Publications by authors named "Gaelle Hardy"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

MyoNeuroGastroIntestinal Encephalopathy: Natural History and Means for Early Diagnosis.

Gastroenterology 2019 04 22;156(5):1525-1527.e4. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

INSERM U1016, CNRS UMR 8104, Université Paris 5, F-75014, Paris, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.12.011DOI Listing
April 2019

Diagnostic biologique des angioedèmes bradykiniques : les recommandations du CREAK.

Presse Med 2019 Jan 8;48(1 Pt 1):55-62. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Centre de référence national des angioedèmes (CREAK), 38043 Grenoble, France; Service d'immunologie, CHUGA, 38043 Grenoble, France.

Bradykinin mediated angioedema (BK-AE) can be associated either with C1Inhibitor deficiency (hereditary and acquired forms), either with normal C1Inh (hereditary form and drug induced AE as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors…). In case of high clinical suspicion of BK-AE, C1Inh exploration must be done at first: C1Inh function and antigenemy as well as C4 concentration. C1Inh deficiency is significant if the tests are below 50 % of the normal values and controlled a second time. In case of C1Inh deficiency, you have to identify hereditary from acquired forms. C1q and anti-C1Inh antibody tests are useful for acquired BK-AE. SERPING1 gene screening must be done if a hereditary angioedema is suspected, even if there is no family context (de novo mutation 15 %). If a hereditary BK-AE with normal C1Inh is suspected, F12 and PLG gene screening is suitable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2018.06.015DOI Listing
January 2019

Plasminogen gene mutation with normal C1 inhibitor hereditary angioedema: Three additional French families.

Allergy 2018 11 26;73(11):2237-2239. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13543DOI Listing
November 2018

Prevalence of rare mitochondrial DNA mutations in mitochondrial disorders.

J Med Genet 2013 Oct 11;50(10):704-14. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

IRCAN, CNRS UMR 7284/Inserm U1081/UNS, Faculté de Médecine, Nice, France.

Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases are rare disorders whose prevalence is estimated around 1 in 5000. Patients are usually tested only for deletions and for common mutations of mtDNA which account for 5-40% of cases, depending on the study. However, the prevalence of rare mtDNA mutations is not known.

Methods: We analysed the whole mtDNA in a cohort of 743 patients suspected of manifesting a mitochondrial disease, after excluding deletions and common mutations. Both heteroplasmic and homoplasmic variants were identified using two complementary strategies (Surveyor and MitoChip). Multiple correspondence analyses followed by hierarchical ascendant cluster process were used to explore relationships between clinical spectrum, age at onset and localisation of mutations.

Results: 7.4% of deleterious mutations and 22.4% of novel putative mutations were identified. Pathogenic heteroplasmic mutations were more frequent than homoplasmic mutations (4.6% vs 2.8%). Patients carrying deleterious mutations showed symptoms before 16 years of age in 67% of cases. Early onset disease (<1 year) was significantly associated with mutations in protein coding genes (mainly in complex I) while late onset disorders (>16 years) were associated with mutations in tRNA genes. MTND5 and MTND6 genes were identified as 'hotspots' of mutations, with Leigh syndrome accounting for the large majority of associated phenotypes.

Conclusions: Rare mitochondrial DNA mutations probably account for more than 7.4% of patients with respiratory chain deficiency. This study shows that a comprehensive analysis of mtDNA is essential, and should include young children, for an accurate diagnosis that is now accessible with the development of next generation sequencing technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2013-101604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3786640PMC
October 2013

Iodination increases the activity of verapamil derivatives in reversing PGP multidrug resistance.

Anticancer Res 2010 Jul;30(7):2553-9

University of Grenoble I, Department of Molecular Chemistry, UMR CNRS 5250, F-38041, Grenoble Cedex 9, France.

Iodinated derivatives of verapamil were synthesized and tested as P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agents. The ability of these compounds to revert MDR was evaluated on daunorubicin-resistant K562 cells, by measuring the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe of Pgp transport activity. One of the investigated compounds (16c) was found to be a more potent MDR reversal agent than verapamil and cyclosporin A, used as reference molecules. Further in vitro studies showed that compound 16c restored daunorubicin activity and, when used alone, did not induce cell death, cell cycle perturbation and modification of calcium channel activity in comparison with verapamil.
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July 2010

Urinary leukotriene E4 excretion is increased in type 1 diabetic patients: a quantification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2005 Dec 2;78(1-4):291-9. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Laboratory HP2 INSERM ESPRI EA3745, University of Medicine, F-38706 La Tronche Cedex, France.

Objective: Diabetes mellitus is associated with inflammatory state and increased cardiovascular mortality. Leukotrienes are arachidonic acid metabolites derived from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway that possess vasoactive, chemotactic and proinflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the urinary excretion of leukotriene E4 (LTE4) in type 1 diabetic subjects and healthy volunteers and (2) the influence of glycemic control attested by HbA(1C) on LTE4 excretion.

Methods And Results: Urinary excretion of LTE(4), measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, was significantly (P=0.033) increased in diabetic patients (median [10th-90th percentiles]: 42.1 pg/mg creatinine [16.7-71.4], n=34), compared to healthy subjects (25.5 pg/mg creatinine [13.9-54.1], n=28). Subgroup analysis indicated a trend towards increased LTE4 excretion in patients with poor glycemic control [(HbA(1C)> or =9% or plasma glucose >18 mmol/L): 43.3 pg/mg creatinine [21.6-70.5], n=14], whereas no difference was observed between patients with good metabolic control [(HbA(1C)< or =7.5%): 36.4 pg/mg creatinine [15.8-83.4], n=20] and healthy subjects.

Conclusions: This study suggested that increased LTE4 excretion in type 1 diabetic state might reflect systemic activation of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. It could be a determinant of underlying inflammatory state and vascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2005.10.001DOI Listing
December 2005

Protease inhibitors and diltiazem increase tacrolimus blood concentration in a patient with renal transplantation: a case report.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004 Oct 15;60(8):603-5. Epub 2004 Sep 15.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Grenoble University Hospital, BP 217, 38043, Grenoble Cedex 09, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-004-0824-2DOI Listing
October 2004

[Genetic polymorphism and treatment of chronic bowel inflammatory diseases: the example of azathioprine].

Therapie 2004 Jan-Feb;59(1):71-5

Laboratoire de pharmacologie, Hopital Michallon, CHU Grenoble, Grenoble, France.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive drug used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is a prodrug that is hydrolysed to 6-mercaptopurine, which represents the active form. Azathioprine is also used in the treatment of leukaemia in children and in organ transplantation. Azathioprine treatment is associated with adverse effects such as leukopenia and aplasia. These adverse effects are related to a single nucleotide polymorphism, including the inability of cells to synthesize thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT). TPMT is a detoxification enzyme that limits 6-thioguanine nucleotide production and thereby interferes with normal DNA and RNA synthesis. This review presents the different approaches used for azathioprine therapeutic monitoring in IBD treatment and discusses the discrepancies in recent clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2515/therapie:2004015DOI Listing
July 2004

2-Arachidonoyl glycerol induces contraction of isolated rat aorta: role of cyclooxygenase-derived products.

Cardiovasc Res 2004 Jul;63(1):155-60

University of Medicine, Laboratory HP2, F-38706 La Tronche Cedex, France.

Objectives: Endocannabinoids have been shown to play a role in the regulation of vascular tone. The effects of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) on induced-tone were examined in rat aortic rings in vitro.

Methods: Aortic rings from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were suspended in organ chambers for recording isometric tension development in response to 2-AG. The production of TXA2 in response to 2-AG was also assessed by enzyme immunoassay.

Results: In endothelium-intact rings pre-contracted to PGF(2alpha), 2-AG (10 nM-30 microM) induced a biphasic effect: a weak relaxation from 10 nM to 0.1 microM, which turned into a concentration-dependent contraction from 3 to 30 microM. Endothelium-denudation did not change 2-AG-mediated vascular effects. 2-AG-induced contraction was unaffected by both the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (3 microM) and the CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 (1 microM). In contrast, the anandamine transport inhibitor (AM404, 100 microM) and the amino hydrolase inhibitor (PMSF, 30 microM) attenuated (P<0.05) the contractile response evoked by 2-AG in endothelium-intact and rubbed aortic rings. In addition, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin, 10 microM) and the thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP receptor) antagonist GR32191 (0.3 microM) totally abolished the contraction elicited by 2-AG in endothelium-intact and rubbed aortic rings. Challenge of isolated aortic rings with 2-AG (10 microM) evoked a significant increase in TXA2 level (measured as TXB2 level) in endothelium-intact and rubbed aortic rings.

Conclusion: These data suggested that the contraction elicited by 2-AG resulted from the vascular smooth muscle cell uptake and conversion of 2-AG to constrictor prostanoid TXA2, which in turn caused vasoconstriction through the stimulation of TP receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.03.024DOI Listing
July 2004

Inhibition of leukotriene synthesis with MK-886 prevents a rise in blood pressure and reduces noradrenaline-evoked contraction in L-NAME-treated rats.

Br J Pharmacol 2003 Sep 29;140(1):186-94. Epub 2003 Jul 29.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Laboratory HP2, 38706 La Tronche Cedex, France.

(1) Long-term treatment of rats with Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) induces hypertension associated with inflammatory and vascular changes. Leukotrienes are proinflammatory vasoactive products that are suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We investigated, in rats chronically treated with l-NAME, the involvement of leukotrienes in the in vivo regulation of blood pressure and the in vitro contraction elicited by noradrenaline in isolated aorta. (2) Rats were randomly assigned to four groups and orally treated for 3 weeks with l-NAME (1 mg ml-1), l-NAME (1 mg ml-1) plus the leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor MK-886 (0.1 mg ml-1), MK-886 (0.1 mg ml-1) alone or vehicle (Methocel, 0.1%). All the drugs were added to the drinking fluid. (3) The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) increased significantly in l-NAME-treated rats (173.3+/-9.4 mmHg (n=25)) vs Methocel-treated rats (110.7+/-4.8 mmHg (n=11), P<0.001). Chronic treatment with MK-886 prevented this rise in MABP. (4) Aortic rings with or without endothelium were suspended in organ baths for recording isometric changes in response to noradrenaline. Pretreatment with either MK-886 (10 microm), the CysLT1 receptor antagonist MK571 (1 microm) or the dual CysLT1/CysLT2 receptor antagonist BAY-u9773 (0.1 microm) reduced (P<0.05) noradrenaline-induced contractions in intact aortic rings from l-NAME-treated rats only. (5) Noradrenaline (0.3 microm) induced a two-fold increase in cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT) release (measured by enzyme immunoassay) in intact aortic rings from l-NAME-treated rats only. (6) These data suggested (1) a role for the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in the regulation of blood pressure in l-NAME-treated rats and (2) the involvement of endothelial CysLTs in noradrenaline-induced contraction in aorta from l-NAME-treated rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1574003PMC
September 2003

Response of rat thoracic aorta to F(2)-isoprostane metabolites.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2002 Mar;39(3):396-403

Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, LSCPA EA2937, Faculté de Médecine de Grenoble, France.

Summary: This study was undertaken to investigate the vascular actions (contraction and relaxation) of the F(2)-isoprostane metabolites 15-keto-15-F(2t)-IsoP, 2,3-dinor-15-F(2t)-IsoP, and 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro -15-F(2t)-IsoP in comparison with 15-F(2t)-IsoP on the rat thoracic aorta. 15-keto-15-F(2t)-IsoP induced a vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent manner with a pD(2) value of 5.80 +/- 0.05, whereas 2,3-dinor-15-F(2t)-IsoP and 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F(2t)-IsoP had no effect. The parent compound 15-F(2t)-IsoP was more potent (pD(2) value: 6.46 +/- 0.1). Endothelium removal had no influence on the contraction to 15-keto-15-F(2t)-IsoP. GR32191 (a TP-receptor antagonist) concentration-dependently inhibited the contraction induced by 15-keto-15-F(2t)-IsoP, with a significant decrease in the E(max) values for GR32191 10(-7) M. Pretreatment with 2,3-dinor-15-F(2t)-IsoP and 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F(2t)-IsoP induced no alteration of 15-F(2t)-IsoP concentration-response curves. In contrast, 15-keto-15-F(2t)-IsoP pretreatment competitively inhibited the response to 15-F(2t)-IsoP. When concentration ratios of EC(50) values were used, a Schild regression of this data was linear with a slope of 0.974 and a pA(2) value of 6.13. 15-keto-15-F(2t)-IsoP at high concentrations caused a weak concentration-dependent relaxation of rat aorta rings contracted with U46619 (3.10(-8) M) that was not modified in the absence of endothelium. In contrast, 2,3-dinor-15-F(2t)-IsoP and 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F(2t)-IsoP induced no vasodilation. In conclusion, among the F(2)-isoprostane metabolites, 2,3-dinor-15-F(2t)-IsoP and 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F(2t)-IsoP did not cause vasorelaxation or vasoconstriction on the rat thoracic aorta. In contrast, 15-keto-15-F(2t)-IsoP mediates contraction through activation of TP-receptors, probably as a partial agonist, and induces a weak endothelium-independent relaxation at high concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005344-200203000-00011DOI Listing
March 2002

Involvement of cysteinyl leukotrienes in angiotensin II-induced contraction in isolated aortas from transgenic (mRen-2)27 rats.

J Hypertens 2002 Feb;20(2):263-72

Laboratory of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, La Tronche Cedex, France.

Objectives: We have previously reported that 5-lipoxygenase-derived products, and particularly the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), were involved in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced contractions in isolated aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Design: The aim of this study was to assess the role of CysLTs in the vascular response to Ang II in an Ang II-dependent model of hypertension, the (mRen-2)27 transgenic rats (TGs).

Methods: Intact aortic rings from TG and normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (SDs) were suspended in organ chambers for isometric tension development in response to Ang II. In addition, the release of CysLTs in response to Ang II (0.3 micromol/l) was measured by enzyme immunoassay.

Results: In isolated aortas from TG rats, pretreatment with the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor (AA861, 10 micromol/l) or the CysLT1 receptor antagonist (MK571, 1 micromol/l) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Ang II-induced contractions by 52 and 42%, respectively. In addition, Ang II induced a 2.6-fold increase in CysLT release (pg/mg dry weight tissue: 58.3 +/- 17.9 (Ang II, n = 7) versus 22.5 +/- 5.9 (basal, n = 7) P < 0.05), which was inhibited by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (1 micromol/l). In contrast, in aortas from SD rats, pretreatment with AA861 or MK571 did not alter Ang II-induced contraction and CysLT production remained unchanged after exposure to Ang II.

Conclusion: These data suggest that CysLTs are involved in the contractile responses to Ang II in isolated aortas from TG but not from SD rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200202000-00016DOI Listing
February 2002