovarian reserve indicators of AMH, FSH, and estradiol in aging mice. Mechanistic studies show that curcumin can affect the translocation of FOXO3, thereby inhibiting the PTEN-AKT-FOXO3a pathway and protecting primordial follicles from overactivation. These results suggest that curcumin is a potential drug for the treatment of POI patients and for fertility preservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235657PMC
June 2021

Exploration of Internal and External Factors of Swimmers' Performance Based on Biofluid Mechanics and Computer Simulation.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 15;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Electrical Engineering & Information Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Jinan 250031, China.

The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of different swimming strokes on the performance of swimmers and the resistance of each part from the perspective of hydrodynamics. In this paper, the influence of internal and external factors on the swimming speed is analyzed comprehensively and meticulously from the macro and micro perspectives. In the macroscopic part, the swimming speed representation model is established, and the validity of the model is further verified by the analysis of experimental data and hydrodynamic equations. In the microscopic part, we carefully analyzed details such as the opening angle of the palm, the timing of the arm and leg and the angular velocity of each link of the human body. Combined with computer simulation, stereo modeling and numerical analysis are carried out, and the best scheme FOR how to cooperate with each part of the body in swimming is given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296294PMC
June 2021

Machine-learning scoring functions trained on complexes dissimilar to the test set already outperform classical counterparts on a blind benchmark.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Computer Science and Engineering in the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

The superior performance of machine-learning scoring functions for docking has caused a series of debates on whether it is due to learning knowledge from training data that are similar in some sense to the test data. With a systematically revised methodology and a blind benchmark realistically mimicking the process of prospective prediction of binding affinity, we have evaluated three broadly used classical scoring functions and five machine-learning counterparts calibrated with both random forest and extreme gradient boosting using both solo and hybrid features, showing for the first time that machine-learning scoring functions trained exclusively on a proportion of as low as 8% complexes dissimilar to the test set already outperform classical scoring functions, a percentage that is far lower than what has been recently reported on all the three CASF benchmarks. The performance of machine-learning scoring functions is underestimated due to the absence of similar samples in some artificially created training sets that discard the full spectrum of complexes to be found in a prospective environment. Given the inevitability of any degree of similarity contained in a large dataset, the criteria for scoring function selection depend on which one can make the best use of all available materials. Software code and data are provided at https://github.com/cusdulab/MLSF for interested readers to rapidly rebuild the scoring functions and reproduce our results, even to make extended analyses on their own benchmarks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab225DOI Listing
June 2021

Melt volume at Atlantic volcanic rifted margins controlled by depth-dependent extension and mantle temperature.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 23;12(1):3894. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Earth Science, Bergen University, Bergen, Norway.

Breakup volcanism along rifted passive margins is highly variable in time and space. The factors controlling magmatic activity during continental rifting and breakup are not resolved and controversial. Here we use numerical models to investigate melt generation at rifted margins with contrasting rifting styles corresponding to those observed in natural systems. Our results demonstrate a surprising correlation of enhanced magmatism with margin width. This relationship is explained by depth-dependent extension, during which the lithospheric mantle ruptures earlier than the crust, and is confirmed by a semi-analytical prediction of melt volume over margin width. The results presented here show that the effect of increased mantle temperature at wide volcanic margins is likely over-estimated, and demonstrate that the large volumes of magmatism at volcanic rifted margin can be explained by depth-dependent extension and very moderate excess mantle potential temperature in the order of 50-80 °C, significantly smaller than previously suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23981-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222230PMC
June 2021

Physical contact transmission of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus by Myzus persicae.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(6):e0252856. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Key Laboratory of Biotechnology in Plant Protection of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China.

Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a critical plant virus, has caused significant economic losses in cucurbit crops worldwide. It has not been proved that CGMMV can be transmitted by an insect vector. In this study, the physical contact transmission of CGMMV by Myzus persicae in Nicotiana benthamiana plants was confirmed under laboratory conditions. The acquisition rate increased with time, and most aphids acquired CGMMV at 72 h of the acquisition access period (AAP). Besides, the acquired CGMMV was retained in the aphids for about 12 h, which was efficiently transmitted back to the healthy N. benthamiana plants. More importantly, further experiments suggested that the transmission was mediated by physical contact rather than the specific interaction between insect vector and plant virus. The results obtained in our study contribute to the development of new control strategies for CGMMV in the field.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252856PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221510PMC
June 2021

RNA N6-Methyladenosine Responds to Low-Temperature Stress in Tomato Anthers.

Front Plant Sci 2021 4;12:687826. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Cold stress is a serious threat to subtropical crop pollen development and induces yield decline. N6-methyladenosine (mA) is the most frequent mRNA modification and plays multiple physiological functions in plant development. However, whether mA regulates pollen development is unclear, and its putative role in cold stress response remains unknown. Here, we observed that moderate low-temperature (MLT) stress induced pollen abortion in tomato. This phenotype was caused by disruption of tapetum development and pollen exine formation, accompanied by reduced mA levels in tomato anther. Analysis of mA-seq data revealed 1,805 transcripts displayed reduced mA levels and 978 transcripts showed elevated mA levels in MLT-stressed anthers compared with those in anthers under normal temperature. These differentially mA enriched transcripts under MLT stress were mainly related to lipid metabolism, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, and ATP-binding pathways. An ATP-binding transcript, , had significantly upregulated mA modification levels, which was inversely correlated to the dramatically downregulated expression level. These changes correlated with higher abscisic acid (ABA) levels in anthers and disrupted pollen wall formation under low-temperature stress. Our findings characterized mA as a novel layer of complexity in gene expression regulation and established a molecular link between mA methylation and tomato anther development under low-temperature conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.687826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213351PMC
June 2021

Essential Role of CFAP53 in Sperm Flagellum Biogenesis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 28;9:676910. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

The sperm flagellum is essential for male fertility. Despite vigorous research progress toward understanding the pathogenesis of flagellum-related diseases, much remains unknown about the mechanisms underlying the flagellum biogenesis itself. Here, we show that the cilia and flagella associated protein 53 () gene is predominantly expressed in testes, and it is essential for sperm flagellum biogenesis. The knockout of this gene resulted in complete infertility in male mice but not in the females. CFAP53 localized to the manchette and sperm tail during spermiogenesis, the knockout of this gene impaired flagellum biogenesis. Furthermore, we identified two manchette and sperm tail-associated proteins that interacted with CFAP53 during spermiogenesis. Together, our results suggest that CFAP53 is an essential protein for sperm flagellum biogenesis, and its mutations might be associated with multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.676910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195676PMC
May 2021

Anodic oxidation triggered divergent 1,2- and 1,4-group transfer reactions of β-hydroxycarboxylic acids enabled by electrochemical regulation.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 28;11(44):12021-12028. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University Beijing 100871 China

We report a set of electrochemically regulated protocols for the divergent synthesis of ketones and β-keto esters from the same β-hydroxycarboxylic acid starting materials. Enabled by electrochemical control, the anodic oxidation of carboxylic acids proceeded in either a one-electron or a two-electron pathway, leading to a 1,4-aryl transfer or a semipinacol-type 1,2-group transfer product with excellent chemoselectivity. The 1,4-aryl transfer represents an unprecedented example of carbon-to-oxygen group transfer proceeding a radical mechanism. In contrast to previously reported radical group transfer reactions, this 1,4-group transfer process features the migration of electron-rich aryl substituents. Furthermore, with these chemoselective electrochemical oxidation protocols, a range of ketones and β-keto esters including those possessing a challenging-to-access medium-sized ring could be synthesized in excellent yields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc02386hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162457PMC
September 2020

Occurrence and potentially zoonotic genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) living in Nanwan Monkey Island, Hainan, China: a public health concern.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jun 9;17(1):213. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Parasitology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian species, is a zoonotic pathogen found in both humans and animals. Here, we determined the prevalence, explored the different genotypes of E. bieneusi in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) (Hainan Island of China), and assessed their zoonotic potential.

Methods: We collected 173 fecal specimens from wild rhesus macaques living in Nanwan Monkey Island, Hainan, China. Subsequently, we identified and genotyped E. bieneusi using nested PCR analysis amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the rRNA gene. Lastly, a neighbor-joining tree was built based on gene sequences from the ITS region of E. bieneusi.

Results: Of the 173 specimens from wild rhesus macaques, 26 (15%) were infected with E. bieneusi. We identified six genotypes of E. bieneusi, of which five were known: PigEBITS7 (n = 20), D (n = 2), Type IV (n = 1), Peru6 (n = 1), Henan-III (n = 1), and a novel genotype: HNM-IX (n = 1). From the phylogenetic analysis, the six genotypes identified here were all clustered into zoonotic group 1.

Conclusion: This study is the first report to detect E. bieneusi infection in wild rhesus macaques from Hainan, China. Human-pathogenic genotypes D, Henan-III, Peru6, PigEbITS7, and Type IV in the wild rhesus macaques support these animals infected with E. bieneusi have a public health significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02916-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191004PMC
June 2021

Integrating longitudinal clinical laboratory tests with targeted proteomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the landscape of host responses in COVID-19.

Cell Discov 2021 Jun 8;7(1):42. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Shanghai Institute of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, National Research Center for Translational Medicine at Shanghai, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) involves a multitude of host responses, yet how they unfold during the course of disease progression remains unclear. Here, through integrative analysis of clinical laboratory tests, targeted proteomes, and transcriptomes of 963 patients in Shanghai, we delineate the dynamics of multiple circulatory factors within the first 30 days post-illness onset and during convalescence. We show that hypercortisolemia represents one of the probable causes of acute lymphocytopenia at the onset of severe/critical conditions. Comparison of the transcriptomes of the bronchoalveolar microenvironment and peripheral blood indicates alveolar macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells, and monocytes in lungs as the potential main sources of elevated cytokines mediating systemic immune responses and organ damages. In addition, the transcriptomes of patient blood cells are characterized by distinct gene regulatory networks and alternative splicing events. Our study provides a panorama of the host responses in COVID-19, which may serve as the basis for developing further diagnostics and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00274-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185699PMC
June 2021

High-Performance Foam-Shaped Strain Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes and TiCT MXene for the Monitoring of Human Activities.

ACS Nano 2021 06 4;15(6):9690-9700. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM) & Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLoFE), Nanjing Tech University (Nanjing Tech), 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816, P. R. China.

The flexible strain sensor is of significant importance in wearable electronics, since it can help monitor the physical signals from the human body. Among various strain sensors, the foam-shaped ones have received widespread attention owing to their light weight and gas permeability. However, the working range of these sensors is still not large enough, and the sensitivity needs to be further improved. In this work, we develop a high-performance foam-shaped strain sensor composed of TiCT MXene, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). MXene sheets are adsorbed on the surface of a composite foam of MWCNTs and TPU (referred to as TPU/MWCNTs foam), which is prefabricated by using a salt-templating method. The obtained TPU/[email protected] foam works effectively as a lightweight, easily processable, and sensitive strain sensor. The TPU/[email protected] device can deliver a wide working strain range of ∼100% and an outstanding sensitivity as high as 363 simultaneously, superior to the state-of-the-art foam-shaped strain sensors. Moreover, the composite foam shows an excellent gas permeability and suitable elastic modulus close to those of skin, indicating its being highly comfortable as a wearable sensor. Owing to these advantages, the sensor works effectively in detecting both subtle and large human movements, such as joint motion, finger motion, and vocal cord vibration. In addition, the sensor can be used for gesture recognition, demonstrating its perspective in human-machine interaction. Because of the high sensitivity, wide working range, gas permeability, and suitable modulus, our foam-shaped composite strain sensor may have great potential in the field of flexible and wearable electronics in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c00259DOI Listing
June 2021

Computational study of silver-catalyzed stereoselective hydroalkylation of alkynes: Pauli repulsion controlled / selectivity.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun;57(52):6412-6415

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China.

The mechanism and origin of stereoselectivity of silver-catalyzed hydroalkylation of alkynes were computationally investigated at the B3LYP-D3BJ/6-311+G(d,p)-SDD//B3LYP/6-31G(d)-LANL2DZ level. The complex of alkynyl trialkylboronate with cationic silver is a key intermediate, which triggers the rate- and stereoselectivity-determining 1,2-migration step. Energy decomposition analysis indicates that the difference of Pauli repulsion dominates the stereoselectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01917aDOI Listing
June 2021

Highly Surface-Distorted Pt Superstructures for Multifunctional Electrocatalysis.

Nano Lett 2021 Jun 1;21(12):5075-5082. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, People's Republic of China.

Platinum (Pt) catalysts play a key role in energy conversion and storage processes, but the realization of further performance enhancement remains challenging. Herein, we report a new class of Pt superstructures (SSs) with surface distortion engineering by electrochemical leaching of PtTe SSs that can largely boost the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), and the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In particular, the high-distortion (H)-Pt SSs achieve a mass activity of 2.24 A mg at 0.90 V for the ORR and 2.89 A mg for the MOR as well as a low overpotential of 25.3 mV at 10 mA cm for the HER. Moreover, the distorted surface features of Pt SSs can be preserved by mitigating the detrimental effects of agglomeration/degradation during long-time electrocatalysis. A multiscale modeling demonstrates that surface compressions, defects, and nanopores act in synergy for the enhanced ORR performance. This work highlights the advances of stable superstructure and distortion engineering for realizing high-performance Pt nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00902DOI Listing
June 2021

Dual Fluorescent Protein (yEGFP/DsRed-Express-2) Bioassay System for Rapid Screening for Chemical Mutagens Based on RNR3 Regulation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 May;34(5):421-424

Preventive Medicine Department of Yangzhou Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu, China;Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Experimental and Translational Non-coding RNA Research, Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.057DOI Listing
May 2021
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