Publications by authors named "Gabriella Pezzuto"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessment of self-reported and objective daytime sleepiness in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 Dec;17(12):2383-2391

Department of Neurology, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in myotonic dystrophy type 1 is mostly of central origin but it may coexist with sleep-related breathing disorders. However, there is no consensus on the sleep protocols to be used, assessments vary, and only a minority of patients are regularly tested or are on treatment for EDS. Our study presents data on self-reported and objective EDS in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1.

Methods: Sixty-three patients with adult-onset DM1 were subjected to EDS-sleep assessments (polysomnography, Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Epworth Sleepiness Scale). Correlation coefficients were computed to assess the relationship between sleep and sleepiness test results, fatigue, and quality of life.

Results: 33% and 48% of patients had EDS based, respectively, on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, with a low concordance between these tests (k = 0.19). Thirteen patients (20%) displayed 2 or more sleep-onset rapid eye movement periods on Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Patients having EDS by Multiple Sleep Latency Test had a shorter disease duration ( < .05), higher total sleep time and sleep efficiency and lower wake after sleep onset on polysomnography. Patients with self-reported EDS reported significantly higher fatigue score compared with patients without EDS ( < .05). No other difference was found in demographic, clinical, and respiratory features.

Conclusions: EDS test results are contradictory, making treatment options difficult. Combining quantitative tests and self-reported scales may facilitate physicians in planning EDS care with patients and families.

Citation: Sansone VA, Proserpio P, Mauro L, et al. Assessment of self-reported and objective daytime sleepiness in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1. . 2021;17(12):2383-2391.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.9438DOI Listing
December 2021

Synergy across the drugs approved for the treatment of asthma.

Minerva Med 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Inhaled corticosteroids are the cornerstone for the treatment of stable asthma, however, when disease severity increases, escalating therapy to combinations of drugs acting on distinct signalling pathways is required. It is advantageous to providing evidence of a synergistic interaction across drug combinations, as it allows optimizing bronchodilation while lowering the dose of single agents. In the respiratory pharmacology field, two statistical models are accepted as gold standard to characterize drug interactions, namely the Bliss Independence criterion and the Unified Theory. In this review, pharmacological interactions across drugs approved for the treatment of asthma have been systematically assessed.

Evidence Acquisition: A comprehensive literature search was performed in MEDLINE for studies that used a validated pharmacological method for assessing drug interaction. The results were extracted and reported via qualitative synthesis.

Evidence Synthesis: Overall, 45 studies were identified from literature search and 5 met the inclusion criteria. Current evidence coming from ex vivo models of asthma indicates that drug combinations modulating bronchial contractility induce a synergistic bronchorelaxant effect. In murine models of lung inflammation, the combination between inhaled corticosteroids and β2- adrenoceptor agonists synergistically improve lung function and the inflammatory profile.

Conclusions: There is still limited knowledge regarding the mechanistic basis underlying pharmacological interactions across drugs approved for asthma. The synergism elicited by combined agents is an effect of class. Specifically designed clinical trials are needed to confirm the results coming from preclinical evidence, but also to establish the minimal dose for combined agents to induce a synergistic interaction and maximize bronchodilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07266-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with SARS-CoV2 infection.

J Affect Disord 2021 01 14;278:339-340. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Neurology Unit, University Hospital "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy; Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489218PMC
January 2021

Sleep and wake impairment in patients with SARS-CoV2 infection.

Sleep Med 2020 09 17;73:177-178. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Neurology Unit, University Hospital "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy; Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.06.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366082PMC
September 2020

Subjective neurological symptoms frequently occur in patients with SARS-CoV2 infection.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 08 19;88:11-16. Epub 2020 May 19.

Neurology Unit, University Hospital "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy; Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy; IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a novel pneumonia leading to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Recent studies documented that SARS-Coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV2), responsible for COVID-19, can affect the nervous system. The aim of the present observational study was to prospectively assess subjective neurological symptoms (sNS) in patients with SARS-CoV2 infection.

Methods: We included patients hospitalized at the University Hospital of Rome "Tor Vergata", medical center dedicated to the treatment of patients with COVID-19 diagnosis, who underwent an anamnestic interview about sNS consisting of 13 items, each related to a specific symptom, requiring a dichotomized answer.

Results: We included 103 patients with SARS-CoV2 infection. Ninety-four patients (91.3%) reported at least one sNS. Sleep impairment was the most frequent symptom, followed by dysgeusia, headache, hyposmia, and depression. Women more frequently complained hyposmia, dysgeusia, dizziness, numbeness/paresthesias, daytime sleepiness, and muscle ache. Moreover, muscle ache and daytime sleepiness were more frequent in the first 2 days after admission. Conversely, sleep impairment was more frequent in patients with more than 7 days of hospitalization. In these patients we also documented higher white blood cells and lower C-reactive protein levels. These laboratory findings correlated with the occurrence of hyposmia, dysgeusia, headache, daytime sleepiness, and depression.

Conclusions: Patients with SARS-CoV2 infection frequently present with sNS. These symptoms are present from the early phases of the disease. The possibly intrinsic neurotropic properties of SARS-CoV2 may justify the very high frequency of sNS. Further studies targeted at investigating the consequences of SARS-CoV2 infection on the CNS should be planned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235586PMC
August 2020

Investigational treatments in phase I and II clinical trials: a systematic review in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2020 Jul 27;29(7):723-738. Epub 2020 May 27.

Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata" , Rome, Italy.

. The current pharmacological treatments for the management of stable COPD permit the reduction of symptoms and frequency and severity of exacerbations, and the improvement of exercise tolerance and health status. However, they do not modify the long-term decline in lung function and patient health. Consequently, there is the strong need for 'highly innovative' medications that are focused on new targets and/or mechanisms for the treatment of COPD. . This systematic review assesses investigational agents in Phase I and II clinical trials over the last six years. It offers insights on whether drugs and/or formulations in clinical development offer future effective treatments of COPD. . There is no evidence to suggest that current investigational agents can reduce lung function decline and cure COPD. However, looking forward, investigational, innovative treatments in combination with the therapies already recommended by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) may provide future suitable tools to counteract the progression of COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543784.2020.1769064DOI Listing
July 2020

The Time Course of Pulmonary Function Tests in COPD Patients with Different Levels of Blood Eosinophils.

Biomed Res Int 2016 16;2016:4547953. Epub 2016 Oct 16.

Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Chair of Respiratory Medicine, Rome, Italy.

Only very few studies have investigated the influence of eosinophils on the functional progression of COPD. We aimed at retrospectively analyzing the trend of pulmonary function tests over time in patients with COPD according to two baseline blood eosinophil cell count strata (<2% [EOS-] and ≥2% [EOS+]). We used the last 9-year data present in the database of our outpatient clinic and selected only those who had two blood counts that would guarantee the stability of the value of eosinophils and serial spirometry for 4 consecutive years. The analysis of the time course of the spirometric variables analysed showed differences in FEV1 and FVC decline between the subjects of the EOS- group and those of the EOS+ group. The integrated evaluation of our results suggests that the different level of blood eosinophils in the two groups may have influenced independently the time course of the pulmonary function tests and identify two subgroups of subjects with specific disease characteristics: the hyperinflator and the rapid decliner, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4547953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5086365PMC
February 2017

Structured multidisciplinary discussion of HRCT scans for IPF/UIP diagnosis may result in indefinite outcomes.

Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2015 Jun 22;32(1):32-6. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

università di Roma Tor Vergata.

Recent ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) have defined key features and specific high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) patterns for the diagnosis of UIP. The aim is the sorting of patients with suspected IPF into three subgroups, confident, possible or inconsistent with UIP patterns, after a multidisciplinary discussion (MDD). Specialists in respiratory diseases, radiologists and pathologists should reach IPF diagnosis based on either patients' clinical, radiological and laboratory data, either submitting patients to surgical biopsy. After ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT recommendations have been applied, it has been identified a subgroup of patients showing uniform apical-basal distribution of honeycombing and reticular abnormalities that could not be categorized as confident, or possible nor inconsistent with UIP. These patients were subsequently diagnosed with IPF after MDD and lung biopsy. Inclusion of this pattern in the recommendation for IPF diagnosis would be worth considering.
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June 2015

HFE gene variants and iron-induced oxygen radical generation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Eur Respir J 2015 Feb 10;45(2):483-90. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

Dept of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. Division of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospital Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy. Postgraduate School in Respiratory Diseases, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), lung accumulation of excessive extracellular iron and macrophage haemosiderin may suggest disordered iron homeostasis leading to recurring microscopic injury and fibrosing damage. The current study population comprised 89 consistent IPF patients and 107 controls. 54 patients and 11 controls underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Haemosiderin was assessed by Perls' stain, BAL fluid malondialdehyde (MDA) by high-performance liquid chromatography, BAL cell iron-dependent oxygen radical generation by fluorimetry and the frequency of hereditary haemochromatosis HFE gene variants by reverse dot blot hybridisation. Macrophage haemosiderin, BAL fluid MDA and BAL cell unstimulated iron-dependent oxygen radical generation were all significantly increased above controls (p<0.05). The frequency of C282Y, S65C and H63D HFE allelic variants was markedly higher in IPF compared with controls (40.4% versus 22.4%, OR 2.35, p=0.008) and was associated with higher iron-dependent oxygen radical generation (HFE variant 107.4±56.0, HFE wild type (wt) 59.4±36.4 and controls 16.7±11.8 fluorescence units per 10(5) BAL cells; p=0.028 HFE variant versus HFE wt, p=0.006 HFE wt versus controls). The data suggest iron dysregulation associated with HFE allelic variants may play an important role in increasing susceptibility to environmental exposures, leading to recurring injury and fibrosis in IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00104814DOI Listing
February 2015

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) incidence and prevalence in Italy.

Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2014 Oct 20;31(3):191-7. Epub 2014 Oct 20.

Departement of Epidemiology, Regional Health Service of Lazio, Rome.

Background: Studies of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) epidemiology show regional variations of incidence and prevalence; no epidemiological studies have been carried out in Italy.

Objective: To determine incidence and prevalence rates of IPF in the population of a large Italian region.

Methods: in this cross-sectional study study data were collected on all patients of 18 years of age and older admitted as primary or secondary idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis (ICD9-CM 516.3) to Lazio hospitals, from 1/1/2005 to 31/12/2009, using regional hospital discharge, population and cause of death databases. Reporting accuracy was assessed on a random sample of hospital charts carrying the ICD9-CM 516.3, 516.8, 516.9 and 515 codes, by reviewing radiology and pathology findings to define cases as IPF "confident", "possible" or "inconsistent".

Results: Annual prevalence and incidence of IPF were estimated at 25.6 per 100,000 and 7.5 per 100,000 using the ICD9-CM code 516.3 without chart audit while they were estimated at 31.6 per 100,000 and at 9,3 per 100,000 for the IPF "confident" definition after hospital chart audit.

Conclusion: The data provide a first estimate of IPF incidence in Italy and indicate that incidence and prevalence in southern European regions may be similar to those observed in northern Europe and North America.
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October 2014

Acute COPD exacerbation: 3 T MRI evaluation of pulmonary regional perfusion--preliminary experience.

Respir Med 2014 Jun 14;108(6):875-82. Epub 2014 Apr 14.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiation Therapy, PTV Foundation, "Tor Vergata" Hospital, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy; Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", via montpellier 1, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: To compare pulmonary perfusion parameters by means of dynamic perfusion magnetic resonance in patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), during and after acute exacerbation.

Methods: Fifteen patients were successfully evaluated with perfusional MRI during an acute exacerbation of COPD and upon clinical stabilization. Inclusion criteria were a PaCO2 > 45 mmHg and respiratory acidosis (arterial blood pH < 7.35) at admittance.

Results: In the acute phase a reduction of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and pulmonary blood volume (PBV), and a significant prolonging of the mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) were observed in all patients. In the stabilization phase a significant increase of PBF and PBV and a significant reduction of MTT and TTP were observed in 6 patients; no significant variations were observed in the other 9 patients.

Conclusion: 3D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRI allows quantitative evaluation of pulmonary regional perfusion in patients affected by COPD, identifying patients in which perfusion defects are resolved in the clinical-stabilization phase. This technique might allow the identification of patients in whom vasospasm may be the main responsible of pulmonary hypoperfusion during acute COPD exacerbation, with potential advantages on the clinical management of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2014.04.002DOI Listing
June 2014

Iron laden macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: the telltale of occult alveolar hemorrhage?

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2014 Jun 21;28(1):35-40. Epub 2013 Dec 21.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Roma, Italy; Postgraduate School in Pulmonary Medicine, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Roma, Italy; Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinic, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Roma, Italy. Electronic address:

Rationale: A number of observations suggest that iron accumulates in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with vascular abnormalities, including pulmonary hypertension.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of accumulation of alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) iron and of alveolar macrophage hemosiderin in IPF and its relationship with disease severity.

Methods: Forty seven IPF patients and 14 healthy controls were retrospectively evaluated for iron accumulation in the lower respiratory tract using total iron spectrophotometric measures and for hemosiderin accumulation using the Perls' stain with the Golde score.

Measurements And Main Results: Total iron levels in ELF were significantly increased in IPF patients compared to non-smoking controls (p < 0.05); there were no differences with healthy smokers (p = 0.2). Hemosiderin accumulation in alveolar macrophages was similar in never smoking and ever smoking IPF patients (p = 0.5), was significantly higher in IPF patients than in both smoking and non-smoking healthy controls (p < 0.05, all comparisons) and was positively correlated with echocardiographic estimates of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (p < 0.05) and with increasing disease severity scores (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The data show exaggerated accumulation of iron in IPF broncho-alveolar ELF and alveolar cells with no association with tobacco smoke, thus suggesting, occult pulmonary hemorrhage as a likely cause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2013.12.002DOI Listing
June 2014

A 6MWT index to predict O2 flow correcting exercise induced SpO2 desaturation in ILD.

Respir Med 2013 Dec 10;107(12):2014-21. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

Respiratory Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, "Tor Vergata" University Hospital, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: Ambulatory oxygen (O2) is prescribed to interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients with mild hypoxemia, breathlessness and dyspnea on exertion. Oxygen titration is generally done with the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) to determine the O2 flow preventing oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2) from falling below 88%. His study was designed to generate a 6MWT index predicting the O2 flow allowing completion of the 6MWT without oxygen desaturation.

Methods: Oxygen titration data from a group of 66 ILD patients and 30 controls, were used to generate the algorithm determining an index (O2-GAP) predicting oxygen flow required to complete a 6MWT without desaturation below 88%. This index was validated in a group of 93 ILD patients.

Results: The O2-GAP index, as obtained from the derivation population, (r(2) = 0.97, p < 0.001) was shown to correctly predict the oxygen flow required to complete the 6MWT without SpO2 falling below 88% validated in the validation population (r(2) = 0.842; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The O2-GAP index appears to be a useful tool to titrate ambulatory O2 with a single 6MWT on room air in ILD patients with breathlessness and dyspnea on exertion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2013.10.002DOI Listing
December 2013

Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: 3D time-resolved MR angiographic evaluation of pulmonary arterial mean transit time and time to peak enhancement.

Radiology 2010 Feb;254(2):601-8

Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Radiation Therapy and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Policlinico Tor Vergata, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Purpose: To correlate conventional invasive pressure indexes of pulmonary circulation with pulmonary first-order arterial mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak enhancement (TTP) measured by means of three-dimensional time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE).

Materials And Methods: The study was institutional review board approved. All subjects involved in the study provided written informed consent. Eighteen patients with CPFE were enrolled in this study. Thirteen healthy individuals matched for age and sex served as control subjects. Three-dimensional time-resolved MR angiography was performed by using a 3.0-T MR imager. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn manually on first-order pulmonary arteries. Within the ROIs, signal intensity-versus-time curves reflecting the first pass of the contrast agent bolus in the pulmonary vessels were obtained. MTT and TTP were calculated. Pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure were measured with a double-lumen, balloon-tipped catheter that was positioned in the pulmonary artery. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) were determined.

Results: MTT and TTP values were prolonged significantly in patients with CPFE compared with those in the control subjects (P < .001). Mean TTP and mean MTT correlated directly with mPAP and PVR index (P < .005). At multiple linear regression analysis, MTT was the only factor independently associated with PVR index and mPAP.

Conclusion: Three-dimensional time-resolved MR angiography enables determination of pulmonary hemodynamic parameters that correlate significantly with the pulmonary hemodynamic parameters obtained with invasive methods and may represent a complementary tool for evaluating pulmonary hypertension in patients with CPFE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.09081546DOI Listing
February 2010

A pilot comparison of helium dilution and plethysmographic lung volumes to assess the impact of a long-acting bronchodilator on lung hyperinflation in COPD.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2009 Dec 27;22(6):522-5. Epub 2009 May 27.

Unit of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Background: Currently, two methods for measuring TLC, RV, and FRC are used in clinical pulmonary function laboratories: body plethysmography and helium dilution. However, these methods are not interchangeable. In moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction, dilution method tends to underestimate and body plethysmography tends to overestimate RV.

Purpose: In 21 patients suffering from COPD (basal FEV(1): 56.69+/-13.64), we investigated whether the two methods of measuring FRC and RV could respond differently to a 2-week treatment with tiotropium 18 microg/day.

Main Results: Tiotropium induced a significant increase in FEV(1) and FVC but not in IC. At baseline, FRC(pleth), RV(pleth) and TLC(pleth) were higher than FRC(He), RV(He) and TLC(He). At the end of the study FRC(pleth), RV(pleth) and TLC(pleth) decreased and FRC(He), RV(He) and TLC(He) increased but only changes in FRC(pleth) and RV(pleth) were statistically significant.

Conclusion: The use of body plethysmography seems to be more appropriate in clinical trials aimed at assessing the impact of a therapeutic procedure in patients with COPD and lung hyperinflation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2009.05.005DOI Listing
December 2009

HRCT and histopathological evaluation of fibrosis and tissue destruction in IPF associated with pulmonary emphysema.

Respir Med 2008 Dec 23;102(12):1753-61. Epub 2008 Aug 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has been associated with emphysema in cigarette smokers as a new clinical entity: combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). In order to compare histomorphometrical, roentgenological and immunohistochemical aspects of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) with and without associated pulmonary emphysema, 17 patients with biopsy-proven UIP were evaluated. Morphometrical evaluation of lung parenchyma destruction was used to divide patients in two subgroups: emphysema/UIP (n=9) and UIP alone (n=8); four patients with biopsy-proven emphysema without fibrosis were also evaluated. At HRTC scan, emphysematous lesions were prevalent in the upper fields of both emphysema/UIP and emphysema groups and the distribution of fibrotic lesions was similar in emphysema/UIP compared to UIP alone. The semiquantitative histopathological fibrotic score was also similar in emphysema/UIP and UIP alone. In addition, the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, MMP-7 and membrane type 1-metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) by fibroblasts of myofibroblastic foci was similar in emphysema/UIP and UIP alone patients. In contrast, fibroblasts in areas of parenchymal destruction of emphysema/UIP expressed MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-7 and MT1-MMP at variable but significantly higher levels when compared to emphysema subjects, in the presence of similar levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TNF-alpha. Fibrotic and emphysematous lesions in emphysema/UIP patients appear to follow the roentgenological and histopathological patterns expected for either UIP or emphysema. Interstitial fibroblast activation is more pronounced in the areas of lung destruction in emphysema/UIP compared to those with emphysema alone, as for exaggerated tissue remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2008.07.010DOI Listing
December 2008

Inflammation--a new therapeutic target in pneumonia.

Respiration 2005 Mar-Apr;72(2):117-26

Unit of Pneumology and Allergology, Department of Respiratory Medicine, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy.

Inflammation is a hallmark of pneumonia. Therefore, managing inflammation is an attractive adjunct to targeted antibiotic therapy, mainly in severe pneumonia. Recent investigations indicate that glucocorticoids given in physiological doses (from 10-fold to 100-fold less than doses administered in the past) could be of benefit. We could also manage inflammation by administering or influencing cytokines. A major concern is that drugs designed to target a single cytokine or receptor could prove ineffective due to the redundancy of signaling pathways involved. This may require selection of drugs with broad activity or the targeting of molecules common to inflammatory signaling pathways. Drugs affecting multiple molecules or key inflammatory pathway intermediates could be more effective, but their use will need to be weighed against the risk of impairing innate immunity. Indirect approaches to manage inflammation, such as neutralizing cytotoxic substances in the lung (e.g., inhibiting, neutralizing and eliminating endotoxin), could be used in combination with other approaches. Ideally, potential treatment of life-threatening bacterial pneumonia will combine immunoadjuvant and conventional antibiotic therapy, although intense clinical research with immunotherapy has not yet yielded a successful treatment adjunct. We believe that compounds capable of stimulating early host defense and microbial clearance, but not the later phases of inflammatory tissue injury associated with sepsis, may be advantageous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000084039DOI Listing
August 2005
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