Publications by authors named "Gaea S Moore"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fetomaternal hemorrhage: evaluation of recurrence within a large integrated healthcare system.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA.

Background: Fetomaternal hemorrhage is associated with severe fetal morbidity and mortality. The recurrence risk of fetomaternal hemorrhage is unknown.

Objective: We sought to establish the recurrence rate of fetomaternal hemorrhage in a large integrated healthcare system over a 10-year period.

Study Design: In this retrospective study within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical system, cases of fetomaternal hemorrhage were defined by either an elevated fetal hemoglobin level as determined by flow cytometry for a concerning pregnancy outcome (preterm delivery, perinatal demise, neonatal anemia, or transfusion within the first 2 days of life) or by perinatal demise with autopsy findings suggestive of fetomaternal hemorrhage. The outcomes of subsequent pregnancies were reviewed for features of recurrence.

Results: Within the 2008 to 2018 birth cohort of 375,864 pregnancies, flow cytometry testing for fetal hemoglobin levels was performed in 20,582 pregnancies. We identified 340 cases of fetomaternal hemorrhage (approximately 1 in 1100 births). Within the cohort of 340 affected pregnancies, perinatal loss was recorded for 80 (23.5%) pregnancies and 50 (14.7%) pregnancies delivered neonates who required transfusion. The affected patients had 225 subsequent pregnancies of which 210 were included in the analysis. Of these, 174 (82.9%) advanced beyond the threshold of viability and were delivered within our healthcare system. There was 1 case of recurrent fetomaternal hemorrhage identified. The recurrent case involved a spontaneous preterm delivery of an infant who was noted to have an elevated reticulocyte count but was clinically well.

Conclusion: Within our large integrated healthcare system, approximately 1 in 1100 pregnancies was affected by fetomaternal hemorrhage within a 10-year period, which is comparable with previous studies. We identified 1 case of recurrence, yielding a recurrence rate of 0.5%. This infant did not have features of clinically important fetomaternal hemorrhage. This information can inform counseling of patients with affected pregnancies.
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May 2021

Influence of Residency Training on Operative Vaginal Delivery in Independent Practice.

J Reprod Med 2016 Nov-Dec;61(11-12):562-8

Objective: To determine if residency training in the use of forceps and vacuums in vaginal deliveries is associated with their use in postgraduate practice.

Study Design: We surveyed all Ob/Gyn residency graduates of 4 academic programs from 2004-2012. The average number of vacuums and forceps performed per graduating resident was linked to respondents, who were then grouped by self-report as using forceps alone, vacuums alone, or both in practice. Multivariable logistic regression determined predictors of use of forceps and vacuums in practice

Results: The response rate was 61.2% (n=200). Those practicing obstetrics (n=171) were classified as forceps only (24%), vacuums only (22%), or both (54%). Use of forceps in practice was greater for those who graduated within the last 5 years (OR 7.55, 95% CI 2.37-24.07), felt inadequately trained in vacuums (OR 4.58, 95% CI 1.23-17.00), cared for a patient population <50% privately insured (OR 4.08, 95% CI 1.58-10.52), and performed more forceps in residency (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.31-2.18 per 5 forceps performed on average). The only significant predictor of vacuum use was the number of vacuum deliveries performed in residency (OR 3.71, 95% CI 2.28-6.01 per 5 vacuums performed on average).

Conclusion: Independent practice pattern for operative vaginal delivery reflects residency training for both vacuums and forceps.
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October 2018

Can Fetal Limb Soft Tissue Measurements in the Third Trimester Predict Neonatal Adiposity?

J Ultrasound Med 2016 Sep 14;35(9):1915-24. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado USA.

Objectives: Neonatal adiposity is associated with chronic metabolic sequelae such as diabetes and obesity. Identifying fetuses at risk for excess neonatal body fat may lead to research aimed at limiting nutritional excess in the prenatal period. We sought to determine whether fetal arm and leg soft tissue measurements at 28 weeks' gestation were predictive of neonatal percent body fat METHODS : In this prospective observational cohort study of singleton term pregnancies, we performed sonography at 28 and 36 weeks' gestation, including soft tissue measurements of the fetal arm and thigh (fractional limb volume and cross-sectional area). We estimated the neonatal body composition (percent body fat) using anthropometric measurements and air displacement plethysmography. We estimated Spearman correlations between sonographic findings and percent body fat and performed modeling to predict neonatal percent body fat using maternal characteristics and sonographic findings.

Results: Our analysis of 44 women yielded a mean maternal age of 30 years, body mass index of 26 kg/m(2), and birth weight of 3382 g. Mean neonatal percent body fat was 8.1% by skin folds at birth and 12.2% by air displacement plethysmography 2 weeks after birth. Fractional thigh volume measurements at 28 weeks yielded the most accurate model for predicting neonatal percent body fat (R(2) = 0.697; P = .001), outperforming models that used abdominal circumference (R(2)= 0.516) and estimated fetal weight (R(2)= 0.489).

Conclusions: Soft tissue measurements of the fetal thigh at 28 weeks correlated better with neonatal percent body fat than currently used sonographic measurements. After validation in a larger cohort, our models may be useful for prenatal intervention strategies aimed at the prevention of excess fetal fat accretion and, potentially, optimization of long-term metabolic health.
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September 2016

Baseline placental growth factor levels for the prediction of benefit from early aspirin prophylaxis for preeclampsia prevention.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2015 Oct 23;5(4):280-6. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

University of Colorado, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, United States; Denver Health Hospital, United States.

Objective: Placental growth factor (PlGF) levels early in pregnancy are lower in women who ultimately develop preeclampsia. Early initiation of low-dose aspirin reduces preeclampsia risk in some high risk women. We hypothesized that low PlGF levels may identify women at increased risk for preeclampsia who would benefit from aspirin.

Study Design: Secondary analysis of the MFMU High-Risk Aspirin study including singleton pregnancies randomized to aspirin 60mg/d (n=102) or placebo (n=72), with PlGF collected at 13w 0d-16w 6d. Within the placebo group, we estimated the probability of preeclampsia by PlGF level using logistic regression analysis, then determined a potential PlGF threshold for preeclampsia prediction using ROC analysis. We performed logistic regression modeling for potential confounders.

Results: ROC analysis indicated 87.71pg/ml as the threshold between high and low PlGF for preeclampsia-prediction. Within the placebo group high PlGF weakly predicted preeclampsia (AUC 0.653, sensitivity/specificity 63%/66%). We noted a 2.6-fold reduction in preeclampsia with aspirin in the high-PlGF group (12.15% aspirin vs 32.14% placebo, p=0.057), but no significant differences in preeclampsia in the low PlGF group (21.74% vs 15.91%, p=0.445).

Conclusions: Unlike other studies, we found that high rather than low PlGF levels were associated with an increased preeclampsia risk. Low PlGF neither identified women at increased risk of preeclampsia nor women who benefitted from aspirin. Further research is needed to determine whether aspirin is beneficial in women with high PlGF, and whether the paradigm linking low PlGF and preeclampsia needs to be reevaluated.

Condensation: High-risk women with low baseline PlGF, a risk factor for preeclampsia, did not benefit from early initiation of low-dose aspirin.
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October 2015

Fetal weight estimation in diabetic pregnancies using the gestation-adjusted projection method: comparison of two timing strategies for third-trimester sonography.

J Ultrasound Med 2015 Jun;34(6):971-5

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology (G.S.M., A.L.P., J.E.H., A.M.L.) and Epidemiology (N.A.W.), University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado USA.

Objectives: The gestation-adjusted projection method extrapolates birth weight using third-trimester sonography. This technique is shown to be more accurate for sonographic examinations from 34 weeks to 36 weeks 6 days than 37 weeks to 38 weeks 6 days. Our objective was to determine whether even earlier sonographic examinations (31 weeks-33 weeks 6 days) further improves birth weight prediction in patients with diabetes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 388 pregnant women with pregestational or gestational diabetes who delivered at 37 weeks or later and had a sonographic examination performed between 31 weeks and 36 weeks 6 days. Sonographic examinations were categorized as "early" if performed at 31 weeks to 33 weeks 6 days or "late" if performed at 34 weeks to 36 weeks 6 days. We estimated birth weight using the gestation-adjusted projection method, compared errors in prediction of birth weight using the t test and Mann-Whitney U test, and performed a 2-sample test of proportions to compare prediction of macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g).

Results: The early and late groups had similar mean gestational ages at birth (38 weeks 4 days versus 38 weeks 5 days; P = .13) and rates of macrosomia (10.7% versus 12.4%; P = .63). The early group had a greater mean absolute error (336 versus 297 g; P = .03) and percent error (9.9% versus 7.9%; P = .01) in birth weight prediction but a lower mean birth weight (3303 versus 3426 g; P = .02). Sensitivity for prediction of macrosomia was 19% in the early group versus 45% in the late group (P = .07), whereas specificity was similar (98% versus 96%; P = .27).

Conclusions: Using the gestation-adjusted projection method in our patients with diabetes, we found that sonographic examinations performed at 34 weeks to 36 weeks 6 days better predicted birth weight than those performed at 31 weeks to 33 weeks 6 days.
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June 2015

Does the number of forceps deliveries performed in residency predict use in practice?

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015 Jul 17;213(1):93.e1-93.e4. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denver Health Medical Center, Denver, CO. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to determine whether a threshold number of forceps deliveries in residency predicts use of forceps in independent practice.

Study Design: We surveyed obstetrics and gynecology residency graduates of 2 academic programs from 2008 through 2012 regarding the use of operative vaginal delivery in practice. At these programs, residents are trained in both forceps and vacuums. Individual case log data were obtained with the number of forceps deliveries performed by each respondent during residency. Respondents were grouped as currently using any forceps or vacuums alone. A logistic regression model estimated the probability of forceps use, predicted by the number of residency forceps deliveries. From the resulting receiver-operating characteristic curve, we assessed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and area under the curve.

Results: The response rate was 85% (n = 58) and 90% (n = 52) practice obstetrics. Seventy-nine percent (n = 41) use forceps in practice. The mean number of forceps performed during residency was 22.3 ± 1.3 (mean ± SE) in the any-forceps group and 18.5 ± 2.1 in the vacuums-only group (P = .14). Although the model performed only moderately (area under the curve, 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.81), more than 13 residency forceps deliveries corresponded to a 95% sensitivity (95% CI, 84-99) and a positive predictive value of 83% (95% CI, 69-92) for using forceps in practice. The specificity of this threshold is 27% (95% CI, 6-61).

Conclusion: Although exceeding 13 forceps deliveries made it highly likely that obstetricians would use them in practice, further study is necessary to set goals for a number of resident forceps deliveries that translate into use in practice.
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July 2015

Maternal-fetal transfer of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies.

Obstet Gynecol 2015 May;125(5):1056-1058

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado.

Background: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a neuroautoimmune disease commonly associated with ovarian teratomas. It is characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms, seizures, and autonomic instability. Few cases are described in pregnancy, and little is known about potential fetal effects.

Case: Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis was diagnosed at 24 weeks of gestation. No improvement occurred with intravenous immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone, and plasmapheresis. Imaging was unremarkable. Cesarean delivery with concurrent bilateral oophorectomy resulted in prompt maternal improvement. Antibody titers were positive in cord blood.

Conclusion: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in pregnancy can lead to NMDA receptor antibodies in the fetal circulation. Pregnancy interruption through early delivery with or without oophorectomy may accelerate maternal recovery.
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May 2015