Publications by authors named "Gang Chen"

4,803 Publications

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Assess long-term As, Pb and Cr contamination and uptake by Eriocaulon decangulare in the Apalachicola National Forest.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 18:156040. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310, United States of America.

Phytoremediation is an effective remediation process for heavy metal contamination. The primary zone of phytoremediation is the rhizosphere where the plants uptake the heavy metals from the soil matrix. The bioavailability of the contaminants in the rhizosphere is affected by the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the rhizosphere. In the study area of the Apalachicola National Forest, the concentrations of As, Pb and Cr in the bulk soil (n = 20) were 515.81, 220.77, and 2.02 mg/kg soil, respectively. Using a sequential extraction method, the bioavailability of heavy metals in the bulk soil (S-NR) and rhizosphere soil (S-R) was characterized. The results showed that the bioavailability of the three heavy metals had the order of Cr > Pb > As for S-NR and Pb > As > Cr for S-R. The bioavailability of these metals was affected by the nature of the heavy metals and the soil physicochemical properties. Native plant Eriocaulon decangulare could uptake a large number of heavy metals from the natural soil, demonstrating great phytoremediation potential for metal contamination. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) mapping successfully located the dominant accumulation of heavy metals in aerial parts of E. decangulare. E. decangulare was also found to be highly selective and Pb and As were both extensively accumulated in the shoots and roots. Cr was significantly immobilized in the rhizosphere soil, and also accumulated in the root of E. decangulare. This study not only correlated the phytoremediation potential with heavy metal bioavailability and soil physicochemical properties, but also demonstrated the important role of the nature of heavy metals played during the phytoremediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156040DOI Listing
May 2022

Association of sirtuins (SIRT1-7) with lung and intestinal diseases.

Mol Cell Biochem 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Key Laboratory for TCM Material Basis Study and Innovative Drug Development of Shenyang City, School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Wenhua Road 103, Shenyang, 110016, People's Republic of China.

"Exterior-interior correlation between the lung and large intestine" is one of the important contents of traditional Chinese medicine. This theory describes the role of the lung and the intestine in association with disease treatment. The "lung-gut" axis is a modern extension of the "exterior-interior correlation between lung and large intestine" theory in TCM. Sirtuin (SIRT) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent enzyme family with deacetylase properties, which is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. The sirtuin defines seven silencing regulatory proteins (SIRT1-7) in human cells. It can regulate aging, metabolism, and certain diseases. Current studies have shown that sirtuins have dual characteristics, acting as both tumor promoters and tumor inhibitors in cancers. This paper provides a comparative summary of the roles of SIRT1-7 in the intestine and lung (both inflammatory diseases and tumors), and the promoter/suppressor effects of targeting SIRT family microRNAs and modulators of inflammation or tumors. Sirtuins have great potential as drug targets for the treatment of intestinal and respiratory diseases. Meanwhile, it may provide new ideas of future drug target research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-022-04462-9DOI Listing
May 2022

Prognostic signature and discrimination signature of lung adenocarcinoma based on pyroptosis-related genes.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2022 Apr 21. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, No. 6, Shuangyong Road, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

Background: The clinical value of pyroptosis-related genes (PRGs) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains obscure.

Objective: The study attempts to explore PRGs in LUAD, which will enable an understanding of LUAD from the perspective of PRGs.

Method: Lung adenocarcinoma patients were diagnosed using pathology, and their clinical information was collected from several public databases. A PRGs prognostic signature (PPS) for LUAD patients was established based on a multivariate Cox regression analysis. The differential expression of PRGs was identified using standardized mean differences in 6,958 samples. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the predictive effects of the PPS to determine the survival rate of LUAD patients. Decision curve analysis was utilized to assess the clinical significance of the PPS in LUAD.

Results: The PPS consists of five PRGs-CASP3, CASP9, GSDMB, NLRP1, and TNF. The prognostic effect of the PPS is evident in all the predicted one-, three-, and five-year survival rates (AUCs ≥ 0.58). The PPS represents an independent risk factor for the prognosis of LUAD patients (hazard ratio > 1; 95% confidence interval excluding 1). The PPS risk score can predict the prognosis of LUAD patients more accurately than every PRGs of the PPS and multiple clinical parameters-age, tumor stage, and clinical stage. The decision curve analysis revealed the nomogram based on the PPS and clinical parameters might result in better clinical decisions.

Conclusion: The PPS makes it feasible to distinguish LUAD from non-LUAD. Thus, the underlying significance of the PPS in distinguishing LUAD from non-LUAD is promising.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207325666220421102117DOI Listing
April 2022

LINC01232 Promotes Metastasis and EMT by Regulating miR-506-5p/PAK1 Axis in Gastric Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2022 13;14:1729-1740. Epub 2022 May 13.

Digestive System Department, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital (The First-Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University), Changsha, People's Republic of China.

Background: Long non-coding RNA LINC01232 plays an important role in the progression of metastasis in several cancers. However, the function of LINC01232 in gastric cancer is limited. Authors aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of LINC01232 in the metastasis of gastric cancer.

Methods: The expression levels and correlation of LINC01232, miR-506-5p, and PAK1 were analyzed by GEPIA or ENCORI, and the abundance of LINC01232 and miR-506-5p was measured in tissues and cells via qRT-PCR, the location of LINC01232 in gastric cells was analyzed by nuclear and cytoplasmic fractionation, while the protein levels of PAK1, E-cadherin and vimentin were additionally quantified by Western blotting. Interactions between LINC01232, miR-506-5p, and PAK1 were detected through luciferase reporter assays, qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Cellular viability was evaluated through CCK8 assays, migration ability was measured by transwell assays, invasion ability was tested by wound healing experiment.

Results: LINC01232 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and cells, and mainly located in nucleus. The inhibition of LINC01232 could suppress migration, invasion and EMT of gastric cancer cells. MiR-506-5p was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues and cells. LINC01232 sponged miR-506-5p to accelerate migration and EMT. PAK1 was certified to be a target of miR-506-5p, inhibition of PAK1 could interrupt LINC01232 overexpression-induced migration of gastric cancer cells.

Conclusion: The LINC01232/miR-506-5p/PAK1 axis promotes metastasis of gastric cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S352081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9113486PMC
May 2022

Thioredoxin 1 regulates the pentose phosphate pathway via ATM phosphorylation after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

Brain Res Bull 2022 May 16;185:162-173. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Neurosurgery & Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China; Institute of Stroke Research, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China. Electronic address:

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a type of hemorrhagic stroke, is a neurological emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Early brain injury (EBI) after SAH is the leading cause of poor prognosis in SAH patients. TRX system is a NADPH-dependent antioxidant system which is composed of thioredoxin reductase (TRXR), thioredoxin (TRX). The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), a pathway through which glucose can be metabolized, is a major source of NADPH. Thioredoxin 1 (TRX1) is a member of thioredoxin system mainly located in cytoplasm. Serine/threonine kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important oxidative stress receptor, and TRX1 can regulate ATM phosphorylation and then affect the activity of PPP key enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). However, whether TRX1 is involved in the regulation of PPP pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage remains unclear. The results showed that after SAH, the level of TRX1 and phosphor-ATM decreased while the level of TRXR1 increased. G6PD protein level remained unchanged but the activity decreased, and the NADPH contents decreased. Overexpression of TRX1 by lentivirus upregulates the level of phosphor-ATM, G6PD activity and NADPH content. TRX1 overexpression improved short-term and long-term neurobehavioral outcomes and alleviated neuronal impairment in rats. Nissl staining showed that upregulation of TRX1 reduced cortical neuron injury. Our study shows that TRX1 participates in the PPP pathway by regulating phosphorylation ATM, which is accomplished by affecting G6PD activity. TRX1 may be an important target for EBI intervention after SAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2022.05.008DOI Listing
May 2022

SYNJ2 is a novel and potential biomarker for the prediction and treatment of cancers: from lung squamous cell carcinoma to pan-cancer.

BMC Med Genomics 2022 May 17;15(1):114. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Organic Chemistry and Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutical College, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.

Background: The roles and clinical values of synaptojanin 2 (SYNJ2) in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) remain unclear.

Methods: A total of 2824 samples from multi-center were collected to identify the expression of SYNJ2 in LUSC by using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, t-test, and standardized mean difference (SMD), and 194 in-house samples were also included to validate SYNJ2 expression in LUSC. The clinical roles of SYNJ2 were investigated via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, univariate Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier plots. The underlying mechanisms of SYNJ2 in LUSC were explored by gene set enrichment analysis and immune correlation analysis. Further, a pan-cancer analysis based on 10,238 sapiens was performed to promote the understating of the expression and clinical significance of SYNJ2 in multiple human cancers.

Results: SYNJ2 was found to be significantly upregulated in LUSC at both mRNA and protein levels (p < 0.05, SMD = 0.89 [95% CI 0.34-1.45]) via public and in-house samples. Overexpressed SYNJ2 predicted poor prognosis for LUSC patients (hazard ratio = 2.38 [95% CI 1.42-3.98]). The cancer-promoting effect of SYNJ2 may be related to protein digestion and absorption and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction. SYNJ2 expression was closely related to immune cell infiltration, indicating its role in the immune response. Moreover, the distinct expression levels and essential clinical relevance of SYNJ2 in a series of cancers were initially revealed in this study.

Conclusions: This study disclosed the clinical significance of SYNJ2 in LUSC and multiple cancers, demonstrating the novel and potential biomarker for predicting and treating cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-022-01266-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9112447PMC
May 2022

Acute kidney injury following SGLT2 inhibitors among diabetic patients: a pharmacovigilance study.

Int Urol Nephrol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Nephrology Department, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Purpose: The sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have changed the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several studies evaluated SGLT2 inhibitor-related acute kidney injury (AKI), but pharmacoepidemiology studies are needed to compare the adverse events in different SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i).

Methods: We used disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis in data mining to screen the AKI cases after initiating different SGLT2i among diabetic patients, based on the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) updated to December 2020. We also investigated the onset time and fatality rates of SGLT2i-associated AKI, which was based on preferred terms (PTs) coded for the renal adverse events in the structure of the FARES database.

Results: We identified 2483 cases of AKI following SGLT2i regimens among diabetic patients. Most of them were 45-64 years old (58.46%) and > 65 years old (28.67%). Canagliflozin generated the largest number of AKI reports (n = 1650, 66.45%) in our study. Canagliflozin showed the strongest association among SGLT2i, evidenced by the highest reporting odds ratio (ROR = 3.70, two-sided 95% CI 3.51-3.91), proportional reporting ratio (PRR = 3.39, χ = 2635.06), and empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM = 3.18, one-sided 95% CI 3.04). The median onset time to AKI was 72.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 21.0-266.0) days after SGLT2i initiation. The general hospitalization rate of SGLT2i-associated AKI was 63.50%, and the fatality rate was 1.59%. The deceased patients (62.94 ± 10.69 years) were significantly older than the survived ones (57.82 ± 11.84 years) (P = 0.011).

Conclusion: We compared AKI events in the real-world practice of various SGLT2i among diabetic cases from the FAERS database. It is essential to monitor kidney function during the early administration of SGLT2i. Concern should be paid for AKI in patients older than 65 taking SGLT2i.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-022-03211-7DOI Listing
May 2022

How can the rate of nontherapeutic thymectomy be reduced?

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of nontherapeutic thymectomy and define a clinical standard to reduce it.

Methods: From 2016 to 2020, consecutive patients who underwent thymectomy were retrospective reviewed. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify the correlation factors of nontherapeutic thymectomy. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was analyzed to assess the cutoff threshold of factors correlated with nontherapeutic thymectomy.

Results: A total of 1,039 patients were included in this study. Overall, 78.4% (n = 814) of thymectomies were therapeutic and 21.6% (n = 225) were nontherapeutic. Thymoma (57.9%, n = 602) was the most common diagnoses in therapeutic thymectomy. Among those of nontherapeutic thymectomy, thymic cysts (11.9%, n = 124) were the most common lesion. Compared with therapeutic thymectomy, patients with nontherapeutic thymectomy were more likely to be younger (median age 50.1 vs 55.6 years, P < 0.001) with a smaller precontrast and postcontrast CT value (p < 0.001, p < 0.001), as well as ΔCT value [10.7 vs 23.5 Hounsfield units (HU), p < 0.001]. Multivariable analysis indicated that only age and ΔCT value were significantly different between therapeutic and nontherapeutic thymectomy groups. ROC curve analysis showed that cutoff values of age and ΔCT value were 44 years and 6 HU, respectively. Patients with age ≤ 44 years and a ΔCT value ≤ 6 HU had a 95% probability of nontherapeutic thymectomy.

Conclusions: Surgeons should be cautious to perform thymectomy for patients with age ≤ 44 years and ΔCT value ≤6 HU. This simple clinical standard is helpful to reduce the rate of nontherapeutic thymectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivac132DOI Listing
May 2022

Berbamine Exerts an Anti-Oncogenic Effect on Pancreatic Cancer by Regulating Wnt and DNA Damage-Related Pathways.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of berbamine on pancreatic cancer as well as the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: The pancreatic cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of berbamine and then subjected to cell viability assay, colony formation assay, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis detection. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms underlying biological effects of berbamine on the pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-pancreatic cancer effect of berbamine was examined using a mouse xenograft model.

Results: Berbamine significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony-forming ability of BxPC3 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells, while inducing a cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, berbamine decreased the expression of β-catenin and phosphorylation of GSK3β, but increased the expression of γ-H2AX and 53BP1. Meanwhile, in vivo studies revealed that berbamine attenuated the growth of xenograft tumors derived from PANC-1 cells. Notably, berbamine treatment led to an increase in the expression of Cleaved Caspase 3 and γ-H2AX as well as a decrease in the expression of Ki-67 and β-catenin in the tumor xenografts.

Conclusion: Berbamine exerts an anti-pancreatic cancer effect possibly by regulating Wnt and DNA damage-related pathways, suggestive of its therapeutic potential for pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520622666220509174306DOI Listing
May 2022

Egr2 contributes to age-dependent vulnerability to sevoflurane-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Sevoflurane inhalation is prone to initiate cognitive deficits in infants. The early growth response-2 (Egr-2) gene is DNA-binding transcription factor, involving in cognitive function. In this study we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to cognitive deficits after sevoflurane administration. Six-day-old (young) and 6-week-old (early adult) mice received anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane for 2 h daily for 3 days. We showed that multiple exposures of sevoflurane induced significant learning ability impairment in young but not early adult mice, assessed in Morris water maze test on postnatal days 65. The integrated differential expression analysis revealed distinct transcription responses of Egr family members in the hippocampus of the young and early adult mice after sevoflurane administration. Particularly, Egr2 was significantly upregulated after sevoflurane exposure only in young mice. Microinjection of Egr2 shRNA recombinant adeno-associated virus into the dentate gyrus alleviated sevoflurane-induced cognitive deficits, and abolished sevoflurane-induced dendritic spins loss and BDNF downregulation in young mice. On the contrary, microinjection of the Egr2 overexpression virus in the dentate gyrus aggravated learning ability impairment induced by sevoflurane in young mice but not early adult mice. Furthermore, we revealed that sevoflurane markedly upregulated the nuclear factors of activated T-cells NFATC1 and NFATC2 in young mice, which were involved in Egr2 regulation. In conclusion, Egr2 serves as a critical factor for age-dependent vulnerability to sevoflurane-induced cognitive deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-022-00915-5DOI Listing
May 2022

Curcumin-Encapsulated Chitosan-Coated Nanoformulation as an Improved Otoprotective Strategy for Ototoxic Hearing Loss.

Mol Pharm 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Drug Delivery & Guangdong Provincial Engineering Center of Topical Precise Drug Delivery System & Class III Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine Preparation & Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine of Education Department of Guangdong Province, Center for Drug Research and Development, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Overexpression of apoptotic factors in the inner ear is generally proven to induce ototoxicity. This has aroused research interest in various antiapoptotic drugs, the most representative of which is curcumin (CUR). In this study, two nanoformulations of CUR were developed with sustained-release behavior to improve their protective effects against ototoxic hearing loss (HL), which were the nanoparticles of CUR-loaded poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (CUR-PLGA NPs) and CUR-loaded chitosan-coated PLGA NPs (CUR-CS/PLGA NPs). The obtained results revealed that both CUR-NPs provided otoprotection and , and their effective doses in guinea pigs were much less than that of dexamethasone, which was clinically used to treat HL. Moreover, relative to CUR and CUR-PLGA NPs, CUR-CS/PLGA NPs exhibited the highest accumulation in HEI-OC1 cells and guinea pigs' cochlea. In pharmacodynamic experiments, the optimal administration timing was investigated, and CUR-CS/PLGA NPs showed sustained efficacy and the best hearing improvement at all tested sound frequencies. Lastly, the protective effect of CUR nanoformulations was further validated via inhibition of Caspase-3 and Bax activation, thereby reducing the concentration of reactive oxygen species and protecting mitochondrial integrity in hair cells. Collectively, CUR-CS/PLGA NPs demonstrated potent and lasting effects against ototoxic HL, making our novel formulation a promising candidate for the alleviation of sensorineural HL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.2c00067DOI Listing
May 2022

Prognostic-Related Metabolic Score for Survival Prediction in Early-Stage Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer: A Multi-Center and Retrospective Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 28;9:830673. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Objective: Patients with endometrial cancer (EC) combined with metabolic syndrome (MetS) have a worse prognosis than those without MetS. This study aimed to investigate whether partial metabolic disorder significantly influenced early-stage endometrioid EC (EEC) survival and searched for a more efficient method to evaluate metabolic status.

Methods: This is a nationwide, multicenter cohort study that included 998 patients with primary early-stage EEC from 2001 to 2018. Patients were divided into different metabolic groups based on the diagnostic criteria of the Chinese Medical Association (CDC). The progression-free survival (PFS) time was compared between various metabolic status. Meanwhile, we established an EC Prognostic-Related Metabolic Score (ECPRM Score) to explore the association of the severity of metabolic status and early-stage EEC PFS. A nomogram was established for predicting PFS, which was externally validated in a testing set that includes 296 patients.

Results: A partial metabolic disorder, as well as MetS, was an independent risk factor of poor survival of patients with early-stage EEC [hazard ratio (HR) = 7.6, 95% CI = 1.01-57.5, < 0.05]. A high ECPRM Score was associated with lower PFS (HR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.05-4.0, < 0.001). The nomogram, in which the ECPRM Score contributed most to the prognosis, exhibited excellent discrimination of survival supported by the internal and external validations. In addition, the calibration curve supports its robust predicting ability.

Conclusion: Even though they do not meet the criteria of MetS, partial metabolic disorders were also associated with adverse outcomes in early-stage EEC. The ECPRM Score is beneficial for clinicians to evaluate the severity of metabolic abnormalities and guide patients to ameliorate the poor prognosis of metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.830673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9096267PMC
April 2022

A comparative study of Mesenchymal Stem Cells transplantation approach to antagonize age-associated ovarian hypofunction with consideration of safety and efficiency.

J Adv Res 2022 05 6;38:245-259. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Center of Reproductive Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Introduction: The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF) could lead to clinical improvement. The transplantation to the ovaries among other transplantation methods have been reported in various animal models, however, there is little evidence regarding the optimal method, including the clinical safety and the efficiency for the treatment of age associated ovarian hypofunction.

Objectives: To establish the most effective transplantation route of MSCs, explore the resistance to therapy, its safety and role in the natural aging process of the ovaries.

Methods: Highly purified MSCs were injected intraperitoneally, directly into the ovaries or tail-intravenously in mice animal model. The ovarian function, quantity and quality of oocytes, cell viability/apoptosis, were evaluated, applying chemiluminescence analysis (CLIA), western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, transmission electron microscope (TEM), TdT mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assay and other techniques. The organ tumorigenicity was also evaluated by long-term observation and histopathological examination. The efficiency of MSCs was further verified in non-human primates by the most effective transplantation route.

Results: The 32nd week was ultimately determined as the time point of MSCs transplantation. Our results showed that the intra-ovarian injection was the best transplantation method with a more conspicuous effect. With deeper investigations, we found that the transplanted MSCs showed an effective influence on the follicular number, promoted follicle maturation and inhibited cell apoptosis, which was further verified in non-human primates. In addition, the long-term observation and the histopathological examinations ruled out neoplasms or obvious prosoplasia after MSCs transplantation.

Conclusion: MSCs transplantation by intra-ovarian injection could within a month exert the most conspicuous anti-age-associated ovarian hypofunction effects, which may improve the quantity and quality of oocytes by changing the mitochondrial structure, regulating mitochondrial function and attenuating cell apoptosis to increase the storage of the follicle pool without a remarkable potential of tumorigenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2021.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091735PMC
May 2022

Sonodynamic therapy exciting the herbal nanocomposite with spider-web-like effect to combat otitis media.

Int J Pharm 2022 May 13;621:121820. Epub 2022 May 13.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Drug Delivery & Guangdong Provincial Engineering Center of Topical Precise Drug Delivery System & Class III Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine Preparation & Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine of Education Department of Guangdong Province, Center for Drug Research and Development, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Otitis media, mainly caused by bacteria, is prevalent in young children and can cause hearing loss and growth retardation. Antibiotics are the most widely utilized treatment for otitis media, however, they can cause drug resistance and harmful side effects. In this study, we reported an antibacterial nanocomposite in combination with sonodynamic therapy that consists of herbal antibacterial agents such as Curcumin (CUR) and Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA), as well as Chitosan (CS), for the treatment of acute otitis media. CUR/TSIIA/CS nanocomposite (NC) with ultrasonic irradiation demonstrated that it could eliminate Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo experiments revealed that NC-mediated sonodynamic therapy had excellent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity, displaying a consistent performance comparable to ofloxacin. The therapeutic efficiency was attributed to capturing bacteria through spider-web-like effect and destroying bacteria through the reactive oxygen species generated under ultrasonic irradiation. Significantly, NC did not induce bacterial resistance and showed good biocompatibility. This study provides a novel strategy to develop an ultrasound-assisted nanocomposite with an enhanced antibacterial effect. Further, it unlocks new doors for the substitute of antibiotics to combat otitis media by establishing efficient therapeutic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.121820DOI Listing
May 2022

Association between sleep duration and incidence of type 2 diabetes in China: the REACTION study.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Backgrounds: Inadequate sleep duration is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and the relationship is nonlinear. We aim to assess the curve relationship between night sleep duration and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in China.

Methods: A cohort of 11,539 participants from the REACTION study without diabetes at baseline (2011) were followed until 2014 for the development of type 2 diabetes. Average number of hours of sleep per night was grouped. Incidence rates and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for the development of diabetes in each sleep duration category.

Results: Compared to people who sleep for 7 to 8 h/night, people with longer sleep duration (≥9 h/night) had a greater risk of type 2 diabetes (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01-1.61), while shorter sleep (<6 h/night) had no significant difference. When the dataset was stratified based on selected covariates, the association between type 2 diabetes and long sleep duration became more evident among individuals <65 years of age, male, body mass index <24 kg/m2 or with hypertension or hyperlipidemia, no interaction effects were observed. Furthermore, compared to people persistently slept 7 to 9 h/night, those who persistently slept ≥9 h/night had a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. The optimal sleep duration was 6.3 to 7.5 h/night.

Conclusions: Short or long sleep duration was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Persistently long sleep duration increased the risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001835DOI Listing
May 2022

Combining education and income into a socioeconomic position score for use in studies of health inequalities.

BMC Public Health 2022 05 13;22(1):969. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Community Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, 9037, Tromsø, Norway.

Background: In studies of social inequalities in health, there is no consensus on the best measure of socioeconomic position (SEP). Moreover, subjective indicators are increasingly used to measure SEP. The aim of this paper was to develop a composite score for SEP based on weighted combinations of education and income in estimating subjective SEP, and examine how this score performs in predicting inequalities in health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

Methods: We used data from a comprehensive health survey from Northern Norway, conducted in 2015/16 (N = 21,083). A composite SEP score was developed using adjacent-category logistic regression of subjective SEP as a function of four education and four household income levels. Weights were derived based on these indicators' coefficients in explaining variations in respondents' subjective SEP. The composite SEP score was further applied to predict inequalities in HRQoL, measured by the EQ-5D and a visual analogue scale.

Results: Education seemed to influence SEP the most, while income added weight primarily for the highest income category. The weights demonstrated clear non-linearities, with large jumps from the middle to the higher SEP score levels. Analyses of the composite SEP score indicated a clear social gradient in both HRQoL measures.

Conclusions: We provide new insights into the relative contribution of education and income as sources of SEP, both separately and in combination. Combining education and income into a composite SEP score produces more comprehensive estimates of the social gradient in health. A similar approach can be applied in any cohort study that includes education and income data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13366-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9107133PMC
May 2022

Gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal schwannomas: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Clin Neurosci 2022 May 10;101:67-79. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been deemed as the gold standard stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) mode for the treatment of intracranial tumors, cerebrovascular diseases and brain functional diseases. Our study was aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy, safety, and complications of gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal schwannomas.

Method: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze the clinical outcomes of patients with trigeminal schwannomas treated primarily or adjunctly with GKRS. We searched two databases, Pubmed and Embase, for studies published before January 1, 2021, using GKRS for trigeminal schwannomas. Studies reporting treatment of other schwannomas, or other forms of SRS such as linear accelerator and Cyberknife were excluded to reduce its heterogeneity.

Results: Our search achieved 351 studies, of which 35 were assessed for full-text eligibility. 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. 456 of 504 patients (0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.96, I = 3.02%, p < 0.01) from 18 studies had local control, and 278 of 489 patients (0.63, 95%CI 0.48-0.78, I = 88.75%, p < 0.01) from 16 studies experienced tumor regression or disappearance. 231 of 499 patients (0.50, 95% CI 0.37-0.62; I = 83.89%, P < 0.01) from 17 studies had clinical symptoms improved. There was no significant difference in tumor control between those treated with GKRS as either primary treatment or adjuvant to surgery(p = 0.390).

Conclusion: GKRS is an efficacious primary and adjuvant method of treating trigeminal schwannomas, with reliable tumor control rates. Randomized controlled trials are needed to further and comprehensively evaluate the benefit-to-risk ratio of gamma knife radiosurgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2022.05.001DOI Listing
May 2022

A Red-Emitting COF Ionic Exchanged With Green-Emitting Tb(III) Complex Anion: Synthesis, Characterization, Ratiometric Emission Sensing, and Removal of Picric Acid.

Front Chem 2022 26;10:865304. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital/The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.

Picric acid (PA) is an important chemical product which has been widely used in dye manufacturing, antiseptics, and pharmaceuticals. Owing to PA's extreme electron-deficient structure, its natural degradation is hard, leading to accumulation in the environment and finally threatening the ecosystem and human health. In this case, PA detection and removal becomes more and more important, concerning environmental protection and human health. In this study, an ionic covalent organic framework (I-COF) was synthesized and modified with a luminescent Tb(III) emitter (Tb(DPA) , DPA = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid), ionic exchange. The resulting composite material (Tb-COF) was fully characterized by geometric analysis, IR, XRD, porosity analysis, SEM/TEM, and elemental analysis. It was found that Tb(DPA) was loaded into the hexagonal cage in an I-COF host with an ionic exchange ratio of 41%. The as-synthesized Tb-COF showed weak Tb(III) emission and strong red COF emission, after adding PA, Tb(III) emission was increased whereas COF emission weakened greatly, showing sensing behavior. Linear working curves were observed with good selectivity. The sensing mechanism was revealed as follows. PA molecules replaced the [Tb(PDA)] component trapped in Tb-COF, releasing free luminescent [Tb(PDA)]. After incorporating PA in the hexagonal cage, the COF emission was quenched. This sensing mechanism ensured a good selectivity over competing species, including cations, anions, and nitrocompounds. The adsorption and removal performance of I-COF for PA were investigated as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.865304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9086536PMC
April 2022

Thermodynamics of hydrogels for applications in atmospheric water harvesting, evaporation, and desalination.

Authors:
Gang Chen

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.

Most thermodynamic modeling of hydrogels is built on Flory's theories for the entropy of mixing and rubber elasticity, and Donnan's equilibrium conditions if polyelectrolyte polymer and mobile ions are involved. The entropy of mixing depends on the number of solvent and polymer molecules while the configurational entropy depends on the volume the polymer occupied. Flory's theory treated these two entropy terms in the Gibbs free energy on an equal basis: using the molecular numbers as the variable. I argue that the molecular number and volume are two independent thermodynamic variables and reformulate Flory's classical hydrogel thermodynamic model by minimizing the Helmholtz free energy of a combined system consisting of the hydrogel and its environment. This treatment enables us to unequivocally state that the osmotic pressure is the thermodynamic pressure of the solvent inside the hydrogel and to unambiguously write down the chemical potential of each species. The balance of the chemical potentials of the mobile species, including both the solvent and the mobile ions gives a set of equations that can be simultaneously used to solve for the equilibrium volume of the hydrogel, the osmotic pressure, and the Donnan potential, including their coupling. The model is used to study the thermodynamic properties of both pure and salty water in non-electrolyte and electrolyte hydrogels such as (1) the latent heat of evaporation, (2) the ability of hydrogels to retain water and to absorb water from the atmosphere, (3) the use of hydrogels for desalination solar or forward osmosis, (4) the antifouling characteristics of hydrogels, and (5) melting point suppression and boiling point elevation, and solubility of salts in hydrogels. These properties are of interest in solar-driven interfacial water evaporation for desalination and wastewater treatment, atmospheric water harvesting, and forward osmosis. The reformulated thermodynamic framework will also be useful for understanding polymer electrolytes and ion transport in electrochemical and biological systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp00356bDOI Listing
May 2022

Upregulation of the transmembrane protease serine 3 mRNA level in radioresistant colorectal cancer tissues.

Biomark Med 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, no. 6 Shuangyong Rd, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 530021, PR China.

To investigate the clinical role of transmembrane protease serine 3 (TMPRSS3) in radioresistance and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Standardized mean difference (SMD) and summary area under the curve (AUC) of were calculated by combining all available high-throughput data globally. The prognostic significance of was determined by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. was remarkably upregulated in 198 CRC radioresistant cases compared with nonradioresistance (SMD = 0.38, AUC = 0.71). Overexpression of was observed in 1601 CRC patients compared with control subjects without CRC. was a risk factor for disease-free survival of CRC with the summarized hazard ratio 1.28. TMPRSS3 contributes to the radioresistance and unfavorable prognosis of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2021-0649DOI Listing
May 2022

Genetic dissection of glutathione S-transferase omega-1: identification of novel downstream targets and Alzheimer's disease pathways.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Nov;17(11):2452-2458

Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical College, Nantong University; Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is affected by genetic factors. Polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase omega-1 (Gsto1) gene have been shown by genetic correlation analyses performed in different ethnic populations to be genetic risk factors for AD. Gene expression profile data from BXD recombinant inbred mice were used in combination with genetic and bioinformatic analyses to characterize the mechanisms underlying regulation of Gsto1 variation regulation and to identify network members that may contribute to AD risk or progression. Allele-specific assays confirmed that variation in Gsto1 expression is controlled by cis-expression quantitative trait loci. We found that Gsto1 mRNA levels were related to several central nervous system traits, such as glial acidic fibrillary protein levels in the caudate putamen, cortical gray matter volume, and hippocampus mossy fiber pathway volume. We identified 2168 genes whose expression was highly correlated with that of Gsto1. Some genes were enriched for the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Some Gsto1-related genes identified in this study had previously been identified as susceptibility genes for AD, such as APP, Grin2b, Ide, and Psenen. To evaluate the relationships between Gsto1 and candidate network members, we transfected astrocytes with Gsto1 siRNA and assessed the effect on putative downstream effectors. We confirmed that knockdown of Gsto1 had a significant influence on Pa2g4 expression, suggesting that Pa2g4 may be a downstream effector of Gsto1, and that both genes interact with other genes in a network during AD pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.339004DOI Listing
November 2022

Resource utilization of medical waste under COVID-19: Waste mask used as crude oil fluidity improver.

J Clean Prod 2022 Jul 3;358:131903. Epub 2022 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Pollution Control, Xi'an Shiyou University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710065, China.

The disposal of medical waste has become an increasing environmental issue since the COVID-19 epidemic outbreaks. Conventional disposal methods have produced waste of fossil resources and environmental problems. In this study, the waste medical mask-derived materials were tested as viscosity reducer and pour point depressant to evaluate the possibility of being used as crude oil fluidity improver. The results show that the materials derived from the three parts of the waste medical mask can reduce the viscosity and pour point of each crude oil samples from different oilfields in China. The middle layer of the medical mask (PP-2) displays the highest efficiency, and the viscosity reduction rate and maximum pour point reduction reaches 81% and 8.3 °C at 500 ppm, respectively. A probable mechanism of improving rheological properties of the crude oil samples by the medical mask-derived materials was further proposed after the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and the wax crystal morphology analysis. We hope this work could provide a way to solve the current environmental issues under COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.131903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9061095PMC
July 2022

Complete chloroplast genome sequence of (Jack) Benth.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 29;7(5):719-721. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

College of Life Sciences, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing, China.

(Jack) Benth. 1844 belongs to the genus in the family Fabaceae. The complete chloroplast genome of was sequenced and analyzed by Illumina sequencing in this study. The full length of the complete chloroplast genome is 176,770 bp, containing a pair of inverted repeat regions of 39,693 bp (IRa and IRb) separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 92,500 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 4,884 bp. The chloroplast genome encodes 137 genes, comprising 92 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete chloroplast genomes revealed that is closely related to and . This study provides useful resources for further study and development of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2068974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9067968PMC
April 2022

Mobility enhancement in heavily doped semiconductors via electron cloaking.

Nat Commun 2022 May 6;13(1):2482. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Doping is central for solid-state devices from transistors to thermoelectric energy converters. The interaction between electrons and dopants plays a pivotal role in carrier transport. Conventional theory suggests that the Coulomb field of the ionized dopants limits the charge mobility at high carrier densities, and that either the atomic details of the dopants are unimportant or the mobility can only be further degraded, while experimental results often show that dopant choice affects mobility. In practice, the selection of dopants is still mostly a trial-and-error process. Here we demonstrate, via first-principles simulation and comparison with experiments, that a large short-range perturbation created by selected dopants can in fact counteract the long-range Coulomb field, leading to electron transport that is nearly immune to the presence of dopants. Such "cloaking" of dopants leads to enhanced mobilities at high carrier concentrations close to the intrinsic electron-phonon scattering limit. We show that the ionic radius can be used to guide dopant selection in order to achieve such an electron-cloaking effect. Our finding provides guidance to the selection of dopants for solid-state conductors to achieve high mobility for electronic, photonic, and energy conversion applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-29958-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9076901PMC
May 2022

Did the Integrated Urban and Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance Improve Benefit Equity in China?

Value Health 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Centre for Health Economics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Objectives: The reform of merging 2 major health insurance schemes into Urban and Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URRBMI) is recognized as a vital step to safeguard equal healthcare and benefit to each enrollee in China. Against this backdrop, this article aims to evaluate the impact of URRBMI integration on benefit and its contribution to benefit equity.

Methods: The data of this study were derived from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2011 and 2015. A total of 11 383 individuals were included in the final sample. Coarsened exact matching with difference-in-difference approach was firstly adopted to investigate the treatment effects of URRBMI on benefits. Next, the decomposition of concentration index (CI) was conducted to explore the contribution of URRBMI to benefit equity.

Results: The coarsened exact matching with difference-in-difference results revealed that the consolidation of URRBMI has significantly improved outpatient benefit. The decomposition results showed that the contribution rates of URRBMI scheme to outpatient benefit rate (CI -0.0114), benefit probability (CI 0.0673), compensation fee (CI 0.0076), and reimbursement ratio (CI 0.0483) were 11.26%, -3.38%, -7.67%, and -0.81%, suggesting that this reform makes contribution to the propoor inequity in the outpatient benefit rate and relieves the prorich inequity in outpatient benefit probability and the degree of benefits.

Conclusions: The findings of this study provide novel evidence of enhanced benefits and benefit equity for outpatient care with the integration of URRBMI. Further efforts should be made to the expansion of URRBMI coverage and the elimination of income disparities that affecting benefit equity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2022.03.007DOI Listing
May 2022

Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Electrophile Coupling Reactions between Allylic Acetates and -Difluorovinyl Tosylate.

Org Lett 2022 May 5;24(19):3538-3543. Epub 2022 May 5.

West China School of Pharmacy and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People's Republic of China.

A nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling of allylic acetates and -difluorovinyl tosylate is presented, which first achieves allylic -difluoroolefins via C(sp)-C(sp) cross-electrophile coupling. In addition, this protocol was performed under mild reaction conditions, affording a variety of allylic -difluorovinyl arenes in moderate to good yields. Moreover, both linear and branched allylic acetate could produce a linear cross-coupling product exclusively. Mechanistic studies reveal that the reaction involves two different Ni(0)/Ni(II) catalytic cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c01245DOI Listing
May 2022

Predictive model for the probability of malignancy in solitary pulmonary nodules: a meta-analysis.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2022 May 3;17(1):102. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Radiology, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou, China.

Background: To date, multiple predictive models have been developed with the goal of reliably differentiating between solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) that are malignant and those that are benign. The present meta-analysis was conducted to assess the diagnostic utility of these predictive models in the context of SPN differential diagnosis.

Methods: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases were searched for relevant studies published through August 31, 2021. Pooled data analyses were conducted using Stata v12.0.

Results: In total, 20 retrospective studies that included 5171 SPNs (malignant/benign: 3662/1509) were incorporated into this meta-analysis. Respective pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic score values were 88% (95CI%: 0.84-0.91), 78% (95CI%: 0.74-0.80), 3.91 (95CI%: 3.42-4.46), 0.16 (95CI%: 0.12-0.21), and 3.21 (95CI%: 2.87-3.55), with an area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve value of 86% (95CI%: 0.83-0.89). Significant heterogeneity among studies was detected with respect to sensitivity (I = 89.07%), NLR (I = 87.29%), and diagnostic score (I = 72.28%). In a meta-regression analysis, sensitivity was found to be impacted by the standard reference in a given study (surgery and biopsy vs. surgery only, P = 0.02), while specificity was impacted by whether studies were blinded (yes vs. unclear, P = 0.01). Sensitivity values were higher when surgery and biopsy samples were used as a standard reference, while unclear blinding status was associated with increased specificity. No significant evidence of publication bias was detected for the present meta-analysis (P = 0.539).

Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis demonstrate that predictive models can offer significant diagnostic utility when establishing whether SPNs are malignant or benign.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-022-01859-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9066878PMC
May 2022

Response Strategies of Root System Architecture to Soil Environment: A Case Study of Single-Species Plantations.

Front Plant Sci 2022 14;13:822223. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

College of Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Province Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering on the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, State Forestry and Grassland Administration Key Laboratory of Forest Resources Conservation and Ecological Safety on the Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River, Chengdu, China.

The root system architecture (RSA), being a key characteristic of the root economic spectrum, describes the spatial arrangement and positioning of roots that determines the plant's exploration of water and nutrients in the soil. Still, it remains poorly understood how the RSA of woody plants responds to the demand for water and nutrients in different soil environments and how the uptake of these resources is optimized. Here we selected single-species plantations of and determined their topological index (), revised topological index ( and ), root link length (), root branching rate ( and : ), and soil physicochemical properties to assess which root foraging strategies adopt in different soil environments among Guang'an City (GA), Suining City (SN), Mianyang City (MY), and Deyang City (DY) in China. We also tested the potential effects of different nutrients upon RSA according to its plastic phenotype. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that levels of soil nutrients were the highest at DY, followed by MY and SN, and lower at GA. A dichotomous branching pattern was observed for GA, SN, and MY, but a herringbone branching pattern for DY. The was ranked as GA, > SN, > MY > DY. The of GA, SN, and MY was significantly lower than that of DY ( < 0.05). Among the different city regions, values of were the largest in different regions and those of the smallest. The cross-sectional area of the root system did not differ between any two connected branch orders. The , and were significantly and negatively correlated with soil's water content, porosity, total nitrogen, total potassium, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus ( < 0.05), whereas they all had significant, positive relationships with soil temperature ( < 0.05). The was significantly and positively correlated with total potassium in soil ( < 0.05). Redundancy analysis showed that total potassium was the main factor driving variation in RSA. Our results emphasize that the RSA is capable of corresponding plastic alterations by changing its number of internal or external links and the root link length of fine roots a heterogeneous environment, thereby optimizing the rates of water capture and space utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.822223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9048025PMC
April 2022

A comparison of hydrogen release kinetics from 5- and 6-membered 1,2-BN-cycloalkanes.

RSC Adv 2021 Oct 20;11(54):34132-34136. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Chemistry, Boston College Chestnut Hill Massachusetts 02467-3860 USA

The reaction order and Arrhenius activation parameters for spontaneous hydrogen release from cyclic amine boranes, , BN-cycloalkanes, were determined for 1,2-BN-cyclohexane (1) and 3-methyl-1,2-BN-cyclopentane (2) in tetraglyme. Computational analysis identified a mechanism involving catalytic substrate activation by a ring-opened form of 1 or 2 as being consistent with experimental observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra07477fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9042405PMC
October 2021

Palladium-catalysed difluoroolefination of benzyl tosylates toward the synthesis of -difluoro-2-trifluromethyl styrene derivatives.

RSC Adv 2022 Apr 28;12(21):12983-12987. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University Chengdu 610041 China.

We have presented an efficient method to access -difluoro-2-trifluromethyl styrene derivatives palladium catalysis. This method features mild reaction conditions, broad substrate scope and good product yields. Moreover, gram-scale reactions demonstrated the robustness and potential of this method. Control experiments revealed that the -CF group was essential to the success of this transformation. Finally, the practicality of this method was successfully proven by three synthetic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra02473jDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9049850PMC
April 2022
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