Publications by authors named "Gaetano Pannitteri"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Modulating the dose-rate differently affects the responsiveness of human epithelial prostate- and mesenchymal rhabdomyosarcoma-cancer cell line to radiation.

Int J Radiat Biol 2020 06 23;96(6):823-835. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Radiology, Radiotherapy, Oncology, Anatomopathology, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Radiation therapy (RT), by using ionizing radiation (IR), destroys cancer cells inducing DNA damage. Despite several studies are continuously performed to identify the best curative dose of IR, the role of dose-rate, IR delivered per unit of time, on tumor control is still largely unknown. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines were irradiated with 2 or 10 Gy delivered at dose-rates of 1.5, 2.5, 5.5 and 10.1 Gy/min. Cell-survival rate and cell cycle distribution were evaluated by clonogenic assays and flow cytometry, respectively. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by cytometry. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assessed the expression of anti-oxidant-related factors including NRF2, SODs, CAT and GPx4 and miRNAs (miR-22, -126, -210, -375, -146a, -34a). Annexin V and caspase-8, -9 and -3 activity were assessed to characterize cell death. Senescence was determined by assessing β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity. Immunoblotting was performed to assess the expression/activation of: i) phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX), markers of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs); ii) p19, p21 and p27, senescence-related-markers; iii) p62, LC3-I and LC3-II, regulators of autophagy; iv) ATM, RAD51, DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and Ku80, mediators of DSBs repair. Low dose-rate (LDR) more efficiently induced apoptosis and senescence in RMS while high dose-rate (HDR) necrosis in PCa. This paralleled with a lower ability of LDR-RMS and HDR-PCa irradiated cells to activate DSBs repair. Modulating the dose rate did not differently affect the anti-oxidant ability of cancer cells. The present results indicate that a stronger cytotoxic effect was induced by modulating the dose-rate in a cancer cell-dependent manner, this suggesting that choose the dose-rate based on the individual patient's tumor characteristics could be strategic for effective RT exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2020.1739774DOI Listing
June 2020

Long-term prediction of adherence to continuous positive air pressure therapy for the treatment of moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Sleep Med 2018 03 8;43:66-70. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.

Background: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a highly effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, poor adherence is a limiting factor, and a significant proportion of patients are unable to tolerate CPAP. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of long-term non-compliance with CPAP.

Methods: CPAP treatment was prescribed to all consecutive patients with moderate or severe OSAS (AHI ≥15 events/h) (n = 295) who underwent a full-night CPAP titration study at home between February 1, 2002 and December 1, 2016. Adherence was defined as CPAP use for at least 4 h per night and five days per week. Subjects had periodical follow-up visits including clinical and biochemical evaluation and assessment of adherence to CPAP.

Results: Median follow-up observation was 74.8 (24.2/110.9) months. The percentage of OSAS patients adhering to CPAP was 41.4% (42.3% in males and 37.0% in females), and prevalence was significantly higher in severe OSAS than in moderate (51.8% vs. 22.1%; p < 0.001; respectively). At multivariate analysis, lower severity of OSAS (HR = 0.66; CI 95 0.46-0.94) p < 0.023), cigarette smoking (HR = 1.72; CI 95 1.13-2.61); p = 0.011), and previous cardiovascular events (HR = 1.95; CI 95 1.03-3.70; p = 0.04) were the only independent predictors of long-term non-adherence to CPAP after controlling for age, gender, and metabolic syndrome.

Conclusions: In our cohort of patients with moderate/severe OSAS who were prescribed CPAP therapy, long-term compliance to treatment was present in less than half of the patients. Adherence was positively associated with OSAS severity and negatively associated with cigarette smoking and previous cardiovascular events at baseline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2017.09.032DOI Listing
March 2018

Severity of OSAS, CPAP and cardiovascular events: A follow-up study.

Eur J Clin Invest 2018 May 3;48(5):e12908. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Previous studies suggested obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) as a major risk factor for incident cardiovascular events. However, the relationship between OSAS severity, the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and the development of cardiovascular disease is still matter of debate.

Study Objectives: The aim was to test the association between OSAS and cardiovascular events in patients with concomitant cardio-metabolic diseases and the potential impact of CPAP therapy on cardiovascular outcomes.

Methods: Prospective observational cohort study of consecutive outpatients with suspected metabolic disorders who had complete clinical and biochemical workup including polysomnography because of heavy snoring and possible OSAS. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE).

Results: Median follow-up was 81.3 months, including 434 patients (2701.2 person/years); 83 had a primary snoring, 84 had mild, 93 moderate and 174 severe OSAS, respectively. The incidence of MACCE was 0.8% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-2.1) in primary snorers and 2.1% per year (95% CI 1.5-2.8) for those with OSAS. A positive association was observed between event-free survival and OSAS severity (log-rank test; P = .041). A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed obesity (HR = 8.011, 95% CI 1.071-59.922, P = .043), moderate OSAS (vs non-OSAS HR = 3.853, 95% CI 1.069-13.879, P = .039) and severe OSAS (vs non-OSAS HR = 3.540, 95% CI 1.026-12.217, P = .045) as predictors of MACCE. No significant association was observed between CPAP treatment and MACCE (log-rank test; P = .227).

Conclusions: Our findings support the role of moderate/severe OSAS as a risk factor for incident MACCE. CPAP treatment was not associated with a lower rate of MACCE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.12908DOI Listing
May 2018

PNPLA3 variant and portal/periportal histological pattern in patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a possible role for oxidative stress.

Sci Rep 2017 Nov 17;7(1):15756. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopaedics Sciences, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is influenced by predisposing genetic variations, dysmetabolism, systemic oxidative stress, and local cellular and molecular cross-talks. Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene I148M variant is a known determinant of NAFLD. Aims were to evaluate whether PNPLA3 I148M variant was associated with a specific histological pattern, hepatic stem/progenitor cell (HpSC) niche activation and serum oxidative stress markers. Liver biopsies were obtained from 54 NAFLD patients. The activation of HpSC compartment was evaluated by the extension of ductular reaction (DR); hepatic stellate cells, myofibroblasts (MFs), and macrophages were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Systemic oxidative stress was assessed measuring serum levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp) and 8-isoprostaglandin F (8-iso-PGF). PNPLA3 carriers showed higher steatosis, portal inflammation and HpSC niche activation compared to wild-type patients. DR was correlated with NAFLD activity score (NAS) and fibrosis score. Serum 8-iso-PGF were significantly higher in I148M carriers compared to non-carriers and were correlated with DR and portal inflammation. sNox2-dp was correlated with NAS and with HpSC niche activation. In conclusion, NAFLD patients carrying PNPLA3 I148M are characterized by a prominent activation of HpSC niche which is associated with a more aggressive histological pattern (portal fibrogenesis) and increased oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15943-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693899PMC
November 2017

Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Effect on Insulin Resistance.

Am J Gastroenterol 2017 Dec 24;112(12):1832-1839. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

I Clinica Medica, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: The prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is increasing in western countries, because of changes in lifestyle and dietary habits. Mediterranean Diet (Med-Diet) is effective for cardiovascular prevention, but its relationship with NAFLD has been scarcely investigated.

Methods: We included 584 consecutive outpatients presenting with one or more cardiovascular risk factor such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), arterial hypertension, overweight/obesity, and dyslipidemia. Liver steatosis was assessed using ultrasonography. Med-Diet adherence was investigated by a validated semiquantitative nine-item dietary questionnaire; patients were divided into low, intermediate, and high adherence. Insulin resistance was defined by the 75th percentile of homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; ≥3.8).

Results: The mean age was 56.2±12.4 years and 38.2% were women. Liver steatosis was present in 82.7%, and its prevalence decreased from low to high adherence group (96.5% vs. 71.4%, P<0.001). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio (OR): 2.913; P=0.002), log (ALT) (OR: 6.186; P<0.001), Med-Diet adherence (intermediate vs. low OR: 0.115; P=0.041, high vs. low OR: 0.093; P=0.030), T2DM (OR: 3.940; P=0.003), and high waist circumference (OR: 3.012; P<0.001) were associated with NAFLD. Among single foods, low meat intake (OR: 0.178; P<0.001) was inversely significantly associated with NAFLD. In 334 non-diabetic NAFLD patients, age (OR: 1.035, P=0.025), high waist circumference (OR: 7.855, P<0.001), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 2.152, P=0.011), and Log (ALT) (OR: 2.549, P=0.002) were directly associated with HOMA-IR, whereas Med-Diet score was inversely associated (OR: 0.801, P=0.018).

Conclusions: We found an inverse relationship between Med-Diet and NAFLD prevalence. Among NAFLD patients, good adherence to Med-Diet was associated with lower insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that Med-Diet may be a beneficial nutritional approach in NAFLD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2017.371DOI Listing
December 2017

Spleen dimensions are inversely associated with lysosomal acid lipase activity in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Intern Emerg Med 2017 Dec 12;12(8):1159-1165. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Fatty liver and splenomegaly are typical features of genetic lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency. No data in adult patients with non-genetic reduction of LAL activity are available. We investigate the association between spleen dimensions and LAL activity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients, in whom a reduced LAL activity has been reported. We include 425 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal ultrasound to evaluate hepatic steatosis and spleen dimensions. LAL activity was measured with dried blood spot method (Lalistat2). NAFLD was present in 74.1% of screened patients. Higher median spleen longitudinal diameter (10.6 vs. 9.9 cm; p < 0.001) and spleen area (SA) (32.7 vs. 27.7 cm; p < 0.001), together with a higher and proportion of splenomegaly (17.8 vs. 5.5%, p = 0.001), are present in patients with NAFLD compared to those without. In NAFLD patients, median LAL activity is 0.9 nmol/spot/h. LAL activity is lower in 56 patients with splenomegaly, as compared to those without (p = 0.009). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (above median, OR 0.344; p = 0.003), LAL activity (below median, OR 2.206, p = 0.028), and platelets (OR 0.101, p = 0.002) are significantly associated with splenomegaly. NAFLD patients disclose a relatively high prevalence of spleen enlargement and splenomegaly, which are significantly associated with a reduced LAL activity, suggesting that LAL may contribute to spleen enlargement in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-017-1746-1DOI Listing
December 2017

Treatment and Response to Statins: Gender-related Differences.

Curr Med Chem 2017 ;24(24):2628-2638

Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 155, 00144 Rome. Italy.

Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings. Specifically, benefits outweigh disadvantages of statin therapy in women with a high CVD risk, while several doubts exist for the primary prevention of women at low-intermediate CVD risk. Furthermore, disparities between women and men in medication adherence may influence statin efficacy in CVD prevention. The sex-dependent impact of adverse side effects is one of the reasons advocated for explaining the gender gap, but it is not evidence-proved. The present review summarizes the sex and gender differences in the use of statins, pointing out new perspectives and opening issues in sex-tailored CVD prevention strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867324666161118094711DOI Listing
November 2017

Ivabradine in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock: A Preliminary Randomized Prospective Study.

Clin Drug Investig 2016 Oct;36(10):849-56

Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrologic, Anaesthesiologic and Geriatric Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background And Objective: An elevated heart rate (HR) is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity in patients with acute heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of ivabradine, a selective HR-lowering agent, in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Methods: Patients with post-AMI CS were randomized to standard treatment (SDT, 28 patients) or to standard treatment plus ivabradine (I + SDT, 30 patients). In the presence of orotracheal intubation (OTI), ivabradine was administered by nasogastric intubation. HR, BP, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, NT-proBNP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and diastolic function (LVDF) were monitored at specific times after the onset of AMI. The primary (surrogate) end-point was the in-hospital halving of plasma NT-proBNP levels. The secondary end-points were cardiovascular death, hospital re-admission for worsening HF, and clinical and haemodynamic improvement.

Results: Treatment groups were statistically similar with regard to age, gender distribution, cardiovascular risk factors, number of diseased vessels and overall treated lesions, AMI site and occurrence of OTI. In-hospital mortality was double in the SDT group in comparison with the I + SDT group (14.3 vs. 6.7 %), but the difference was not statistically significant. HR, BP, NT-proBNP and LVEF favorably changed in both groups, but the change was more relevant in the I + SDT group. LVDF significantly changed only in the I + SDT group (p < 0.01). Patients in the I + SDT group did not experience adverse effects.

Conclusion: Ivabradine in CS complicating AMI is safe, is associated with a short-term favourable outcome and can be effectively administered by nasogastric intubation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40261-016-0424-9DOI Listing
October 2016

Effectiveness of two-year clopidogrel + aspirin in abolishing the risk of very late thrombosis after drug-eluting stent implantation (from the TYCOON [two-year ClOpidOgrel need] study).

Am J Cardiol 2009 Nov 26;104(10):1357-61. Epub 2009 Sep 26.

Department of Heart and Great Vessels Attilio Reale, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

It remains unclear whether dual antiplatelet therapy >12 months might carry a better prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DESs). To address the hypothesis that in the real world the risk of very late thrombosis after PCI with DESs can be decreased by an extended use of clopidogrel, we set up the Two-Year ClOpidOgrel Need (TYCOON) registry and prospectively investigated the impact on very late thrombosis of 12- versus 24-month dual antiplatelet regimens in an unselected population. The registry enrolled 897 consecutive patients who underwent PCI with stenting from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2004, and had dual antiplatelet therapy. All patients had a 4-year clinical follow-up. In the 447 patients with DES implantation, the dual antiplatelet regimen after PCI was given for 12 months in the 173 patients treated in 2003 (12-month group) and for 24 months in the 274 patients treated in 2004 (24-month group). Comparison between groups did not reveal any significant difference in baseline clinical characteristics, angiographic and procedural features, and major adverse cardiac events. During follow-up, there were 5 cases of stent thrombosis after PCI in the 12-month DES group and 1 case in the 24-month DES group (p = 0.02). Specifically, there were 2 cases of subacute thrombosis (1 in each group), no case of late thrombosis, and 4 cases of very late thrombosis occurring at 13, 15, 17, and 23 months after DES implantation in the 12-month group only. In conclusion, a 2-year dual antiplatelet regimen with aspirin and clopidogrel can prevent the occurrence of very late stent thrombosis after PCI with DESs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.07.002DOI Listing
November 2009

Triterpenoids as new promising anticancer drugs.

Anticancer Drugs 2009 Nov;20(10):880-92

Department of Hematology, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Triterpenoids are structurally diverse organic compounds, characterized by a basic backbone modified in multiple ways, allowing the formation of more than 20 000 naturally occurring triterpenoid varieties. Several triterpenoids, including ursolic and oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, celastrol, pristimerin, lupeol, and avicins possess antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties. To improve antitumor activity, some synthetic triterpenoid derivatives have been synthesized, including cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9 (11)-dien-28-oic (CDDO), its methyl ester (CDDO-Me), and imidazolide (CDDO-Im) derivatives. Of these, CDDO, CDDO-Me, and betulinic acid have shown promising antitumor activities and are presently under evaluation in phase I studies. Triterpenoids are highly multifunctional and the antitumor activity of these compounds is measured by their ability to block nuclear factor-kappaB activation, induce apoptosis, inhibit signal transducer, and activate transcription and angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0b013e328330fd90DOI Listing
November 2009

Vascular endothelial growth factors in cardiovascular medicine.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2008 Dec;9(12):1190-221

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy.

The discovery of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors has considerably improved the understanding of the development and function of endothelial cells. Each member of the VEGF family appears to have a specific function: VEGF-A induces angiogenesis (i.e. growth of new blood vessels from preexisting ones), placental growth factor mediates both angiogenesis and arteriogenesis (i.e. the formation of collateral arteries from preexisting arterioles), VEGF-C and VEGF-D act mainly as lymphangiogenic factors. The study of the biology of these endothelial growth factors has allowed a major progress in the comprehension of the genesis of the vascular system and its abnormalities observed in various pathologic conditions (atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease). The role of VEGF in the atherogenic process is still unclear, but actual evidence suggests both detrimental (development of a neoangiogenetic process within the atherosclerotic plaque) and beneficial (promotion of collateral vessel formation) effects. VEGF and other angiogenic growth factors (fibroblast growth factor), although initially promising in experimental studies and in initial phase I/II clinical trials in patients with ischemic heart disease or peripheral arterial occlusive disease, have subsequently failed to show significant therapeutic improvements in controlled clinical studies. Challenges still remain about the type or the combination of angiogenic factors to be administered, the form (protein vs. gene), the route, and the duration of administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0b013e3283117d37DOI Listing
December 2008

Coordinate release of angiogenic growth factors after acute myocardial infarction: evidence of a two-wave production.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2006 Dec;7(12):872-9

Institute of Heart and Great Vessels Attilio Reale, University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.

Background: Previous studies have shown that angiopoietic growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 are released after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It was suggested that the release of these factors, triggered by ischemia, may be related to a reparative neoangiogenetic process.

Methods: Plasma VEGF, Ang-2, HGF and TGF-beta levels were measured on admission (baseline) and at various times during the acute (0-48 h) and the subacute (48-240 h) phase in 44 patients with AMI.

Results: In the present study, we have explored in detail the kinetics of release of these growth factors after AMI with the precise aim of evaluating the existence of a double wave of release of these factors: (i) a first wave in the acute and (ii) a second one in the subacute period. The results of these analyses provided evidence for an early (peak at 24-28 h) and late (peak at approximately 170 h) increase of VEGF, Ang-2 and TGF-beta.

Conclusions: According to these data, we suggest that two waves of release of angiogenic factors occur after AMI. The early release makes part of an acute phase response, whereas the late release may underlie the induction of angiogenetic mechanisms involved in tissue reparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/01.JCM.0000253831.61974.b9DOI Listing
December 2006

Relationship between stress and circulating levels of S100B protein.

Brain Res 2004 Apr;1004(1-2):208-11

Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology Vittorio Erspamer, University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy.

It has been proposed that S100B can be a marker for several pathological conditions including brain traumas, blood-brain barrier disruption, and ischemia. Because the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is activated in these conditions, we investigated the role of glucocorticoids in the effects of stress on serum S100B. Restraint stress increased S100B levels in control and in adrenalectomized but not in corticosterone-injected rats. Adrenalectomy did not alter basal S100B. These results indicate a glucocorticoid-independent relationship between stress and S100B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2004.01.028DOI Listing
April 2004

Enoximone very low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography: a new test for detecting viability in severe myocardial dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2003 Sep;16(9):942-8

II Department of Cardiology, Institute of Heart and Great Vessels Attilio Reale, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy.

Relying on the synergistic action on contractility of enoximone and dobutamine when concomitantly infused, 25 patients with their first acute Q-wave anterior myocardial infarctions underwent conventional low-dose dobutamine echocardiography (LDE) and enoximone very-LDE to assess myocardial viability in severely dysfunctioning areas. Images were recorded at peak of pharmacodynamic effect of drugs and 4 months after revascularization. At peak-dose stage of LDE and enoximone very-LDE the regional infarct zone wall-motion score significantly decreased from the basal value of 25.6 +/- 2.9 to 16 +/- 6.0 (P <.001) and to 14.5 +/- 5.2 (P <.001), respectively. A high correlation was found by comparing the wall-motion score of each patient calculated at peak effect of combined drug administration with follow-up values (r(s) = 0.9). Enoximone very-LDE has proven to be a new test useful to evaluate viability in asynergic segments especially when the results of conventional tests are questionable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0894-7317(03)00478-4DOI Listing
September 2003

Exercise training counteracts the abnormal release of plasma endothelin-1 in normal subjects at risk for hypertension.

Ital Heart J 2003 Feb;4(2):107-12

II Division of Cardiology, Institute of Heart and Great Vessels Attilio Reale, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Background: The hypothesis that in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents exercise training could influence the systemic release of endothelin (ET)-1 during a provocative testing protocol was tested.

Methods: The provocative handgrip test was performed in four groups of healthy young age-matched males: offspring of hypertensive parents following a regular swimming exercise regimen (group A, n = 14); offspring of hypertensive parents and leading a sedentary lifestyle (group B, n = 11); normal volunteers with no family history of hypertension: sedentary (group C, n = 10), and following a regular swimming regimen (group D, n = 10). The plasma ET-1 was measured at baseline, after 4 min of handgrip exercise at 50% maximal capacity and following 2 (R2) and 10 (R10) min of recovery from handgrip.

Results: ET-1 plasma levels, within the normal range in all groups at baseline (group A 0.94 +/- 0.32 pg/ml, group B 0.84 +/- 0.26 pg/ml, group C 0.78 +/- 0.35 pg/ml, group D 0.85 +/- 0.26, p = NS) showed a progressive and significant increase in group B during and after handgrip exercise (peak handgrip 1.08 +/- 0.5 pg/ml, p = NS; R2 1.35 +/- 0.36 pg/ml, p < 0.05; R10 2.76 +/- 0.75 pg/ml, p < 0.01). Significant differences were found at R2 and R10 when the ET-1 levels measured in group B were compared to those observed in group A, group C and group D. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the serum levels of ET-1 significantly contributed to predict handgrip-induced changes when the diastolic blood pressure was the dependent variable.

Conclusions: Routine aerobic exercise appeared to counteract the handgrip-induced abnormal release of plasma ET-1 and may favorably affect the preclinical endothelial alterations seen in healthy offspring of hypertensive parents.
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February 2003