Publications by authors named "Gael Goujon"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis syndrome: A rare cause of acute pancreatitis that should not be neglected.

World J Hepatol 2020 Jun;12(6):312-322

Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, AP-HP Bichat University Hospital, Paris 75018, France.

Background: Low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis (LPAC) syndrome is a very particular form of biliary lithiasis with no excess of cholesterol secretion into bile, but a decrease in phosphatidylcholine secretion, which is responsible for stones forming not only in the gallbladder, but also in the liver. LPAC syndrome may be underreported due to a lack of testing resulting from insufficient awareness among clinicians.

Aim: To describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of patients with LPAC syndrome to better identify and diagnose the disease.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated all patients aged over 18 years old who were consulted or hospitalized in two hospitals in Paris, France (Bichat University Hospital and Croix-Saint-Simon Hospital) between January 1, 2017 and August 31, 2018. All patients whose profiles led to a clinical suspicion of LPAC syndrome underwent a liver ultrasound examination performed by an experienced radiologist to confirm the diagnosis of LPAC syndrome. Twenty-four patients were selected. Data about the patients' general characteristics, their medical history, their symptoms, and their blood tests results were collected during both their initial hospitalization and follow-up. Cytolysis and cholestasis were expressed compared to the normal values (N) of serum aspartate and alanine transaminase activities, and to the normal value of alkaline phosphatase level, respectively. The subjects were systematically reevaluated and asked about their symptoms 6 mo after inclusion in the study through an in-person medical appointment or phone call. Genetic testing was not performed systematically, but according to the decision of each physician.

Results: Most patients were young (median age of 37 years), male (58%), and not overweight (median body mass index was 24). Many had a personal history of acute pancreatitis (54%) or cholecystectomy (42%), and a family history of gallstones in first-degree relatives (30%). LPAC syndrome was identified primarily in patients with recurring biliary pain (88%) or after a new episode of acute pancreatitis (38%). When present, cytolysis and cholestasis were not severe (2.8N and 1.7N, respectively) and disappeared quickly. Interestingly, four patients from the same family were diagnosed with LPAC syndrome. At ultrasound examination, the most frequent findings in intrahepatic bile ducts were comet-tail artifacts (96%), microlithiasis (83%), and acoustic shadows (71%). Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging were performed on 15 and three patients, respectively, but microlithiasis was not detected. Complications of LPAC syndrome required hospitalizing 18 patients (75%) in a conventional care unit for a mean duration of 6.8 d. None of them died. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was effective and well-tolerated in almost all patients (94%) with a rapid onset of action (3.4 wk). Twelve patients' (67%) adherence to UDCA treatment was considered "good." Five patients (36%) underwent cholecystectomy (three of them were treated both by UDCA and cholecystectomy). Despite UDCA efficacy, biliary pain recurred in five patients (28%), three of whom adhered well to treatment guidelines.

Conclusion: LPAC syndrome is easy to diagnose and treat; therefore, it should no longer be overlooked. To increase its detection rate, all patients who experience recurrent biliary symptoms following an episode of acute pancreatitis should undergo an ultrasound examination performed by a radiologist with knowledge of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4254/wjh.v12.i6.312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364325PMC
June 2020

Withholding the Introduction of Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor: Impact on Outcomes in RAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Tumors: A Multicenter AGEO Study (the WAIT or ACT Study).

Oncologist 2020 02 2;25(2):e266-e275. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Department of Gastroenterology, Cochin Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Patients with RAS wild-type (WT) nonresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) may receive either bevacizumab or an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) combined with first-line, 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Without the RAS status information, the oncologist can either start chemotherapy with bevacizumab or wait for the introduction of the anti-EGFR. Our objective was to compare both strategies in a routine practice setting.

Materials And Methods: This multicenter, retrospective, propensity score-weighted study included patients with a RAS WT nonresectable mCRC, treated between 2013 and 2016 by a 5-FU-based chemotherapy, with either delayed anti-EGFR or immediate anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Primary criterion was overall survival (OS). Secondary criteria were progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR).

Results: A total of 262 patients (129 in the anti-VEGF group and 133 in the anti-EGFR group) were included. Patients receiving an anti-VEGF were more often men (68% vs. 56%), with more metastatic sites (>2 sites: 15% vs. 9%). The median delay to obtain the RAS status was 19 days (interquartile range: 13-26). Median OS was not significantly different in the two groups (29 vs. 30.5 months, p = .299), even after weighting on the propensity score (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.08, p = .2024). The delayed introduction of anti-EGFR was associated with better median PFS (13.8 vs. 11.0 months, p = .0244), even after weighting on the propensity score (HR = 0.74, 95% CI, 0.61-0.90, p = .0024). ORR was significantly higher in the anti-EGFR group (66.7% vs. 45.6%, p = .0007).

Conclusion: Delayed introduction of anti-EGFR had no deleterious effect on OS, PFS, and ORR, compared with doublet chemotherapy with anti-VEGF.

Implications For Practice: For RAS/RAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, patients may receive 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy plus either bevacizumab or an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In daily practice, the time to obtain the RAS status might be long enough to consider two options: to start the chemotherapy with bevacizumab, or to start without a targeted therapy and to add the anti-EGFR at reception of the RAS status. This study found no deleterious effect of the delayed introduction of an anti-EGFR on survival, compared with the introduction of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor from cycle 1. It is possible to wait one or two cycles to introduce the anti-EGFR while waiting for RAS status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2019-0328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011620PMC
February 2020

Prognosis and chemosensitivity of deficient MMR phenotype in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: An AGEO retrospective multicenter study.

Int J Cancer 2020 07 13;147(1):285-296. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Sorbonne University and Medical Oncology Department, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) and/or microsatellite instability-high (MSI) colorectal cancers (CRC) represent about 5% of metastatic CRC (mCRC). Prognosis and chemosensitivity of dMMR/MSI mCRC remain unclear. This multicenter study included consecutive patients with dMMR/MSI mCRC from 2007 to 2017. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) in a population receiving first-line chemotherapy. Associations between chemotherapy regimen and survival were evaluated using a Cox regression model and inverse of probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) methodology in order to limit potential biases. Overall, 342 patients with dMMR/MSI mCRC were included. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) on first-line chemotherapy were 6.0 and 26.3 months, respectively. For second-line chemotherapy, median PFS and OS were 4.4 and 21.6 months. Longer PFS (8.1 vs. 5.4 months, p = 0.0405) and OS (35.1 vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.0747) were observed for irinotecan-based chemotherapy compared to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The association was no longer statistically significant using IPTW methodology. In multivariable analysis, anti-VEGF as compared to anti-EGFR was associated with a trend to longer OS (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.00-3.19, p = 0.0518), whatever the backbone chemotherapy used. Our study shows that dMMR/MSI mCRC patients experienced short PFS with first-line chemotherapy with or without targeted therapy. OS was not different according to the chemotherapy regimen used, but a trend to better OS was observed with anti-VEGF. Our study provides some historical results concerning chemotherapy in dMMR/MSI mCRC in light of the recent nonrandomized trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32879DOI Listing
July 2020

Efficacy of modern chemotherapy and prognostic factors in patients with ovarian metastases from gastric cancer: A retrospective AGEO multicentre study.

Dig Liver Dis 2016 Apr 29;48(4):441-5. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculty of Medicine, Paris, France; Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology Department, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, APHP, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Ovarian metastases from gastrointestinal tumours frequently lead to locoregional complications and undermine quality of life. The chemosensitivity of ovarian metastases from gastric cancer is unknown.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of modern chemotherapy regimens in first-line treatment for patients with ovarian metastases from gastric cancer.

Methods: All consecutive patients with ovarian metastases from gastric cancer who received at least one cycle of chemotherapy were included in this retrospective study.

Results: Thirty-five patients were included (median age, 50.5 years; synchronous ovarian metastases, 60%). Seventeen patients (48.6%) underwent oophorectomy. Patients were treated with first-line chemotherapy based on platinum (n=14), irinotecan (n=8), taxane plus platinum (n=4) or epirubicin plus platinum (n=9). The median PFS and OS were 6.8 and 18.8 months, respectively. The objective response rate (ORR) for extra-ovarian (13.6%) and ovarian (20.9%) metastatic sites was not significantly different (p=0.55). There was no significant difference in terms of ORR on ovarian metastatic site according to the first-line chemotherapy (p=0.21). In multivariate analysis, oophorectomy was an independent prognostic factor for OS (p<0.01).

Conclusions: This study suggests that ovarian metastases from gastric cancer are not more resistant than extra-ovarian metastases, and that oophorectomy is an independent prognostic factor significantly linked to OS. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2015.12.012DOI Listing
April 2016