Publications by authors named "Galina Novichkova"

50 Publications

Unique Combination of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia and Lynch Syndrome in Adult Female: A Case Report.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:652696. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

We present an extremely rare clinical case of a 38-year-old Russian patient with multiple malignant neoplasms of the uterus and colon caused by genetically confirmed two hereditary diseases: Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Lynch syndrome. Molecular genetic research carried out by various methods (NGS, Sanger sequencing, aCGH, and MLPA) revealed a pathogenic nonsense variant in the gene: NM_000179.2: c.742C>T, p.(Arg248Ter), as well as a new deletion of the chromosome 15's locus with the capture of 82,662,932-84,816,747 bp interval, including the complete sequence of the gene. The lack of expediency of studying microsatellite instability in endometrial tumors using standard mononucleotide markers NR21, NR24, NR27, BAT25, BAT26 was demonstrated. The estimated prevalence of patients with combination of Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Lynch syndrome in the world is one per 480 million people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.652696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085342PMC
April 2021

Platelet function and bleeding at different phases of childhood immune thrombocytopenia.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 30;11(1):9401. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology Named After Dmitry Rogachev, Russian Ministry of Healthcare, 1 Samory Mashela Str, Moscow, Russia, 117997.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is believed to be associated with platelet function defects. However, their mechanisms are poorly understood, in particular with regard to differences between ITP phases, patient age, and therapy. We investigated platelet function and bleeding in children with either persistent or chronic ITP, with or without romiplostim therapy. The study included 151 children with ITP, of whom 56 had disease duration less than 12 months (grouped together as acute/persistent) and 95 were chronic. Samples of 57 healthy children were used as controls, while 5 patients with leukemia, 5 with aplastic anemia, 4 with MYH9-associated thrombocytopenia, and 7 with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome were used as non-ITP thrombocytopenia controls. Whole blood flow cytometry revealed that platelets in both acute/persistent and chronic ITP were increased in size compared with healthy donors. They were also pre-activated as assessed by PAC1, CD62p, cytosolic calcium, and procoagulant platelet levels. This pattern was not observed in other childhood thrombocytopenias. Pre-activation by CD62p was higher in the bleeding group in the chronic ITP cohort only. Romiplostim treatment decreased size and pre-activation of the patient platelets, but not calcium. Our data suggest that increased size, pre-activation, and cytosolic calcium are common for all ITP platelets, but their association with bleeding could depend on the disease phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88900-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087794PMC
April 2021

Blinatumomab following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation - a novel approach for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in infants.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Blinatumomab with subsequent haematopoietic stem cell transplantation was applied in 13 infants with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Eight patients were treated in first remission due to slow clearance of minimal residual disease (MRD); one for MRD-reappearance after long MRD negativity, one for primary refractory disease and three during relapse treatment. In slow MRD responders, complete MRD response was achieved prior to transplantation, with an 18-month event-free survival of 75%. In contrast, only one of five patients with relapsed/refractory ALL is still in complete remission. These data provide a basis for future studies of immunotherapy in very high-risk infant ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17466DOI Listing
April 2021

Relative expansion of CD19-negative very-early normal B-cell precursors in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia after CD19 targeting by blinatumomab and CAR-T cell therapy: implications for flow cytometric detection of minimal residual disease.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 14;193(3):602-612. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

National Research and Clinical Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russian Federation.

CD19-directed treatment in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) frequently leads to the downmodulation of targeted antigens. As multicolour flow cytometry (MFC) application for minimal/measurable residual disease (MRD) assessment in BCP-ALL is based on B-cell compartment study, CD19 loss could hamper MFC-MRD monitoring after blinatumomab or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy. The use of other antigens (CD22, CD10, CD79a, etc.) as B-lineage gating markers allows the identification of CD19-negative leukaemia, but it could also lead to misidentification of normal very-early CD19-negative BCPs as tumour blasts. In the current study, we summarized the results of the investigation of CD19-negative normal BCPs in 106 children with BCP-ALL who underwent CD19 targeting (blinatumomab, n = 64; CAR-T, n = 25; or both, n = 17). It was found that normal CD19-negative BCPs could be found in bone marrow after CD19-directed treatment more frequently than in healthy donors and children with BCP-ALL during chemotherapy or after stem cell transplantation. Analysis of the antigen expression profile revealed that normal CD19-negative BCPs could be mixed up with residual leukaemic blasts, even in bioinformatic analyses of MFC data. The results of our study should help to investigate MFC-MRD more accurately in patients who have undergone CD19-targeted therapy, even in cases with normal CD19-negative BCP expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17382DOI Listing
May 2021

Plerixafor added to G-CSF allows mobilization of a sufficient number of hematopoietic progenitors without impacting the efficacy of TCR-alpha/beta depletion in pediatric haploidentical and genoidentical donors failing to mobilize with G-CSF alone.

J Clin Apher 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Dmitri Rogachev National Research Centre for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Collection of a large number of early hematopoietic progenitors is essential for allogeneic apheresis products intended for TCR-alpha/beta depletion.

Materials And Methods: We added plerixafor 0.24 mg/kg body weight (bw) on day 4 of high-dose filgrastim mobilization 10 hours prior to apheresis in 16 (30.5%) pediatric allogeneic donors who failed to recover a sufficient number of CD34+ cells.

Results: On day 4 of G-CSF, the median CD34+ cell count in peripheral blood was 6 per μL (range 4-9 per μL) in 6 poor mobilizers and 16 per μL (range 12-19 per μL) in insufficient mobilizers. In all donors, the threshold of 50 CD34+ cells/μL was achieved, and the median increase was 14.8-fold in poor mobilizers and 6.5-fold in insufficient mobilizers, whereas it was 3.45-fold increase in those mobilized with G-CSF alone.

Discussion: In all donors, a predefined number of >10 × 10 CD34+ cells/kg of recipient bw before depletion was reached in the apheresis product. The use of plerixafor did not affect the purity of further TCR-alpha/beta depletion. Side effects were mild to moderate and consisted of nausea and vomiting.

Conclusion: Thus, the safety and high efficacy of plerixafor was proven in healthy pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21891DOI Listing
March 2021

Safety and efficacy of the low-dose memory (CD45RA-depleted) donor lymphocyte infusion in recipients of αβ T cell-depleted haploidentical grafts: results of a prospective randomized trial in high-risk childhood leukemia.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Dmitriy Rogachev National Medical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Depletion of αβ T cells from the graft prevents graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and improves outcome of HSCT from haploidentical donors. In a randomized trial, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose memory (CD45RA-depleted) donor lymphocytes (mDLI) after HSCT with αβ T-cell depletion. A cohort of 149 children was enrolled, 76 were randomized to receive scheduled mDLI and 73 received standard care. Conditioning was based on either 12 Gy total body irradiation or treosulfan. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin was replaced by tocilizumab and abatacept. Primary end points were the incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV and the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia. The incidence of grades II-IV aGVHD was 14% in the experimental arm and 12% in the control arm, p-0.8. The incidence of CMV viremia was 45% in the experimental arm and 55% in the control arm, p-0.4. Overall, in the total cohort 2-year NRM was 2%, cumulative incidence of relapse was 25%, event-free survival 71%, and overall survival 80%, without difference between the study arms. Memory DLI was associated with improved recovery of CMV-specific T-cell responses in a subcohort of CMV IgG seropositive recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01232-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Nicotinamide (vitamin B3) treatment improves response to G-CSF in severe congenital neutropenia patients.

Br J Haematol 2021 02 20;192(4):788-792. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Oncology and Immunology Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center Of Pediatric Hematology, Moskva, Russia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17313DOI Listing
February 2021

GATA1 mutation analysis and molecular landscape characterization in acute myeloid leukemia with trisomy 21 in pediatric patients.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Introduction: Accurate detection of GATA1 mutation is highly significant in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and trisomy 21 as it allows optimization of clinical protocol. This study was aimed at (a) enhanced search for GATA1 mutations; and (b) characterization of molecular landscapes for such conditions.

Methods: The DNA samples from 44 patients with newly diagnosed de novo AML with trisomy 21 were examined by fragment analysis and Sanger sequencing of the GATA1 exon 2, complemented by targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS).

Results: Acquired GATA1 mutations were identified in 43 cases (98%). Additional mutations in the genes of JAK/STAT signaling, cohesin complex, and RAS pathway activation were revealed by HTS in 48%, 36%, and 16% of the cases, respectively.

Conclusions: The GATA1 mutations were reliably determined by fragment analysis and/or Sanger sequencing in a single PCR amplicon manner. For patients with extremely low blast counts and/or rare variants, the rapid screening with simple molecular approaches must be complemented with HTS. The JAK/STAT and RAS pathway-activating mutations may represent an extra option of targeted therapy with kinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13451DOI Listing
January 2021

Immunophenotypic changes of leukemic blasts in children with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who have been treated with Blinatumomab.

Haematologica 2020 12 30;Online ahead of print. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology; 1 Samory Mashela St., Moscow 117998, Russian Federation.

Not available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.241596DOI Listing
December 2020

Chimerism evaluation in measurable residual disease-suspected cells isolated by flow cell sorting as a reliable tool for measurable residual disease verification in acute leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2020 Dec 28. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Background: The presence of minimal/measurable residual disease (MRD) before or after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is known as a predictor of poor outcome in patients with acute myeloid (AML) or lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia. When performed with multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), assessment of residual leukemic cells after HSCT may be limited by therapy-induced shifts in the immunophenotype (e.g., loss of surface molecules used for therapeutic targeting). However, in such cases, questionable cells can be isolated and tested for hematopoietic chimerism to clarify their origin.

Methods: Questionable cell populations were detected during the MFC-based MRD monitoring of 52 follow-up bone marrow samples from 37 patients diagnosed with T cell neoplasms (n =14), B cell precursor ALL (n = 16), AML (n = 7). These cells (suspected leukemic or normal) were isolated by flow cell sorting and tested for hematopoietic chimerism by RTQ-PCR.

Results: The origin of cells was successfully identified in 96.15% of cases (n = 50), which helped to validate the results of MFC-based MRD monitoring.

Conclusions: We believe that a combination of MFC, cell sorting, and chimerism testing may help confirm or disprove MRD presence in complicated cases after HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21982DOI Listing
December 2020

Additional flow cytometric studies for differential diagnosis between Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Leuk Res 2021 01 8;100:106491. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, 1 Samory Mashela St., 117998, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

The differentiation between Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BL) and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is sometimes complicated. Laboratory findings that favor BL (e.g., surface expression of μ heavy chain and/or one of the light chains of immunoglobulin, FAB L3 morphology of blasts, MYC gene rearrangements) are not always present simultaneously. Our previous work demonstrated that BL differed from Ig(+) BCP-ALL by expression of Ig and other surface markers. In the current study, we have evaluated additional flow cytometric markers for reliable differentiation between BL and BCP-ALL. Among three studied surface antigens (CD44, CD38, CD58), only CD58 demonstrated significantly higher expression in BL as compared to BCP-ALL. Moreover, BL cases were associated with an increased level of Ki-67 and a higher percentage of cells in the S-phase of cell cycle. These two features reflect an aggressive proliferative potential of BL. Thus, when BL is suspected and results of surface Ig evaluation are controversial, the flow cytometric analysis of CD58, Ki-67 and cell cycle could assist in the differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2020.106491DOI Listing
January 2021

HSCT is effective in patients with PSTPIP1-associated myeloid-related proteinemia inflammatory (PAMI) syndrome.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Immunology, Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1-associated myeloid-related proteinemia inflammatory (PAMI) syndrome is a novel genetic disorder, causing hypercalprotectinemia and hyperzincemia with inflammatory complications accompanied by cytopenia. Immunosuppressive and/or anticytokine therapy is of limited effect.

Objectives: Because of cytokine production in nonhematopoietic tissues, the potential therapeutic effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in autoinflammatory disorders, including PAMI syndrome, has remained uncertain.

Methods: Five patients with PAMI syndrome underwent allogeneic HSCT with myeloablative (4) or reduced-intensity (1) conditioning regimens. Lack of PAMI disease control served as indication for the HSCT in 4 patients and myelodysplastic syndrome development in 1.

Results: All 5 patients engrafted; however, 1 patient at day +13 developed hemophagocytic syndrome, followed by graft rejection at day +17. After 5.5 months, a second HSCT was performed from an alternative donor. A further patient at day +116 developed an intense inflammatory syndrome with significant serositis and severe mitral and aortic valve regurgitation, controlled with adalimumab, tacrolimus, and prednisone. No other noninfectious inflammatory episodes, or acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease, occurred in any patient. At the last follow-up (median, 2.2 years), all 5 patients have predominantly or complete donor chimerism and adequate immune recovery and are free of any PAMI symptoms.

Conclusions: Allogeneic HSCT seems to be an effective option to cure cytopenia and severe autoinflammation in PAMI syndrome and may be a curative option for other proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1-associated inflammatory disorders with poor therapeutic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.11.043DOI Listing
December 2020

T-cell tracking, safety, and effect of low-dose donor memory T-cell infusions after αβ T cell-depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 17;56(4):900-908. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Dmitriy Rogachev National Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

The delayed recovery of adaptive immunity underlies transplant-related mortality (TRM) after αβ T cell-depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We tested the use of low-dose memory donor lymphocyte infusions (mDLIs) after engraftment of αβ T cell-depleted grafts.A cohort of 131 pediatric patients (median age 9 years) were grafted with αβ T cell-depleted products from either haplo (n = 79) or unrelated donors (n = 52). After engraftment, patients received mDLIs prepared by CD45RA depletion. Cell dose was escalated monthly from 25 × 10 to 100 × 10/kg (haplo) and from 100 × 10 to 300 × 10 /kg (MUD). In a subcohort of 16 patients, T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire profiling with deep sequencing was used to track T-cell clones and to evaluate the contribution of mDLI to the immune repertoire.In total, 343 mDLIs were administered. The cumulative incidence (CI) of grades II and III de novo acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 5% and 2%, respectively, and the CI of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 7%. Half of the patients with undetectable CMV-specific T cells before mDLI recovered CMV-specific T cells. TCR repertoire profiling confirmed that mDLI-derived T cells significantly contribute to the TCR repertoire up to 1 year after HSCT and include persistent, CMV-specific T-cell clones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01128-2DOI Listing
April 2021

SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma therapy in pediatric patient after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Transfus Apher Sci 2021 Feb 1;60(1):102983. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Immunocompromised patients, including HSCT recipients, may have a poor prognosis after contracting COVID-19 due to the absence of a pathogen-specific adaptive immune response. One of the possible options for severe COVID-19 treatment may be the transfusion of hyperimmune SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma. A 9-month-old girl with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia received an HSCT from a haploidentical donor. On day +99, during routine virologic monitoring, SARS-CoV-2 was detected without any clinical symptoms. On day +144, the child developed a polysegmental bilateral viral pneumonia with 60 % damage to the lung tissue and confirm a positive SARS-Cov-2 results in throat swab. The patient was treated with tocilizumab and three doses of fresh frozen plasma obtained from a SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patient. Therapy with tocilizumab and three doses of fresh frozen plasma was well tolerated. In spite of full resolution of the lung lesions, complete elimination of SARS-CoV-2 has not been achieved 4 months after the first detection, which is due to persistence of secondary immunodeficiency after HSCT and the lack of reconstitution of the adaptive immune response. This case represents a demonstration of an atypical course of COVID-19 and the delayed development of lung lesions, which was most likely associated with the features of the patient's immune status after HSCT. SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma in combination with other therapeutic approaches is one of the possible curative options for this clinical situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2020.102983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604030PMC
February 2021

Quantification of NG2-positivity for the precise prediction of KMT2A gene rearrangements in childhood acute leukemia.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Feb 20;60(2):88-99. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

It has long been known that there is a link between neuron glial antigen 2 (NG2) surface expression and KMT2A gene rearrangements in acute leukemia (AL). However, the exact levels of NG2 positivity that predict the presence of KMT2A rearrangement are not known. The current study focuses on a cohort of 505 pediatric AL patients who showed any level of positive NG2 expression (greater than 1% of cells) for whom comprehensive genetic data were available. NG2 expression was measured as either the percentage of positive cells or the number of molecules on the cell surface. KMT2A gene rearrangements were identified by FISH. The fusion partner was detected with RT-PCR, LDI-PCR or anchored multiplex PCR followed by high-throughput sequencing. KMT2A-positive samples comprised a substantial proportion of the NG2-positive cohort (180 of 505, 36%), with a total of 19 different types of translocation. Despite its occurrence in other AL genetic subgroups, NG2 expression was significantly increased in AL patients with KMT2A rearrangements in terms of both the cell percentage and number of molecules per cell. The threshold levels (TL) for NG2-positivity were established by ROC analysis of the whole cohort and separately for children less than 1 years old and older with lymphoblastic (ALL) and myeloid (AML) leukemia. The lowest TL was defined in infants with ALL (7%), while in older children, the threshold was higher (12%). In AML patients, the situation was reversed, with 28% NG2-positivity in infants and 14% in patients >1 year old. The defined TLs resulted in improved diagnostic performance compared to the conventional thresholds of 10% and 20% for all patient groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22915DOI Listing
February 2021

Efficacy of romiplostim in treatment of thrombocytopenia in children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

Br J Haematol 2021 01 31;192(2):366-374. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Immunology, Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a life-threatening primary immunodeficiency associated with bleeding of variable severity due to thrombocytopenia. Correction of the thrombocytopenia is of paramount importance for most WAS patients. We report a retrospective analysis of the safety and efficacy of romiplostim treatment in reducing thrombocytopenia and bleeding tendency in 67 children (median age 1·3 years) with genetically confirmed WAS, followed in eight months (range, 1-12 months). Complete or partial primary responses regarding platelet counts were observed in 22 (33%) and 18 (27%) subjects, respectively. Yet, even in the non-responder group, the risk of haemorrhagic events decreased significantly, to 21%, after the first month of treatment. The responses tended to be durable and stable over time, with no significant fluctuations in platelets counts. The results of this retrospective study of a large cohort of WAS patients demonstrates that romiplostim can be used to increase platelet counts and reduce the risks of life-threatening bleeding in WAS patients awaiting haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or forgoing the procedure for various reasons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17174DOI Listing
January 2021

Complex Multisystem Phenotype With Immunodeficiency Associated With Mutations: Reports of Three Patients and Review of the Literature.

Front Pediatr 2020 15;8:577. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Dmitry Rogachev National Research and Clinical Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Mutations in the neuroblastoma-amplified sequence () gene were originally described in patients with skeletal dysplasia or isolated liver disease of variable severity. Subsequent publications reported a more complex phenotype. Among multisystemic clinical symptoms, we were particularly interested in the immunological consequences of the deficiency. Clinical and laboratory data of 3 patients ages 13, 6, and 5 in whom bi-allelic mutations had been detected via next-generation sequencing were characterized. Literature review of 23 publications describing 74 patients was performed. We report three Russian patients with compound heterozygous mutations of the gene who had combined immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, low T-cells, and near-absent B-cells, along with liver disease, skeletal dysplasia, optic-nerve atrophy, and dysmorphic features. Analysis of the data of 74 previously reported patients who carried various mutations demonstrated that although the most severe form of liver disease seems to require disruption of the N-terminal or middle part of , mutations of variable localizations in the gene have been associated with some form of liver disease, as well as immunological disorders. deficiency has a broad phenotype, and referral to an immunologist should be made in order to screen for immunodeficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522312PMC
September 2020

Primary Immunodeficiencies in Russia: Data From the National Registry.

Front Immunol 2020 6;11:1491. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Tatarstan Pediatric Republican Clinical Hospital, Kazan, Russia.

Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a group of rare genetic disorders with a multitude of clinical symptoms. Characterization of epidemiological and clinical data via national registries has proven to be a valuable tool of studying these diseases. The Russian PID registry was set up in 2017, by the National Association of Experts in PID (NAEPID). It is a secure, internet-based database that includes detailed clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic data on PID patients of all ages. The registry contained information on 2,728 patients (60% males, 40% females), from all Federal Districts of the Russian Federation. 1,851/2,728 (68%) were alive, 1,426/1,851 (77%) were children and 425/1,851 (23%) were adults. PID was diagnosed before the age of 18 in 2,192 patients (88%). Antibody defects (699; 26%) and syndromic PID (591; 22%) were the most common groups of PID. The minimum overall PID prevalence in the Russian population was 1.3:100,000 people; the estimated PID birth rate is 5.7 per 100,000 live births. The number of newly diagnosed patients per year increased dramatically, reaching the maximum of 331 patients in 2018. The overall mortality rate was 9.8%. Genetic testing has been performed in 1,740 patients and genetic defects were identified in 1,344 of them (77.2%). The median diagnostic delay was 2 years; this varied from 4 months to 11 years, depending on the PID category. The shortest time to diagnosis was noted in the combined PIDs-in WAS, DGS, and CGD. The longest delay was observed in AT, NBS, and in the most prevalent adult PID: HAE and CVID. Of the patients, 1,622 had symptomatic treatment information: 843 (52%) received IG treatment, mainly IVIG (96%), and 414 (25%) patients were treated with biological drugs. HSCT has been performed in 342/2,728 (16%) patients, of whom 67% are currently alive, 17% deceased, and 16% lost to follow-up. Three patients underwent gene therapy for WAS; all are currently alive. Here, we describe our first analysis of the epidemiological features of PID in Russia, allowing us to highlight the main challenges around PID diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7424007PMC
May 2021

Pediatric diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor: Two clinical cases of successful targeted therapy.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 12 25;67(12):e28478. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Center for Neuroscience and Behavioral Medicine, Brain Tumor Institute, Washington, District of Columbia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28478DOI Listing
December 2020

Platelet function and bleeding in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma patients on ibrutinib.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 10;18(10):2672-2684

City Clinical Hospital named after S.P. Botkin, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Therapy with irreversible Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is associated with bleeding.

Objectives: To propose the predictive markers of such bleeding, as well as mechanisms responsible for decreased bleeding at later therapy stages.

Patients/methods: We investigate platelet functional activity in 50 CLL and 16 MCL patients on ibrutinib using flow cytometry and light transmission aggregometry.

Results: Prior to treatment, both patient groups had decreased platelet counts; impaired aggregation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP); and decreased binding of CD62P, PAC1, and annexin V upon stimulation. Bleeding in patients treated with ibrutinib was observed in 28 (56%) CLL patients, who had decreased aggregation with ADP and platelet count before therapy. Their platelet count on therapy did not change, platelet aggregation with ADP steadily improved, and aggregation with collagen first decreased and then increased in anticorrellation with bleeding. Bleeding in MCL was observed in 10 (62%) patients, who had decreased dense granule release before therapy. ADP and ristocetin induced platelet aggregation in ibrutinib-treated MCL patients increased on therapy, while collagen-induced aggregation evolved similarly to CLL patients.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that ibrutinib-dependent bleeding in CLL patients involves three mechanisms: decreased platelet count (the most important discriminator between bleeding and non-bleeding patients), impaired platelet response to ADP caused by CLL, and inhibition by ibrutinib. Initially, ibrutinib shifts the balance to bleeding, but then it is restored because of the improved response to ADP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14943DOI Listing
October 2020

FLAER-negative CD15+ neutrophils can be used for the simplified screening of suspected PNH cases.

Int J Lab Hematol 2020 Oct 25;42(5):589-593. Epub 2020 May 25.

Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Background: The flow cytometry analysis of GPI-linked proteins on red blood cells and leukocytes is crucial for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) diagnostics. However, the commonly used multicolor panels cannot be implemented in low-resourced hematology laboratories. In order to develop a simple prediagnostic test for PNH screening, we analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of the two-color (FLAER/CD15) detection of GPI-deficient neutrophils.

Methods: We reanalyzed multicolor data set of 1594 peripheral blood samples of patients screened for PNH applying only two markers (FLAER/CD15). The quantitative positivity/negativity was reported. Then, these results were compared in a blinded manner with previously obtained multicolor data from the same samples.

Results: Among the 1594 samples included in the study, 507 samples were PNH-positive by the multicolor assay. The two-color method revealed 510 PNH-positive samples. The detailed examination of this discrepancy revealed 12 false-positives and 9 false-negatives. Therefore, FLAER/CD15 screening method displayed 98.90% of the diagnostic specificity and 98.22% of the sensitivity.

Conclusion: This simple two-color evaluation of FLAER-negative neutrophils is a highly effective screening test for PNH. Although this approach is not intended to replace the multicolor diagnostic procedure, it could minimize the number of patients requiring a conventional multicolor flow cytometric assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13239DOI Listing
October 2020

Heterogeneity of Integrin αβ Function in Pediatric Immune Thrombocytopenia Revealed by Continuous Flow Cytometry Analysis.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 25;21(9). Epub 2020 Apr 25.

National Medical Research Centеr of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology named after Dmitry Rogachev, 1 Samory Mashela St, Moscow 117198, Russia.

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune condition primarily induced by the loss of immune tolerance to the platelet glycoproteins. Here we develop a novel flow cytometry approach to analyze integrin αβ functioning in ITP in comparison with Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) (negative control) and healthy pediatric donors (positive control). Continuous flow cytometry of Fura-Red-loaded platelets from whole hirudinated blood was used for the characterization of platelet responses to conventional activators. Calcium levels and fibrinogen binding were normalized to ionomycin-induced responses. Ex vivo thrombus formation on collagen was observed in parallel-plate flow chambers. Platelets from all ITP patients had significantly higher cytosolic calcium concentration in the quiescent state compared to healthy donors (15 ± 5 nM vs. 8 ± 5 nM), but calcium increases in response to all activators were normal. Clustering analysis revealed two subpopulations of ITP patients: the subgroup with high fibrinogen binding (HFB), and the subgroup with low fibrinogen binding (LFB) (8% ± 5% for LFB vs. 16% ± 3% for healthy donors in response to ADP). GT platelets had calcium mobilization (81 ± 23 nM), fibrinogen binding (5.1% ± 0.3%) and thrombus growth comparable to the LFB subgroup. Computational modeling suggested phospholipase C-dependent platelet pre-activation for the HFB subgroup and lower levels of functional integrin molecules for the LFB group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246588PMC
April 2020

Platelet function and blood coagulation system status in childhood essential thrombocythemia.

Platelets 2020 Nov 19;31(8):1001-1011. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Oncology and Immunology, Federal Research and Clinical Centre of Pediatric Hematology , Moscow, Russian Federation, Russia.

Childhood essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a rare chronic myeloproliferative disorder. The quality of life of ET patients may decrease as a result of ischemic and hemorrhagic complications of unclear origin. Our goal was to characterize the hemostatic system in children with ET. We genotyped and investigated blood samples from 20 children with ET in a prospective case series study using platelet aggregation, functional flow cytometry (FC) assay and standard clotting assays. Three children had a mutation, 4 had mutations in and 13 were triple-negative. Myelofibrosis in stage 1-2 was detected in 3 children. Three patients had bleeding episodes and seven had ischemic events. Aggregation in response to collagen, adenosine diphosphate, and ristomycin was decreased in all patients. In FC, significant changes in the whole patient group compared to the healthy children control group were decrease in the resting forward scatter and PAC1 binding (activated GPIIb/IIIa) level. For the activated platelets, dense granules release (by mepacrine), PAC1, and GPIIb/IIIa levels were significantly decreased. GPIb/V/IX, -selectin, and phosphatidylserine levels manifested only moderate differences. Forward and side scatter changes in response to stimulation (representing shape change) and dense granules release were significantly lower in the 3 patients with bleeding than in the 17 patients without hemorrhage. Activated partial thromboplastin time was slightly prolonged, prothrombin index was slightly shortened and thrombin time was normal, while fibrinogen was mildly decreased in the ET patients. It could be concluded that the observed platelet function defects could be related to bleeding in ET, and be potentially used as a marker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2019.1704710DOI Listing
November 2020

Control of graft-versus-host disease with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin, rituximab, and bortezomib in TCRαβ/CD19-depleted graft transplantation for leukemia in children: a single-center retrospective analysis of two GVHD-prophylaxis regimens.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 02 3;24(1):e13594. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Dmitriy Rogachev National Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Both acute GVHD and chronic GVHD remain the leading cause of morbidity and death after allogeneic HSCT. We conducted a retrospective analysis comparing two GVHD-prophylaxis regimens: 35 patients received "Regimen 1" (horse ATG, tacrolimus, and methotrexate) and 46 "Regimen 2" (rabbit ATG, rituximab, and peritransplant bortezomib). All 81 patients with a median age of 9 (0.6-23) years with ALL (n = 31) or AML (n = 50) in complete remission received TCRαβ/CD19-depleted transplants between May 2012 and October 2016, from 40 HLA-matched unrelated and 41 haploidentical donors. After a median follow-up of 3.9 years, the CI of acute GVHD II-IV was 15% (95% CI: 7-30) in the "Regimen 2" group and 34% (95% CI: -54) in the "Regimen 1" group, P = .05. "Regimen 2" was also more effective in the prevention of chronic GVHD; the CI at 1 year after HSCT was 7% (95% CI: 2-19) vs 31% (95% CI: 19-51), P = .005. The CI of relapse at 3 years adjusted for the GVHD-prophylaxis regimen groups 31% (95% CI: 19-51) for the "Regimen 1" vs 21% (95% CI: 11-37) for the "Regimen 2", P = .3. The retrospective observation suggests that the use of the rATG, rituximab, and bortezomib was associated with significantly lower rate of GVHD without the loss of anti-leukemic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13594DOI Listing
February 2020

Heterogeneity of childhood acute leukemia with mature B-cell immunophenotype.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2019 Nov 28;145(11):2803-2811. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, 1 Samory Mashela St., GSP-7, Moscow, 117997, Russia.

Background: Flow cytometry (FCM) plays a crucial role in the differential diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BL) and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). The presence of surface IgM (sIgM) alone or with light chain restriction indicates a mature blast phenotype (BIV by EGIL) and is usually observed in BL. However, sIgM expression could also be detected in transitional BCP-ALL cases. These similarities in immunophenotype and ambiguous correspondence with other laboratory findings may challenge the correct BL diagnostics.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the available data from immunophenotypic, morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic studies of 146 children (85 boys and 61 girls) with a median age of 10 years (range 0-18 years) who were diagnosed with BL and BCP-ALL. The blasts' immunophenotype was studied by multicolor FCM. The conventional cytogenetic analysis included G-banded karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

Results: In 54 children classified as BIV-ALL according to the EGIL, it was demonstrated that sIgM in a minority of cases can be associated with various types of BCP-ALL. Analysis of the antigen expression profile of 105 patients with verified BL (n = 21) and BCP-ALL (n = 84) showed significant differences in BL and the sIgM(+) vs BCP-ALL immunophenotype. Thus, even in cases of ambiguous sIgM expression, these two diseases could be reliably discriminated by complex immunophenotyping. Moreover, 10 patients (7 boys and 3 girls) with BL leukemic cells did not express sIgM, and they were diagnosed with BL on the basis of other laboratory and clinical signs.

Conclusions: In conclusion, our study shows that BIV subtype is heterogeneous group of leukemia including not only the BL, but also BCP-ALL. In ambiguous cases, only a combination of multiple immunophenotypic, cytomorphologic, and genetic diagnostic technologies can allow the precise discrimination of BL and BCP-ALL and selection of the appropriate treatment scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-03010-1DOI Listing
November 2019

Mechanisms of increased mitochondria-dependent necrosis in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome platelets.

Haematologica 2020 04 5;105(4):1095-1106. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

National Scientific and Practical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology named after Dmitry Rogachev, Moscow

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is associated with thrombocytopenia of unclear origin. We investigated real-time cytosolic calcium dynamics, mitochondrial membrane potential and phoszphatidylserine (PS) exposure in single fibrinogen-bound platelets using confocal microscopy. The WAS platelets had higher resting calcium levels, more frequent spikes, and their mitochondria more frequently lost membrane potential followed by PS exposure (in 22.9% of platelets 3.9% in controls; <0.001) after the collapse of the last mitochondria. This phenomenon was inhibited by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A, as well by xestospongin C and lack of extracellular calcium. Thapsigargin by itself caused accelerated cell death in the WAS platelets. The number of mitochondria was predictive of PS exposure: 33% of platelets from WAS patients with fewer than five mitochondria exposed PS, while only 12% did among those that had five or more mitochondria. Interestingly, healthy donor platelets with fewer mitochondria also more readily became procoagulant upon PAR1/PAR4 stimulation. Collapse of single mitochondria led to greater cytosolic calcium increase in WAS platelets if they had one to three mitochondria compared with platelets containing higher numbers. A computer systems biology model of platelet calcium homeostasis showed that smaller platelets with fewer mitochondria could have impaired calcium homeostasis because of higher surface-to-volume ratio and greater metabolic load, respectively. There was a correlation (C=0.81, <0.02) between the mean platelet size and platelet count in the WAS patients. We conclude that WAS platelets readily expose PS via a mitochondria-dependent necrotic mechanism caused by their smaller size, which could contribute to the development of thrombocytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.214460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109739PMC
April 2020

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with type 1 mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 05 3;14(1):97. Epub 2019 May 3.

Dmitriy Rogachev National Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Department of Immunology, 1, Samory Mashela str, 117997, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a chromosomal instability disorder that leads to aneuploidies of different chromosomes in various tissues. Type 1 MVA (MVA1) is caused by mutations in the budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 homolog beta (BUB1B) gene. The main clinical features of MVA1 syndrome are growth and mental retardation, central nervous system anomalies, microcephaly, and predisposition to cancers. There have been no reports of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in MVA patients.

Results: We report an 11-year old boy diagnosed with MVA1 syndrome. The BUB1B gene mutations c.498_505delAAACTTTA and c.1288 + 5G > A were detected using the next generation sequencing (NGS) method. The patient presented with cytopenia soon after birth, but remained stable until 9 years of age, when he developed myelodysplastic syndrome associated with monosomy of chromosome 7. Due to severe dependence on blood transfusions, a TCRαβ+/CD19+ depleted HSCT was performed from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) using a treosulfan-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen. The engraftment occurred, and no severe toxicity was observed soon after the HSCT, but on day + 47, graft rejection was detected. It was followed by prolonged pancytopenia and sepsis with multi-organ Enterococcus faecium infection, which led to the patient's death on day + 156 after HSCT.

Conclusions: In conclusion, we demonstrate that RIC HSCT with TCRαβ+/CD19+ depletion was well tolerated and resulted in complete hematologic recovery in our MVA1 patient, but, unfortunately, it was followed by rapid graft rejection. This fact needs to be taken into consideration for HSCT in other MVA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-019-1073-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500003PMC
May 2019