Publications by authors named "Gadi Rennert"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies pleiotropic risk loci for aerodigestive squamous cell cancers.

PLoS Genet 2021 03 5;17(3):e1009254. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

University of Salzburg, Department of Biosciences and Cancer Cluster Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) of the aerodigestive tract have similar etiological risk factors. Although genetic risk variants for individual cancers have been identified, an agnostic, genome-wide search for shared genetic susceptibility has not been performed. To identify novel and pleotropic SqCC risk variants, we performed a meta-analysis of GWAS data on lung SqCC (LuSqCC), oro/pharyngeal SqCC (OSqCC), laryngeal SqCC (LaSqCC) and esophageal SqCC (ESqCC) cancers, totaling 13,887 cases and 61,961 controls of European ancestry. We identified one novel genome-wide significant (Pmeta<5x10-8) aerodigestive SqCC susceptibility loci in the 2q33.1 region (rs56321285, TMEM273). Additionally, three previously unknown loci reached suggestive significance (Pmeta<5x10-7): 1q32.1 (rs12133735, near MDM4), 5q31.2 (rs13181561, TMEM173) and 19p13.11 (rs61494113, ABHD8). Multiple previously identified loci for aerodigestive SqCC also showed evidence of pleiotropy in at least another SqCC site, these include: 4q23 (ADH1B), 6p21.33 (STK19), 6p21.32 (HLA-DQB1), 9p21.33 (CDKN2B-AS1) and 13q13.1(BRCA2). Gene-based association and gene set enrichment identified a set of 48 SqCC-related genes rel to DNA damage and epigenetic regulation pathways. Our study highlights the importance of cross-cancer analyses to identify pleiotropic risk loci of histology-related cancers arising at distinct anatomical sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968735PMC
March 2021

Integration of multiomic annotation data to prioritize and characterize inflammation and immune-related risk variants in squamous cell lung cancer.

Genet Epidemiol 2021 02 14;45(1):99-114. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1β pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855632PMC
February 2021

Comprehensive functional annotation of susceptibility variants identifies genetic heterogeneity between lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

Front Med 2021 Apr 5;15(2):275-291. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo, Pb 5330, Norway.

Although genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty genetic variants associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, biological mechanisms of these variants remain largely unknown. By integrating a large-scale genotype data of 15 581 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases, 8350 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) cases, and 27 355 controls, as well as multiple transcriptome and epigenomic databases, we conducted histology-specific meta-analyses and functional annotations of both reported and novel susceptibility variants. We identified 3064 credible risk variants for NSCLC, which were overrepresented in enhancer-like and promoter-like histone modification peaks as well as DNase I hypersensitive sites. Transcription factor enrichment analysis revealed that USF1 was AD-specific while CREB1 was SqCC-specific. Functional annotation and gene-based analysis implicated 894 target genes, including 274 specifics for AD and 123 for SqCC, which were overrepresented in somatic driver genes (ER = 1.95, P = 0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis and Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that AD genes were primarily involved in immune-related pathways, while SqCC genes were homologous recombination deficiency related. Our results illustrate the molecular basis of both well-studied and new susceptibility loci of NSCLC, providing not only novel insights into the genetic heterogeneity between AD and SqCC but also a set of plausible gene targets for post-GWAS functional experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0779-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374896PMC
April 2021

Transcriptome-wide association study reveals candidate causal genes for lung cancer.

Int J Cancer 2020 04 9;146(7):1862-1878. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Epidemiology Division, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, ON, Canada.

We have recently completed the largest GWAS on lung cancer including 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls of European descent. The goal of our study has been to integrate the complete GWAS results with a large-scale expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study in human lung tissues (n = 1,038) to identify candidate causal genes for lung cancer. We performed transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for lung cancer overall, by histology (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung cancer) and smoking subgroups (never- and ever-smokers). We performed replication analysis using lung data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. DNA damage assays were performed in human lung fibroblasts for selected TWAS genes. As expected, the main TWAS signal for all histological subtypes and ever-smokers was on chromosome 15q25. The gene most strongly associated with lung cancer at this locus using the TWAS approach was IREB2 (p = 1.09E-99), where lower predicted expression increased lung cancer risk. A new lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility locus was revealed on 9p13.3 and associated with higher predicted expression of AQP3 (p = 3.72E-6). Among the 45 previously described lung cancer GWAS loci, we mapped candidate target gene for 17 of them. The association AQP3-adenocarcinoma on 9p13.3 was replicated using GTEx (p = 6.55E-5). Consistent with the effect of risk alleles on gene expression levels, IREB2 knockdown and AQP3 overproduction promote endogenous DNA damage. These findings indicate genes whose expression in lung tissue directly influences lung cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008463PMC
April 2020

Genome-wide association study of INDELs identified four novel susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer risk.

Int J Cancer 2020 05 31;146(10):2855-2864. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 45 susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer. Only less than SNPs, small insertions and deletions (INDELs) are the second most abundant genetic polymorphisms in the human genome. INDELs are highly associated with multiple human diseases, including lung cancer. However, limited studies with large-scale samples have been available to systematically evaluate the effects of INDELs on lung cancer risk. Here, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis to evaluate INDELs and their risk for lung cancer in 23,202 cases and 19,048 controls. Functional annotations were performed to further explore the potential function of lung cancer risk INDELs. Conditional analysis was used to clarify the relationship between INDELs and SNPs. Four new risk loci were identified in genome-wide INDEL analysis (1p13.2: rs5777156, Insertion, OR = 0.92, p = 9.10 × 10 ; 4q28.2: rs58404727, Deletion, OR = 1.19, p = 5.25 × 10 ; 12p13.31: rs71450133, Deletion, OR = 1.09, p = 8.83 × 10 ; and 14q22.3: rs34057993, Deletion, OR = 0.90, p = 7.64 × 10 ). The eQTL analysis and functional annotation suggested that INDELs might affect lung cancer susceptibility by regulating the expression of target genes. After conducting conditional analysis on potential causal SNPs, the INDELs in the new loci were still nominally significant. Our findings indicate that INDELs could be potentially functional genetic variants for lung cancer risk. Further functional experiments are needed to better understand INDEL mechanisms in carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101262PMC
May 2020

Interim Results from the IMPACT Study: Evidence for Prostate-specific Antigen Screening in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

Eur Urol 2019 12 16;76(6):831-842. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

International Hereditary Cancer Center, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.

Background: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations.

Objective: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians.

Results And Limitations: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p =  0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p =  0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p =  0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65).

Conclusions: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

Patient Summary: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2019.08.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880781PMC
December 2019

Evaluation of associations between genetically predicted circulating protein biomarkers and breast cancer risk.

Int J Cancer 2020 04 16;146(8):2130-2138. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.

A small number of circulating proteins have been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, with inconsistent results. Herein, we attempted to identify novel protein biomarkers for breast cancer via the integration of genomics and proteomics data. In the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European descendants, we evaluated the associations of the genetically predicted concentrations of >1,400 circulating proteins with breast cancer risk. We used data from a large-scale protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis as our study instrument. Summary statistics for these pQTL variants related to breast cancer risk were obtained from the BCAC and used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each protein using the inverse-variance weighted method. We identified 56 proteins significantly associated with breast cancer risk by instrumental analysis (false discovery rate <0.05). Of these, the concentrations of 32 were influenced by variants close to a breast cancer susceptibility locus (ABO, 9q34.2). Many of these proteins, such as insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 and other membrane receptors (OR: 0.82-1.18, p values: 6.96 × 10 -3.28 × 10 ), are linked to insulin resistance and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Proteins identified at other loci include those involved in biological processes such as alcohol and lipid metabolism, proteolysis, apoptosis, immune regulation and cell motility and proliferation. Consistent associations were observed for 22 proteins in the UK Biobank data (p < 0.05). The study identifies potential novel biomarkers for breast cancer, but further investigation is needed to replicate our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32542DOI Listing
April 2020

Lung Cancer Risk in Never-Smokers of European Descent is Associated With Genetic Variation in the 515.33 TERT-CLPTM1Ll Region.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 08 19;14(8):1360-1369. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer.

Methods: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer.

Results: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate.

Conclusions: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6833942PMC
August 2019

Genome-wide association study of germline variants and breast cancer-specific mortality.

Br J Cancer 2019 03 21;120(6):647-657. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Lund University, Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund, Sweden.

Background: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry.

Methods: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP).

Results: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster.

Conclusions: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0393-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461853PMC
March 2019

Fine mapping of MHC region in lung cancer highlights independent susceptibility loci by ethnicity.

Nat Commun 2018 09 25;9(1):3927. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, 20892-9768, MD, USA.

Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05890-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6156406PMC
September 2018

Cancer-driving H3G34V/R/D mutations block H3K36 methylation and H3K36me3-MutSα interaction.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 09 4;115(38):9598-9603. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40506;

Somatic mutations on glycine 34 of histone H3 (H3G34) cause pediatric cancers, but the underlying oncogenic mechanism remains unknown. We demonstrate that substituting H3G34 with arginine, valine, or aspartate (H3G34R/V/D), which converts the non-side chain glycine to a large side chain-containing residue, blocks H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) dimethylation and trimethylation by histone methyltransferases, including SETD2, an H3K36-specific trimethyltransferase. Our structural analysis reveals that the H3 "G33-G34" motif is recognized by a narrow substrate channel, and that H3G34/R/V/D mutations impair the catalytic activity of SETD2 due to steric clashes that impede optimal SETD2-H3K36 interaction. H3G34R/V/D mutations also block H3K36me3 from interacting with mismatch repair (MMR) protein MutSα, preventing the recruitment of the MMR machinery to chromatin. Cells harboring H3G34R/V/D mutations display a mutator phenotype similar to that observed in MMR-defective cells. Therefore, H3G34R/V/D mutations promote genome instability and tumorigenesis by inhibiting MMR activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1806355115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6156674PMC
September 2018

Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.

Nature 2017 11 23;551(7678):92-94. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature24284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5798588PMC
November 2017

Pleiotropy of genetic variants on obesity and smoking phenotypes: Results from the Oncoarray Project of The International Lung Cancer Consortium.

PLoS One 2017 28;12(9):e0185660. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, United States of America.

Obesity and cigarette smoking are correlated through complex relationships. Common genetic causes may contribute to these correlations. In this study, we selected 241 loci potentially associated with body mass index (BMI) based on the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium data and calculated a BMI genetic risk score (BMI-GRS) for 17,037 individuals of European descent from the Oncoarray Project of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). Smokers had a significantly higher BMI-GRS than never-smokers (p = 0.016 and 0.010 before and after adjustment for BMI, respectively). The BMI-GRS was also positively correlated with pack-years of smoking (p<0.001) in smokers. Based on causal network inference analyses, seven and five of 241 SNPs were classified to pleiotropic models for BMI/smoking status and BMI/pack-years, respectively. Among them, three and four SNPs associated with smoking status and pack-years (p<0.05), respectively, were followed up in the ever-smoking data of the Tobacco, Alcohol and Genetics (TAG) consortium. Among these seven candidate SNPs, one SNP (rs11030104, BDNF) achieved statistical significance after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, and three suggestive SNPs (rs13021737, TMEM18; rs11583200, ELAVL4; and rs6990042, SGCZ) achieved a nominal statistical significance. Our results suggest that there is a common genetic component between BMI and smoking, and pleiotropy analysis can be useful to identify novel genetic loci of complex phenotypes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0185660PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5619832PMC
November 2017

A Germline Variant on Chromosome 4q31.1 Associates with Susceptibility to Developing Colon Cancer Metastasis.

PLoS One 2016 11;11(1):e0146435. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

We tested for germline variants showing association to colon cancer metastasis using a genome-wide association study that compared Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with stage IV metastatic colon cancers versus those with stage I or II non-metastatic colon cancers. In a two-stage study design, we demonstrated significant association to developing metastatic disease for rs60745952, that in Ashkenazi discovery and validation cohorts, respectively, showed an odds ratio (OR) = 2.3 (P = 2.73E-06) and OR = 1.89 (P = 8.05E-04) (exceeding validation threshold of 0.0044). Significant association to metastatic colon cancer was further confirmed by a meta-analysis of rs60745952 in these datasets plus an additional Ashkenazi validation cohort (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.28-2.87), and by a permutation test that demonstrated a significantly longer haplotype surrounding rs60745952 in the stage IV samples. rs60745952, located in an intergenic region on chromosome 4q31.1, and not previously associated with cancer, is, thus, a germline genetic marker for susceptibility to developing colon cancer metastases among Ashkenazi Jews.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146435PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4709047PMC
July 2016

The underrecognized progressive nature of N370S Gaucher disease and assessment of cancer risk in 403 patients.

Am J Hematol 2009 Apr;84(4):208-14

Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8064, USA.

Mutations in GBA1 gene that encodes lysosomal glucocerebrosidase result in Type 1 Gaucher Disease (GD), the commonest lysosomal storage disorder; the most prevalent disease mutation is N370S. We investigated the heterogeneity and natural course of N370S GD in 403 patients. Demographic, clinical, and genetic characteristics of GD at presentation were examined in a cross-sectional study. In addition, the relative risk (RR) of cancer in patients compared with age-, sex-, and ethnic-group adjusted national rates of cancer was determined. Of the 403 patients, 54% of patients were homozygous (N370S/N370S) and 46% were compound heterozygous for the N370S mutation (N370S/other). The majority of N370S/N370S patients displayed a phenotype characterized by late onset, predominantly skeletal disease, whereas the majority of N370S/other patients displayed early onset, predominantly visceral/hematologic disease, P < 0.0001. There was a striking increase in lifetime risk of multiple myeloma in the entire cohort (RR 25, 95% CI 9.17-54.40), mostly confined to N370S homozygous patients. The risk of other hematologic malignancies (RR 3.45, 95% CI 1.49-6.79), and overall cancer risk (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.32-2.40) was increased. Homozygous N370S GD leads to adult-onset progressive skeletal disease with relative sparing of the viscera, a strikingly high risk of multiple myeloma, and an increased risk of other cancers. High incidence of gammopathy suggests an important role of the adaptive immune system in the development of GD. Adult patients with GD should be monitored for skeletal disease and cancers including multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.21362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3008404PMC
April 2009

Breast cancer risk following bilateral oophorectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: an international case-control study.

J Clin Oncol 2005 Oct;23(30):7491-6

Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Center, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the extent of protection offered against breast cancer by prophylactic oophorectomy in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and to determine to what extent risk reduction varies with age at oophorectomy, age at diagnosis, and time elapsed since surgery.

Patients And Methods: We analyzed 1,439 patients with breast cancer and 1,866 matched controls derived from a registry of BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer for having had a bilateral oophorectomy, using conditional logistic regression, matched for parity and for oral contraceptive use.

Results: A previous history of oophorectomy was associated with a significant reduction in breast cancer risk of 56% for BRCA1 carriers (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.66) and of 46% for BRCA2 carriers (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.28 to 1.15). The risk reduction was greater if the oophorectomy was performed before age 40 (OR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.64 for BRCA1 carriers) than after age 40 (OR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.91). The protective effect was evident for 15 years post-oophorectomy (OR = 0.39; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.57).

Conclusion: Oophorectomy is an effective means of reducing the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. The data suggest oophorectomy is protective in BRCA2 carriers as well, but needs to be confirmed in other studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.00.7138DOI Listing
October 2005
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