Publications by authors named "Gabriela Irazoqui"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Structural insights in galectin-1-glycan recognition: Relevance of the glycosidic linkage and the N-acetylation pattern of sugar moieties.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Aug 14;44:116309. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Departamento de Biociencias, Facultad de Química, UdelaR, Gral. Flores, 2124, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:

Galectins, soluble lectins widely expressed intra- and extracellularly in different cell types, play major roles in deciphering the cellular glycocode. Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a prototype member of this family, presents a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with specific affinity for β-galactosides such as N-acetyllactosamine (β-d-Galp-(1 → 4)-d-GlcpNAc), and mediate numerous physiological and pathological processes. In this work, Gal-1 binding affinity for β-(1 → 6) galactosides, including β-d-Galp-(1 → 6)-β-d-GlcpNAc-(1 → 4)-d-GlcpNAc was evaluated, and their performance was compared to that of β-(1 → 4) and β-(1 → 3) galactosides. To this end, the trisaccharide β-d-Galp-(1 → 6)-β-d-GlcpNAc-(1 → 4)-d-GlcpNAc was enzymatically synthesized, purified and structurally characterized. To evaluate the affinity of Gal-1 for the galactosides, competitive solid phase assays (SPA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies were carried out. The experimental dissociation constants and binding energies obtained were compared to those calculated by molecular docking. These analyses evidenced the critical role of the glycosidic linkage between the terminal galactopyranoside residue and the adjacent monosaccharide, as galactosides bearing β-(1 → 6) glycosidic linkages showed dissociation constants six- and seven-fold higher than those involving β-(1 → 4) and β-(1 → 3) linkages, respectively. Moreover, docking experiments revealed the presence of hydrogen bond interactions between the N-acetyl group of the glucosaminopyranose moiety of the evaluated galactosides and specific amino acid residues of Gal-1, relevant for galectin-glycan affinity. Noticeably, the binding free energies (ΔG) derived from the molecular docking were in good agreement with experimental values determined by ITC measurements (ΔG), evidencing a good correlation between theoretical and experimental approaches, which validates the in silico simulations and constitutes an important tool for the rational design of future optimized ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2021.116309DOI Listing
August 2021

Enzymatic synthesis of non-natural trisaccharides and galactosides; Insights of their interaction with galectins as a function of their structure.

Carbohydr Res 2019 Jan 3;472:1-15. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Departamento de Biociencias, Facultad de Química, UdelaR, Gral. Flores, 2124, Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:

Galectins are a family of carbohydrate-recognizing proteins that by interacting with specific glycoepitopes can mediate important biological processes, including immune cell homeostasis and activation of tolerogenic circuits. Among the different members of this family, Galectin 1 and 3 have shown pro-tumorigenic effects, being overexpressed in numerous neoplasic diseases, proving to be relevant in tumor immune escape, tumor progression and resistance to drug-induced apoptosis. Thus, generation of specific glycosides that could inhibit their pro-tumorigenic ability by blocking their carbohydrate recognition domain is one of the current major challenges in the field. Considering that galectin-ligand binding strength is closely related to the ligand structure, analysis of this relationship provides valuable information for rational design of high-affinity ligands that could work as effective galectin inhibitors. Taking profit of the ability of glycosidases to catalyze transglycosylation reactions we achieved the enzymatic synthesis of β-d-Galp-(1 → 6)-β-d-Galp-(1 → 4)-d-Glcp(2), a mixture of β-d-Galp-(1 → 6)-β-d-Glcp-(1 → 4)-d-Glcp(5) and β-d-Galp-(1 → 3)-β-d-Glcp-(1 → 4)-d-Glcp(6), and finally benzyl β-d-galactopyranoside (9), with reaction yields between 16 and 27%. All the galactosides were purified, and characterized using H and C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Docking results performed between the synthesized compounds and human Galectin 1 (hGal-1) and human Galectin 3 (hGal-3) showed that the replacement of a glucose moiety linked to the terminal galactose with a galactose moiety, decreases the affinity for these galectins. Moreover, regarding the interglycosidic bond the most favorable β-Gal linkage seems to be β(1 → 4) followed by β(1 → 3) and β(1 → 6) for hGal-1, and β(1 → 4) followed by β(1 → 6) and β(1 → 3) for hGal-3. These results were in accordance with the IC50 values obtained with in vitro solid phase inhibition assays. Therefore, docking results obtained in this work proved to be a very good approximation for predicting binding affinity of novel galactosides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2018.10.011DOI Listing
January 2019

A novel thermophilic and halophilic esterase from Janibacter sp. R02, the first member of a new lipase family (Family XVII).

Enzyme Microb Technol 2017 Mar 31;98:86-95. Epub 2016 Dec 31.

Bioscience Department, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Gral. Flores 2124, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:

Janibacter sp. strain R02 (BNM 560) was isolated in our laboratory from an Antarctic soil sample. A remarkable trait of the strain was its high lipolytic activity, detected in Rhodamine-olive oil supplemented plates. Supernatants of Janibacter sp. R02 displayed superb activity on transesterification of acyl glycerols, thus being a good candidate for lipase prospection. Considering the lack of information concerning lipases of the genus Janibacter, we focused on the identification, cloning, expression and characterization of the extracellular lipases of this strain. By means of sequence alignment and clustering of consensus nucleotide sequences, a DNA fragment of 1272bp was amplified, cloned and expressed in E. coli. The resulting recombinant enzyme, named LipJ2, showed preference for short to medium chain-length substrates, and displayed maximum activity at 80°C and pH 8-9, being strongly activated by a mixture of Na and K. The enzyme presented an outstanding stability regarding both pH and temperature. Bioinformatics analysis of the amino acid sequence of LipJ2 revealed the presence of a consensus catalytic triad and a canonical pentapeptide. However, two additional rare motifs were found in LipJ2: an SXXL β-lactamase motif and two putative Y-type oxyanion holes (YAP). Although some of the previous features could allow assigning LipJ2 to the bacterial lipase families VIII or X, the phylogenetic analysis showed that LipJ2 clusters apart from other members of known lipase families, indicating that the newly isolated Janibacter esterase LipJ2 would be the first characterized member of a new family of bacterial lipases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2016.12.010DOI Listing
March 2017

Synthesis of Oligosaccharides Derived from Lactulose (OsLu) Using Soluble and Immobilized Aspergillus oryzae β-Galactosidase.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2016 7;4:21. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

Departamento Producción y Caracterización de Nuevos Alimentos, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación (CIAL, CSIC-UAM) , Madrid , Spain.

β-Galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae offers a high yield for the synthesis of oligosaccharides derived from lactulose (OsLu) by transgalactosylation. Oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (DP) ≥ 3 have shown to possess higher in vitro bifidogenic effect than di- and tetrasaccharides. Thus, in this work, an optimization of reaction conditions affecting the specific selectivity of A. oryzae β-galactosidase for synthesis of OsLu has been carried out to enhance OsLu with DP ≥ 3 production. Assays with β-galactosidase immobilized onto a glutaraldehyde-agarose support were also carried out with the aim of making the process cost-effective and industrially viable. Optimal conditions with both soluble and immobilized enzyme for the synthesis of OsLu with DP ≥ 3 were 50 °C, pH 6.5, 450 g/L of lactulose, and 8 U/mL of enzyme, reaching yields of ca. 50% (w/v) of total OsLu and ca. 20% (w/v) of OsLu with DP 3, being 6'-galactosyl-lactulose the major one, after a short reaction time. Selective formation of disaccharides, however, was favored at 60 °C, pH 4.5, 450 g/L of lactulose and 8 U/mL of enzyme. Immobilization increased the enzymatic stability to temperature changes and allowed to reuse the enzyme. We can conclude that the use, under determined optimal conditions, of the A. oryzae β-galactosidase immobilized on a support of glutaraldehyde-agarose constitutes an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the use of soluble β-galactosidases for the synthesis of prebiotic OsLu mixtures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2016.00021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4780266PMC
March 2016

Enzymatic generation of chitooligosaccharides from chitosan using soluble and immobilized glycosyltransferase (Branchzyme).

J Agric Food Chem 2013 Oct 16;61(43):10360-7. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Departamento Bioactividad y Análisis de Alimentos, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación, CIAL (CSIC-UAM), CEI (UAM+CSIC) , Nicolás Cabrera, 9, 28049, Madrid, Spain.

Chitooligosaccharides possessing remarkable biological properties can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin. In this work, the chitosanase activity of soluble and immobilized glycosyltransferase (Branchzyme) toward chitosan and biochemical characterization are described for the first time. This enzyme was found to be homotetrameric with a molecular weight of 256 kDa, an isoelectric point of 5.3, and an optimal temperature range of between 50 and 60 °C. It was covalently immobilized to glutaraldehyde-agarose with protein and activity immobilization yields of 67% and 17%, respectively. Immobilization improved enzyme stability, increasing its half-life 5-fold, and allowed enzyme reuse for at least 25 consecutive cycles. The chitosanase activity of Branchzyme on chitosan was similar for the soluble and immobilized forms. The reaction mixture was constituted by chitooligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization of between 2 and 20, with a higher concentration having degrees of polymerization of 3-8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf403321rDOI Listing
October 2013

Enzymatic synthesis of 2-aminoethyl β-D-galactopyranoside catalyzed by Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase.

Carbohydr Res 2013 Mar 19;368:104-10. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

Cátedra de Bioquímica, Dpto. de Biociencias, Facultad de Química, UdelaR, Gral. Flores 2124, CC 1157, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Glycosidases provide a powerful resource for in vitro synthesis of novel anomerically pure glycosides. Generation of new low molecular weight galactosides is of interest since they are potential galectin inhibitors. Galectins are molecular targets for cancer therapy and thus their inhibitors are potential antitumor agents. Here we report the enzymatic synthesis and structural characterization of 2-aminoethyl β-D-galactopyranoside. Critical parameters for transgalactosylation using either soluble or immobilized enzyme were investigated and optimized for the galactoside synthesis. We found that 0.2 M lactose, and 0.5 M 2-aminoethanol at 50 °C for 30 min were the optimal conditions for synthesis. 2-Aminoethanol proved to be an enzyme inhibitor, fitting a mixed inhibition model with inhibition constants, K(ic)=0.31±0.04 M and K(iu)=0.604±0.035 M.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2012.12.009DOI Listing
March 2013

Characterization of galactosyl derivatives obtained by transgalactosylation of lactose and different polyols using immobilized beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae.

J Agric Food Chem 2009 Dec;57(23):11302-7

Departamento de Biociencias, Facultad de Química, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

The synthesis of novel galactosides is interesting because of their important role in several biological processes. Their properties greatly depend upon the configuration and type of galactoside. Therefore, to study biological activity, it is essential to elucidate the structure of the products. Glycosidases are capable of catalyzing glycosidic linkages with absolute stereoselectivity of the anomeric center. We report the enzymatic synthesis of galactosyl-ethylene glycol, galactosyl-glycerol, and galactosyl-erythritol by immobilized beta-galactosidase from Aspegillus oryzae. The obtained galactosides were isolated and fully characterized by an extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study. Complete structure elucidation and full proton and carbon assignments were carried out using 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D (gCOSY, TOCSY, multiplicity-edited gHSQC, and gHMBC) NMR experiments. The beta-galactosidase from A. oryzae showed a strong preference for primary alcohols. For galactosyl-glycerol and galactosyl-erythritol, this preference generated one and two chiral centers, respectively, and a mixture of stereoisomers was obtained as a consequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf901834kDOI Listing
December 2009

Covalent immobilization of tobacco-etch-virus NIa protease: a useful tool for cleavage of the histidine tag of recombinant proteins.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2009 May 29;53(Pt 3):165-74. Epub 2009 May 29.

Centro de Biologia Molecular Estrutural, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

Addition of tags [such as His (histidine) tags] is extremely helpful for the affinity purification of recombinant proteins. In several cases, these tags must be removed before performing functional and structural studies. The enzyme most frequently used to cleave tags of recombinant proteins is the TEV-protease (tobacco-etch-virus NIa protease). The continuous production of this enzyme in soluble form is quite an expensive process and not easily accessible to many laboratories. Thus an interesting alternative is the use of TEV-protease in an immobilized form, which may be reutilized several times. The main objective of the present study was to obtain a TEV-protease in an immobilized form, by covalent immobilization on to solid supports through selective use of different amino acid residues, lysine or cysteine. High protein immobilization yields (75-97%) were obtained with both strategies. The TEV-protease immobilized through its exposed cysteine thiol groups maintained its ability for cleaving a 20 kDa substrate. While the activity of the immobilized TEV-protease maintained only 30% of the activity of the enzyme in soluble form, its stability at 4 degrees C was improved three times. Moreover, this enzyme could be reutilized in at least five cycles of cleavage without loss of performance. The present results indicate that the use of a TEV-protease in an immobilized form is a potentially useful tool for the cleavage of His tags of recombinant proteins and may be useful for reducing the cost of the total process of cleavage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BA20080063DOI Listing
May 2009

Generating favorable nano-environments for thermal and solvent stabilization of immobilized beta-galactosidase.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2002 Feb;77(4):430-4

Cátedra de Bioquímica, Facultad de Química, Gral. Flores 2124, CC 1157, Montevideo, Uruguay.

beta-Galactosidase (Escherichia coli) was immobilized through its thiol groups on thiolsulfinate-agarose gel. After enzyme immobilization, different nano-environments were generated by reacting the excess of gel-bound thiolsulfinate moieties with 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (S-gel), glutathione (G-gel), cysteamine (C-gel), and mercaptoethanol (M-gel). Concerning thermal stability at 50 degrees C, the G-gel and the M-gel derivatives were the most stable with residual activity values of 67% and 45%, respectively. The stability in several solvent systems was studied: ethyl acetate (1.6% vol/vol), ethylene glycol (50% vol/vol), and 2-propanol (50% vol/vol). In ethyl acetate, both the M-gel and S-gel were highly stabilized; the time required for activity to decay to 80% of the initial activity was increased 29-fold for the M-gel and 20-fold for the S-gel with respect to the soluble enzyme. The G-gel was the least stable of all the derivatives. The different behaviors of the derivatives in thermal and solvent stability studies suggest that each nano-environment contributes differently to the enzyme stability, depending on the denaturing conditions. Therefore, it may be possible to tailor the matrix surface to maximize enzyme stability in particular applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.10109DOI Listing
February 2002
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