Publications by authors named "Gabriella B Lundkvist"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Medicine in the Fourth Dimension.

Cell Metab 2019 08;30(2):238-250

Experimental Audiology, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

The importance of circadian biology has rarely been considered in pre-clinical studies, and even more when translating to the bedside. Circadian biology is becoming a critical factor for improving drug efficacy and diminishing drug toxicity. Indeed, there is emerging evidence showing that some drugs are more effective at nighttime than daytime, whereas for others it is the opposite. This suggests that the biology of the target cell will determine how an organ will respond to a drug at a specific time of the day, thus modulating pharmacodynamics. Thus, it is now time that circadian factors become an integral part of translational research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2019.06.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6881776PMC
August 2019

Differential Phase Arrangement of Cellular Clocks along the Tonotopic Axis of the Mouse Cochlea Ex Vivo.

Curr Biol 2017 Sep 17;27(17):2623-2629.e2. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Topological distributions of individual cellular clocks have not been demonstrated in peripheral organs. The cochlea displays circadian patterns of core clock gene expression [1, 2]. PER2 protein is expressed in the hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons of the cochlea in the spiral ganglion neurons [1]. To investigate the topological organization of cellular oscillators in the cochlea, we recorded circadian rhythms from mouse cochlear explants using highly sensitive real-time tracking of PER2::LUC bioluminescence. Here, we show cell-autonomous and self-sustained oscillations originating from hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. Multi-phased cellular clocks were arranged along the length of the cochlea with oscillations initiating at the apex (low-frequency region) and traveling toward the base (high-frequency region). Phase differences of 3 hr were found between cellular oscillators in the apical and middle regions and from isolated individual cochlear regions, indicating that cellular networks organize the rhythms along the tonotopic axis. This is the first demonstration of a spatiotemporal arrangement of circadian clocks at the cellular level in a peripheral organ. Cochlear rhythms were disrupted in the presence of either voltage-gated potassium channel blocker (TEA) or extracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA), demonstrating that multiple types of ion channels contribute to the maintenance of coherent rhythms. In contrast, preventing action potentials with tetrodotoxin (TTX) or interfering with cell-to-cell communication the broad-spectrum gap junction blocker (CBX [carbenoxolone]) had no influence on cochlear rhythms. These findings highlight a dynamic regulation and longitudinal distribution of cellular clocks in the cochlea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.07.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899219PMC
September 2017

Altered circadian clock gene expression in patients with schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2016 07 28;174(1-3):17-23. Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Retzius väg 8, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Impaired circadian rhythmicity has been reported in several psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is commonly associated with aberrant sleep-wake cycles and insomnia. It is not known if schizophrenia is associated with disturbances in molecular rhythmicity. We cultured fibroblasts from skin samples obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia and from healthy controls, respectively, and analyzed the circadian expression during 48h of the clock genes CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, PER2, CRY1, CRY2, REV-ERBα and DBP. In fibroblasts obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia, we found a loss of rhythmic expression of CRY1 and PER2 compared to cells from healthy controls. We also estimated the sleep quality in these patients and found that most of them suffered from poor sleep in comparison with the healthy controls. In another patient sample, we analyzed mononuclear blood cells from patients with schizophrenia experiencing their first episode of psychosis, and found decreased expression of CLOCK, PER2 and CRY1 compared to blood cells from healthy controls. These novel findings show disturbances in the molecular clock in schizophrenia and have important implications in our understanding of the aberrant rhythms reported in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2016.04.029DOI Listing
July 2016

Repeated psychosocial stress at night, but not day, affects the central molecular clock.

Chronobiol Int 2014 Nov 22;31(9):996-1007. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Department of Neurobiology and Genetics, Biocenter, University of Würzburg , Würzburg , Germany .

We have recently demonstrated that the outcome of repeated social defeat (SD) on behavior, physiology and immunology is more negative when applied during the dark/active phase as compared with the light/inactive phase of male C57BL/6 mice. Here, we investigated the effects of the same stress paradigm, which combines a psychosocial and novelty stressor, on the circadian clock in transgenic PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) and wildtype (WT) mice by subjecting them to repeated SD, either in the early light phase (social defeat light = SDL) or in the early dark phase (social defeat dark = SDD) across 19 days. The PER2::LUC rhythms and clock gene mRNA expression were analyzed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the adrenal gland, and PER2 protein expression in the SCN was assessed. SDD mice showed increased PER2::LUC rhythm amplitude in the SCN, reduced Per2 and Cryptochrome1 mRNA expression in the adrenal gland, and increased PER2 protein expression in the posterior part of the SCN compared with single-housed control (SHC) and SDL mice. In contrast, PER2::LUC rhythms in the SCN of SDL mice were not affected. However, SDL mice exhibited a 2-hour phase advance of the PER2::LUC rhythm in the adrenal gland compared to SHC mice. Furthermore, plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and BDNF mRNA in the SCN were elevated in SDL mice. Taken together, these results show that the SCN molecular rhythmicity is affected by repeated SDD, but not SDL, while the adrenal peripheral clock is influenced mainly by SDL. The observed increase in BDNF in the SDL group may act to protect against the negative consequences of repeated psychosocial stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2014.940085DOI Listing
November 2014

Human cellular differences in cAMP--CREB signaling correlate with light-dependent melatonin suppression and bipolar disorder.

Eur J Neurosci 2014 Jul 5;40(1):2206-15. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, 190 Winterthurerstrasse, Zurich, Switzerland.

Various lines of evidence suggest a mechanistic role for altered cAMP-CREB (cAMP response element - binding protein) signaling in depressive and affective disorders. However, the establishment and validation of human inter-individual differences in this and other major signaling pathways has proven difficult. Here, we describe a novel lentiviral methodology to investigate signaling variation over long periods of time directly in human primary fibroblasts. On a cellular level, this method showed surprisingly large inter-individual differences in three major signaling pathways in human subjects that nevertheless correlated with cellular measures of genome-wide transcription and drug toxicity. We next validated this method by establishing a likely role for cAMP-mediated signaling in a human neuroendocrine response to light - the light-dependent suppression of the circadian hormone melatonin - that shows wide inter-individual differences of unknown origin in vivo. Finally, we show an overall greater magnitude of cellular CREB signaling in individuals with bipolar disorder, suggesting a possible role for this signaling pathway in susceptibility to mental disease. Overall, our results suggest that genetic differences in major signaling pathways can be reliably detected with sensitive viral-based reporter profiling, and that these differences can be conserved across tissues and be predictive of physiology and disease susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.12602DOI Listing
July 2014

Activation of kynurenine pathway in ex vivo fibroblasts from patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia: cytokine challenge increases production of 3-hydroxykynurenine.

J Psychiatr Res 2013 Nov 23;47(11):1815-23. Epub 2013 Aug 23.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.

Accumulating data suggest a causative link between immune stimulation, disturbed metabolism of tryptophan, and pathogenesis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to examine the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and the expression of kynurenine pathway enzymes involved in their synthesis and metabolism in cultured skin fibroblasts obtained from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or from healthy control individuals. The assessment was performed under basal conditions or following treatment with interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, or their combinations, in cells exposed to exogenous kynurenine. In both groups of patients, the baseline production of KYNA and 3-HK was increased, as compared to control subjects. Case-treatment analyses revealed significant interactions between bipolar case status and IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ + TNF-α, or IFN-γ + IL-1β, as well as between schizophrenia case status and IL-1β, IFN-γ + TNF-α, or IFN-γ + IL-1β, in terms of higher 3-HK. Noteworthy, no case-treatment interactions in terms of KYNA production were found. Observed changes did not appear to correlate with the expression of genes encoding kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs), kynureninase (KYNU) or kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1053230 and rs2275163, in KMO influenced KYNA levels yet did not explain the case-treatment discrepancies. In conclusion, our present findings indicate the utility of skin-derived fibroblasts for kynurenines research and support the concept of kynurenine pathway alterations in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The increase in ratio between neurotoxic 3-HK and neuroinhibitory/neuroprotective KYNA following exposure to cytokines may account for altered neurogenesis and structural abnormalities characteristic for both diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.08.008DOI Listing
November 2013

Valproic acid phase shifts the rhythmic expression of Period2::Luciferase.

J Biol Rhythms 2011 Dec;26(6):541-51

Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant used to treat bipolar disorder, a psychiatric disease associated with disturbances in circadian rhythmicity. Little is known about how VPA affects circadian rhythms. The authors cultured tissues containing the master brain pacemaker for circadian rhythmicity, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), and skin fibroblasts from transgenic PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) mice and studied the effect of VPA on the circadian PER2::LUC rhythm by measuring bioluminescence. VPA (1 mM) significantly phase advanced the PER2::LUC rhythm when applied at a time point corresponding to the lowest (trough, ~ZT 0) PER2::LUC expression but phase delayed the PER2::LUC rhythm when the drug was administered at the time of highest (peak, ~ZT 12) protein expression. In addition, it significantly increased the overall amplitude of PER2::LUC oscillations at time points at or close to ZT 12 but had no effect on period. Real-time PCR analyses on mouse and human fibroblasts revealed that expressions of other clock genes were increased after 2 h treatment with VPA. Because VPA is known to inhibit histone deacetylation, the authors treated cultures with an established histone deacetylation inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA; 20 ng/mL), to compare the effect of VPA and TSA on molecular rhythmicity. They found that TSA had similar effects on the PER2::LUC rhythm as VPA. Furthermore, VPA and TSA significantly increased acetylation on histone H3 but in comparison little on histone H4. Lithium is another commonly used treatment for bipolar disorder. Therefore, the authors also studied the impact of lithium chloride (LiCl; 10 mM) on the PER2::LUC rhythm. LiCl delayed the phase, but in contrast to VPA and TSA, LiCl lengthened the PER2::LUC period and had no effect on histone acetylation. These results demonstrate that VPA can delay or advance the phase, as well as increase the amplitude, of the PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE rhythm depending on the circadian time of application. Furthermore, the authors show that LiCl delays the phase and lengthens the period of the PER2::LUC rhythm, confirming previous reports on circadian lithium effects. These different molecular effects may underlie differential chronotherapeutic effects of VPA and lithium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748730411419775DOI Listing
December 2011

Slice preparation, organotypic tissue culturing and luciferase recording of clock gene activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

J Vis Exp 2011 Feb 15(48). Epub 2011 Feb 15.

Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.

A central circadian (~24 hr) clock coordinating daily rhythms in physiology and behavior resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) located in the anterior hypothalamus. The clock is directly synchronized by light via the retina and optic nerve. Circadian oscillations are generated by interacting negative feedback loops of a number of so called "clock genes" and their protein products, including the Period (Per) genes. The core clock is also dependent on membrane depolarization, calcium and cAMP. The SCN shows daily oscillations in clock gene expression, metabolic activity and spontaneous electrical activity. Remarkably, this endogenous cyclic activity persists in adult tissue slices of the SCN. In this way, the biological clock can easily be studied in vitro, allowing molecular, electrophysiological and metabolic investigations of the pacemaker function. The SCN is a small, well-defined bilateral structure located right above the optic chiasm. In the rat it contains ~8.000 neurons in each nucleus and has dimensions of approximately 947 μm (length, rostrocaudal axis) x 424 μm (width) x 390 μm (height). To dissect out the SCN it is necessary to cut a brain slice at the specific level of the brain where the SCN can be identified. Here, we describe the dissecting and slicing procedure of the SCN, which is similar for mouse and rat brains. Further, we show how to culture the dissected tissue organotypically on a membrane, a technique developed for SCN tissue culture by Yamazaki et al. Finally, we demonstrate how transgenic tissue can be used for measuring expression of clock genes/proteins using dynamic luciferase reporter technology, a method that originally was used for circadian measurements by Geusz et al. We here use SCN tissues from the transgenic knock-in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE mice produced by Yoo et al. The mice contain a fusion protein of PERIOD (PER) 2 and the firefly enzyme LUCIFERASE. When PER2 is translated in the presence of the substrate for luciferase, i.e. luciferin, the PER2 expression can be monitored as bioluminescence when luciferase catalyzes the oxidation of luciferin. The number of emitted photons positively correlates to the amount of produced PER2 protein, and the bioluminescence rhythms match the PER2 protein rhythm in vivo. In this way the cyclic variation in PER2 expression can be continuously monitored real time during many days. The protocol we follow for tissue culturing and real-time bioluminescence recording has been thoroughly described by Yamazaki and Takahashi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/2439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3197397PMC
February 2011

Clock gene expression during chronic inflammation induced by infection with Trypanosoma brucei brucei in rats.

J Biol Rhythms 2010 Apr;25(2):92-102

Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

African sleeping sickness is characterized by alterations in rhythmic functions. It is not known if the disease affects the expression of clock genes, which are the molecular basis for rhythm generation. We used a chronic rat model of experimental sleeping sickness, caused by the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Tb brucei), to study the effects on clock gene expression. In tissue explants of pituitary glands from Period1-luciferase (Per1-luc) transgenic rats infected with Tb brucei, the period of Per1-luc expression was significantly shorter. In explants containing the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the Per1-luc rhythms were flat in 21% of the tissues. We also examined the relative expression of Per1, Clock, and Bmal1 mRNA in the SCN, pineal gland, and spleen from control and infected rats using qPCR. Both Clock and Bmal1 mRNA expression was reduced in the pineal gland and spleen following Tb brucei infection. Infected rats were periodic both in core body temperature and in locomotor activity; however, early after infection, we observed a significant decline in the amplitude of the locomotor activity rhythm. In addition, both activity and body temperature rhythms exhibited decreased regularity and "robustness." In conclusion, although experimental trypanosome infection has previously been shown to cause functional disturbances in SCN neurons, only 21% of the SCN explants had disturbed Per1-luc rhythms. However, our data show that the infection overall alters molecular clock function in peripheral clocks including the pituitary gland, pineal gland, and spleen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748730409360963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2897063PMC
April 2010

Rapid nitric oxide-dependent effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on suprachiasmatic nuclei neuronal activity.

Neuroreport 2009 Jan;20(2):213-7

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on excitability and synaptic function was analyzed in slice preparations of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the major mammalian circadian pacemaker. TNF-alpha caused a rapid increase in the spontaneous firing rate in most SCN neurons examined that was paralleled by an increase of inhibitory postsynaptic currents. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester abolished these effects. No effect of TNF-alpha was found on miniature synaptic currents. The lack of effect on miniature synaptic currents indicates that TNF-alpha primarily affects neuronal membrane properties to cause the changes in spontaneous firing. TNF-alpha, levels of which show circadian variation in the brain and increase during inflammatory conditions and aging, may thus through nitric oxide induction modulate SCN electrical output to affect downstream circadian rhythms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0b013e32831f1ca2DOI Listing
January 2009

Interferon-gamma alters electrical activity and clock gene expression in suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

J Biol Rhythms 2008 Apr;23(2):150-9

Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

The proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN-gamma) is an immunomodulatory molecule released by immune cells. It was originally described as an antiviral agent but can also affect functions in the nervous system including circadian activity of the principal mammalian circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. IFN-gamma and the synergistically acting cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha acutely decrease spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic activity and alter spiking activity in tissue preparations of the SCN. Because IFN-gamma can be released chronically during infections, the authors studied the long-term effects of IFN-gamma on SCN neurons by treating dispersed rat SCN cultures with IFN-gamma over a 4-week period. They analyzed the effect of the treatment on the spontaneous spiking pattern and rhythmic expression of the "clock gene," Period 1. They found that cytokine-treated cells exhibited a lower average spiking frequency and displayed a more irregular firing pattern when compared with controls. Furthermore, long-term treatment with IFN-gamma in cultures obtained from a transgenic Per1-luciferase rat significantly reduced the Per1-luc rhythm amplitude in individual SCN neurons. These results show that IFN-gamma can alter the electrical properties and circadian clock gene expression in SCN neurons. The authors hypothesize that IFN-gamma can modulate circadian output, which may be associated with sleep and rhythm disturbances observed in certain infections and in aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748730407313355DOI Listing
April 2008

A calcium flux is required for circadian rhythm generation in mammalian pacemaker neurons.

J Neurosci 2005 Aug;25(33):7682-6

Center for Biological Timing, Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA.

Generation of mammalian circadian rhythms involves molecular transcriptional and translational feedback loops. It is not clear how membrane events interact with the intracellular molecular clock or whether membrane activities are involved in the actual generation of the circadian rhythm. We examined the role of membrane potential and calcium (Ca2+) influx in the expression of the circadian rhythm of the clock gene Period 1 (Per1) within the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master pacemaker controlling circadian rhythmicity. Membrane hyperpolarization, caused by lowering the extracellular concentration of potassium or blocking Ca2+ influx in SCN cultures by lowering [Ca2+], reversibly abolished the rhythmic expression of Per1. In addition, the amplitude of Per1 expression was markedly decreased by voltage-gated Ca2+ channel antagonists. A similar result was observed for mouse Per1 and PER2. Together, these results strongly suggest that a transmembrane Ca2+ flux is necessary for sustained molecular rhythmicity in the SCN. We propose that periodic Ca2+ influx, resulting from circadian variations in membrane potential, is a critical process for circadian pacemaker function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2211-05.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6725395PMC
August 2005

Role of neuronal membrane events in circadian rhythm generation.

Methods Enzymol 2005 ;393:623-42

Department of Biology, Center for Biological Timing, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA.

Circadian clock systems are composed of an input or "entrainment" pathway by which synchronization to the external environment occurs, a pacemaker responsible for generating rhythmicity, and an output or "expression" pathway through which rhythmic signals act to modulate physiology and behavior. The circadian pacemaker contains molecular feedback loops of rhythmically expressed genes and their protein products, which, through interactions, generate a circa 24-h cycle of transcription and translation of clock and clock-controlled genes. Neuronal membrane events appear to play major roles in entrainment of circadian rhythms in mollusks and mammals. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus receive photic information via the retinohypothalamic tract. Retinal signals, mediated by glutamate, induce calcium release and activate a number of intracellular cascades involved in photic gating and phase shifting. Membrane events are also involved in rhythm expression. Calcium and potassium currents influence the electrical output of pacemaker neurons by altering shape and intervals of impulse prepotentials, afterhyperpolarization periods, and interspike intervals, as well as altering membrane potentials and thereby shaping the spontaneous rhythmic spiking patterns. Unlike the involvement of membrane events in circadian entrainment and expression, it is less clear whether electrical activity, postsynaptic events, and transmembrane ion fluxes also are essential elements in rhythm generation. Studies, however, suggest that neuronal membrane activity may indeed play a crucial role in circadian rhythm generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(05)93033-4DOI Listing
November 2008

Why trypanosomes cause sleeping sickness.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2004 Aug;19:198-206

Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is hallmarked by sleep and wakefulness disturbances. In contrast to other infections, there is no hypersomnia, but the sleep pattern is fragmented. This overview discusses that the causative agents, the parasites Trypanosoma brucei, target circumventricular organs in the brain, causing inflammatory responses in hypothalamic structures that may lead to dysfunctions in the circadian-timing and sleep-regulatory systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00006.2004DOI Listing
August 2004

The suprachiasmatic nucleus exhibits diurnal variations in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic activity.

J Biol Rhythms 2002 Feb;17(1):40-51

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

A most prominent feature of neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the circadian rhythm in spontaneous firing frequency. To disclose synaptic mechanisms associated with the rhythmic activity, the spontaneous postsynaptic activity was studied using whole-cell, patch clamp recordings in the ventral region of the SCN in slice preparations from rats. The synaptic events were compared between two time intervals corresponding to the highest and lowest electrical activity within the SCN during subjective daytime and nighttime, respectively. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated spontaneous inhibitory activity showed no diurnal variations, but the excitatory activity was markedly higher in frequency, without differences in amplitude, during the subjective day compared to the subjective night. Spontaneous and evoked inhibitory synaptic events were blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. The alpha-amino-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA/kainate) receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (CNQX) blocked most of the excitatory activity. In addition, CNQX reduced the spontaneous inhibitory activity. The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid reduced the inhibitory activity to a lesser degree, and there was no significant difference in amplitude or frequency of synaptic events in control and Mg2+-free solutions, indicating that the AMPA receptor plays an important role in regulating the inhibitory release of GABA within the SCN. Ipsi- and contralateral stimulation of the SCN consistently evoked excitatory synaptic responses. Inhibitory synaptic responses occurred in some neurons upon increasing stimulus strength. In conclusion, this study shows that there is a substantial influence from spontaneous glutamatergic synapses on the ventral part of the SCN and that these exhibit daily variations in activity. Diurnal fluctuations in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic activity within this network may contribute to the mechanisms for synchronization of rhythms between individual SCN neurons and may underlie the daily variations in the spontaneous firing frequency of SCN neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074873002129002320DOI Listing
February 2002