Publications by authors named "Gail C Megason"

10 Publications

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Immune profile differences between chronic GVHD and late acute GVHD: results of the ABLE/PBMTC 1202 studies.

Blood 2020 04;135(15):1287-1298

CancerCare Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Human graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) biology beyond 3 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is complex. The Applied Biomarker in Late Effects of Childhood Cancer study (ABLE/PBMTC1202, NCT02067832) evaluated the immune profiles in chronic GVHD (cGVHD) and late acute GVHD (L-aGVHD). Peripheral blood immune cell and plasma markers were analyzed at day 100 post-HSCT and correlated with GVHD diagnosed according to the National Institutes of Health consensus criteria (NIH-CC) for cGVHD. Of 302 children enrolled, 241 were evaluable as L-aGVHD, cGVHD, active L-aGVHD or cGVHD, and no cGVHD/L-aGVHD. Significant marker differences, adjusted for major clinical factors, were defined as meeting all 3 criteria: receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve ≥0.60, P ≤ .05, and effect ratio ≥1.3 or ≤0.75. Patients with only distinctive features but determined as cGVHD by the adjudication committee (non-NIH-CC) had immune profiles similar to NIH-CC. Both cGVHD and L-aGVHD had decreased transitional B cells and increased cytolytic natural killer (NK) cells. cGVHD had additional abnormalities, with increased activated T cells, naive helper T (Th) and cytotoxic T cells, loss of CD56bright regulatory NK cells, and increased ST2 and soluble CD13. Active L-aGVHD before day 114 had additional abnormalities in naive Th, naive regulatory T (Treg) cell populations, and cytokines, and active cGVHD had an increase in PD-1- and a decrease in PD-1+ memory Treg cells. Unsupervised analysis appeared to show a progression of immune abnormalities from no cGVHD/L-aGVHD to L-aGVHD, with the most complex pattern in cGVHD. Comprehensive immune profiling will allow us to better understand how to minimize L-aGVHD and cGVHD. Further confirmation in adult and pediatric cohorts is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146024PMC
April 2020

Benefits and challenges with diagnosing chronic and late acute GVHD in children using the NIH consensus criteria.

Blood 2019 07 1;134(3):304-316. Epub 2019 May 1.

British Columbia Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) and late acute graft-versus-host disease (L-aGVHD) are understudied complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children. The National Institutes of Health Consensus Criteria (NIH-CC) were designed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of cGVHD and to better classify graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) syndromes but have not been validated in patients <18 years of age. The objectives of this prospective multi-institution study were to determine: (1) whether the NIH-CC could be used to diagnose pediatric cGVHD and whether the criteria operationalize well in a multi-institution study; (2) the frequency of cGVHD and L-aGVHD in children using the NIH-CC; and (3) the clinical features and risk factors for cGVHD and L-aGVHD using the NIH-CC. Twenty-seven transplant centers enrolled 302 patients <18 years of age before conditioning and prospectively followed them for 1 year posttransplant for development of cGVHD. Centers justified their cGVHD diagnosis according to the NIH-CC using central review and a study adjudication committee. A total of 28.2% of reported cGVHD cases was reclassified, usually as L-aGVHD, following study committee review. Similar incidence of cGVHD and L-aGVHD was found (21% and 24.7%, respectively). The most common organs involved with diagnostic or distinctive manifestations of cGVHD in children include the mouth, skin, eyes, and lungs. Importantly, the 2014 NIH-CC for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome perform poorly in children. Past acute GVHD and peripheral blood grafts are major risk factors for cGVHD and L-aGVHD, with recipients ≥12 years of age being at risk for cGVHD. Applying the NIH-CC in pediatrics is feasible and reliable; however, further refinement of the criteria specifically for children is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019000216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6911839PMC
July 2019

[F]FDG-PET for evaluating pediatric Rosai-Dorfman disease.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Apr 22;35(3):177-180. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

e Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics , University of Mississippi Medical Center , Jackson , Mississippi , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2018.1484828DOI Listing
April 2018

Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia: A Case Series Indicating 2 Founder Variants in the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 10;39(7):573-575

*Department of Pediatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson †Choctaw Health Center, Philadelphia, MS.

Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia is a rare disorder causing thrombocytopenia that progresses to pancytopenia and bone marrow failure if untreated. It is caused by variants in the MPL gene which encodes the thrombopoeitin receptor. In this report, we review 5 cases of congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, all of whom belong to the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. There are 2 common variants in these cases: R90X and R537W. One variant was previously reported only once and had unclear significance at that time. With these variants identified, we hope to improve screening that results in earlier diagnosis in the Choctaw population in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000000904DOI Listing
October 2017

A trial of unrelated donor marrow transplantation for children with severe sickle cell disease.

Blood 2016 11 13;128(21):2561-2567. Epub 2016 Sep 13.

AABB Center for Cellular Therapies, Bethesda, MD.

Children with sickle cell disease experience organ damage, impaired quality of life, and premature mortality. Allogeneic bone marrow transplant from an HLA-matched sibling can halt disease progression but is limited by donor availability. A Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) phase 2 trial conducted from 2008 to 2014 enrolled 30 children aged 4 to 19 years; 29 were eligible for evaluation. The primary objective was 1-year event-free survival (EFS) after HLA allele-matched (at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci) unrelated donor transplant. The conditioning regimen included alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis included calcineurin inhibitor, short-course methotrexate, and methylprednisolone. Transplant indications included stroke (n = 12), transcranial Doppler velocity >200 cm/s (n = 2), ≥3 vaso-occlusive pain crises per year (n = 12), or ≥2 acute chest syndrome episodes (n = 4) in the 2 years preceding enrollment. Median follow-up was 26 months (range, 12-62 months); graft rejection was 10%. The 1- and 2-year EFS rates were 76% and 69%, respectively. The corresponding rates for overall survival were 86% and 79%. The day 100 incidence rate of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 28%, and the 1-year incidence rate of chronic GVHD was 62%; 38% classified as extensive. There were 7 GVHD-related deaths. A 34% incidence of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome was noted in the first 6 months. Although the 1-year EFS met the prespecified target of ≥75%, this regimen cannot be considered sufficiently safe for widespread adoption without modifications to achieve more effective GVHD prophylaxis. The BMT CTN #0601 trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00745420.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-05-715870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5123194PMC
November 2016

Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

Vasc Cell 2014 1;6:12. Epub 2014 Jun 1.

Cancer Institute, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, 39216-4505 Jackson, MS, USA ; Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.

The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an innovative therapeutic strategy in TNBC therapy by using sunitinib plus γ-secretase inhibitor to simultaneously target angiogenesis and CSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2045-824X-6-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4049452PMC
June 2014

Compound heterozygous mutation with a novel splice donor region DNA sequence variant in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene in malignant paraganglioma.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010 Mar;54(3):473-5

Department of Pediatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors in children. Apparently sporadic cases of PGL may harbor germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) gene. SDHB mutations are associated with malignant disease. We report a 13-year-old African American boy with diffusely metastatic PGL and compound heterozygous mutation leading to a novel splice donor region DNA sequence variant in the SDHB gene. Family history was positive for non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia and pituitary adenoma. After surgical resection of the primary PGL and chemotherapy, he was treated with metaiodobenzy lguanidine (MIBG) combined with arsenic trioxide. At 3-year follow-up, he had stable disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22338DOI Listing
March 2010

Phase I trial of irofulven (MGI 114) in pediatric patients with solid tumors.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006 Aug;47(2):163-8

Texas Children's Cancer Center/Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Purpose: We performed a Phase I trial of irofulven (MGI 114) to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and the plasma pharmacokinetics of irofulven in children < or=21 years of age with refractory/recurrent malignancies.

Experimental Design: Thirty-five patients were entered into the study, of whom 34 were eligible. Patients received Irofulven daily x 5 days every 28 days over 10 min, following pre-treatment with ondansetron (0.45 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (12 mg/m(2)). The initial dose of irofulven was 8 mg/m(2) daily, with subsequent escalations to 10, 13, and 17 mg/m(2). Plasma pharmacokinetic samples were obtained in a subset patients.

Results: Thirty-two patients were assessable for toxicity, and 30 were assessable for response. In heavily pre-treated patients, dose-limiting thrombocytopenia was observed in two patients at the 8 mg/m(2)/day, and in one patient at the 6 mg/m(2)/day dose level. In less heavily pre-treated patients, proteinuria and elevated creatinine were dose limiting in two patients at the 17 mg/m(2)/day dose level. At 13 mg/m(2)/day, constipation, hyperkalemia with elevated creatinine, and thrombocytopenia was dose limiting in three patients. There were no complete or partial responses. One patient with poorly differentiated carcinoma had stable disease and received 11 courses of therapy. Patients demonstrated a lower systemic exposure and greater clearance than adults treated at similar dose levels.

Conclusion: The MTD of irofulven administered daily x 5 every 28 days with concomitant ondansetron and dexamethasone is 6 mg/m(2)/day in heavily pre-treated patients and 10 mg/m(2)/day in less heavily pre-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.20686DOI Listing
August 2006

Cryptococcal sepsis diagnosed by bone marrow examination.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2004 Aug;26(8):526-8

Department of Pediatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA.

Disseminated cryptococcal disease is often associated with immunodeficient states. The diagnosis is usually made using standard antigen tests on serum and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with known immunodeficiency. Often, blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures also yield Cryptococcus neoformans. The authors describe a child whose diagnosis remained elusive until a bone marrow aspiration, performed as part of an evaluation for suspected neoplasm, revealed the offending organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mph.0000130218.49155.09DOI Listing
August 2004