Publications by authors named "Gabriela Cardozo"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biomarkers of bone and mineral disorders (FGF-23, fetuin-A) and vascular calcification scores as predictive tools for cardiovascular death in dialysis patients, at 10 years of follow-up.

Medicina (B Aires) 2021 ;81(2):191-197

Servicio de Nefrología, Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Cardiovascular disorders represent the leading cause of death in dialysis patients. Alterations of bone and mineral metabolism (BMM) and vascular calcifications play a fundamental role in it. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive role on cardiovascular mortality of the measurement of biomarkers of BMM and vascular calcifications. A prospective cohort study was performed. All prevalent patients on chronic dialysis in September 2009 at our institution, who completed the total of the complementary studies, were studied. BMM biomarkers were measured (FGF 23, fetuin A, PTH, calcium and phosphorus) and the vascular calcifications were evaluated using the Kauppila and Adragao scores. Follow-up was carried out until 1/1/2019, death or transplant. Of the 30 patients included, 7 (23.3%) died due to cardiovascular causes. The follow-up time was 44.1 ± 30.4 (range = 1.4-112) months. The Adragao score was the only predictive variable of long-term cardiovascular mortality (area under the curve = 0.82; 95% CI 0.64-0.94; p < 0.001). The best cut-off point was 5 (sensitivity = 85.7%; specificity = 78.3%). It was also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality adjusted for age, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, aortic calcifications, time spent on dialysis and follow-up time (adjusted OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.06-2.96; p = 0.028). The vascular calcifications quantified from the Adragao score were the only independent predictor of long-term cardiovascular mortality. This score represents a simple, useful and superior tool to the biomarkers of BMM.
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April 2021

Female sperm storage mediates post-copulatory costs and benefits of ejaculate anticipatory plasticity in the guppy.

J Evol Biol 2020 09 20;33(9):1294-1305. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padua, Italy.

Males of many species evolved the capability of adjusting their ejaculate phenotype in response to social cues to match the expected mating conditions. When females store sperm for a prolonged time, the expected fitness return of plastic adjustments of ejaculate phenotype may depend on the interval between mating and fertilization. Although prolonged female sperm storage (FSS) increases the opportunity for sperm competition, as a consequence of the longer temporal overlap of ejaculates from several males, it may also create variable selective forces on ejaculate phenotype, for example by exposing trade-offs between sperm velocity and sperm survival. We evaluated the relationship between the plasticity of ejaculate quality and FSS in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a polyandrous live-bearing fish in which females store sperm for several months and where stored sperm contribute significantly to a male's lifelong reproductive success. In this species, males respond to the perception of future mating opportunities by increasing the quantity (number) and quality (swimming velocity) of ready-to-use sperm (an anticipatory response called 'sperm priming'). Here we investigated (a) the effect of sperm priming on in vitro sperm viability at stripping and its temporal decline (as an estimate of sperm survival), and (b) the in vivo competitive fertilization success in relation to female sperm storage using artificial insemination. As expected, sperm-primed males produced more numerous and faster sperm, but with a reduced in vitro sperm viability at stripping and after 4 hr, compared with their counterparts. Artificial insemination revealed that the small (nonsignificant) advantage of primed sperm when fertilization immediately follows insemination is reversed when eggs are fertilized by female-stored sperm, weeks after insemination. By suggesting a plastic trade-off between sperm velocity and viability, these results demonstrate that prolonged female sperm storage generates divergent selection pressures on ejaculate phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeb.13673DOI Listing
September 2020

Macroevolution of sexual size dimorphism and reproduction-related phenotypic traits in lizards of the Chaco Domain.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 12 7;18(1):186. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratorio de Biología del Comportamiento; Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA), CONICET-UNC and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000JJC. Av. Vélez Sársfield 299, Córdoba, Argentina.

Background: Comparing sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in the light of the phylogenetic hypothesis may help to understand the phenotypic evolution associated with sexual selection (size of whole body and of reproduction-related body parts). Within a macroevolutionary framework, we evaluated the association between the evolution of SSD and the evolution of reproduction-related phenotypic traits, and whether this association has favored female fecundity, considering also variations according to reproductive modes. We focused on the lizard species that inhabit the Chaco Domain since this is a natural unit with a high diversity of species.

Results: The residual SSD was related positively with the residuals of the reproduction-related phenotypic traits that estimate intrasexual selection and with the residuals of inter-limb length and, according to fecundity selection, those residuals were related positively with the residuals of clutch size in oviparous species. Lizards of the Chaco Domain present a high diversity of SSD patterns, probably related to the evolution of reproductive strategies.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight that the sexual selection may have acted on the whole-body size as well as on the size of body parts related to reproduction. Male and female phenotypes evolutionarily respond to variations in SSD, and an understanding of these patterns is essential for elucidating the processes shaping sexual phenotype diversity from a macroevolutionary perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1299-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286517PMC
December 2018

Electrostimulation is an effective and safe method for semen collection in medium-sized lizards.

Theriogenology 2018 Sep 1;118:40-45. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas and Laboratorio de Biología del Comportamiento, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Postal address: X5000JJC, Av. Vélez Sársfield 299, Córdoba, Argentina.

The development of safe and consistent semen collection protocols should be ensured to understand basic sperm parameters of a species. Electroejaculation has been hypothesized and tested to be a safe method to evaluate male reproductive potential in wild animals. However, little is known about semen collection protocols in lizards. Adjusting stimulation to species and body mass is important for efficient semen collection as well as for animal welfare. Tropidurus spinulosus is a good model to adapt electrostimulation; it is a medium-sized lizard species, males have semen during a long period and operative sex ratio is male-biased. We aimed to provide a thorough and safe method for collecting semen samples from this animal model by means of electrostimulation and characterize basic sperm parameters. Mature males of T. spinulosus were captured and their testicular volume was evaluated via portable ultrasound scanning. The lizards were electrostimulated by performing standardized series of stimuli. Semen was obtained successfully in 94% of the males. Samples were contamination-free. Mean sperm number of ejaculates was 2.1 ± 1.8 × 10 spermatozoids. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was 78% and sperm dynamic parameters were: VSL 37.26 ± 7.72 μ/s and VCL 84.26 ± 16.27 μ/s. We observed high variability in testicular volume among males; however, almost all the individuals had sperm. Electrostimulation using protocols adjusted to a medium-sized lizard was an effective semen collection method that allowed us to obtain semen samples with high motility (percentage of motile spermatozoa and sperm velocity).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.05.035DOI Listing
September 2018

Female nutritional condition affects ovarian fluid quality in guppies.

Biol Lett 2018 05;14(5)

Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy

Male and female gametes are often embedded in fluids that are produced by gonads and other reproductive tissues. Female reproductive fluids, usually called ovarian fluid (OF), which often constitute a relevant volumetric component of the egg mass, are rich in ions, sugars and proteins, and are involved in several functions, from protecting gametes to facilitating fertilization, and often act as mediators of post-mating sexual selection. Despite their applied and evolutionary importance, we know virtually nothing about the costs of female reproductive fluid production. We investigated the effect of nutritional condition on OF quality by experimentally manipulating the diet of two groups of female guppies () which were maintained for 20 days either on a restricted diet or had ad libitum access to food. In this species, OF enhances sperm swimming longevity and velocity (a predictor of sperm competition success) and mediates post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance. We found that sperm velocity was significantly lower in the OF of diet-restricted females, indicating that OF quality is dependent on female nutritional condition. Our results demonstrate that OF represents a non-trivial component of female reproductive investment and provides a tool to investigate which OF constituents are involved in modulating OF-sperm interactions and fertilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6012689PMC
May 2018

Do female reproductive stage and phenotype influence thermal requirements in an oviparous lizard?

J Therm Biol 2018 Jan 26;71:202-208. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Laboratorio de Biología del Comportamiento; Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA), CONICET-UNC and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000JJC. Av. Vélez Sársfield 299, Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

Reproduction is an energetically costly activity that can alter thermal requirements in Squamata. This phenomenon has been largely studied in many viviparous species; however, little is known about the role of oviparous females in controlling temperature during vitellogenesis and embryo development before oviposition. Diversity of female phenotypes could be associated with diversity of thermoregulatory performance, since thermal requirements are frequently influenced by body shape. Furthermore, studying the thermoregulatory behaviour is fundamental to understand how females regulate their body temperature. Here, we aimed to determine whether reproduction alters thermal requirements in an oviparous model, Tropidurus spinulosus, and if the preferred body temperature and thermoregulatory behaviour vary among reproductive stages and in relation to the female phenotype. We characterized the female phenotypes according to multiple morphological traits (snout-vent length, inter-axillar length, abdominal perimeter, body condition and head width). Reproductive structures were diagnosed by portable ultrasound scanning. To determine body temperatures, the lizards were placed in an open-top terrarium, where a thermal gradient ranging from 18 to 50°C was set up; we also recorded the permanence of individuals in cold, temperate and warm zones during each experiment. Reproductive females preferred higher temperatures and presented lower amplitude in thermal variability than non-reproductive females. Moreover, within reproductive females, females with wide abdominal perimeter and high body condition showed thermal stability. Females with oviductal eggs tended to select higher temperature and also show more thermal stability than females with vitellogenic follicles. The latter females used the temperate zone most frequently and to a lesser degree the warm one, whereas females with oviductal eggs used the temperate and warm zones with similarly high frequency. We conclude that reproductive stage and phenotypic traits influence the selection of preferred body temperatures and thermoregulatory behaviour in T. spinulosus females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2017.11.013DOI Listing
January 2018

Pre- and Postcopulatory Traits of Salvator Male Lizards in Allopatry and Sympatry.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2016 24;2016:8176267. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA), CONICET and Laboratorio de Biología del Comportamiento, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Vélez Sársfield 299, X5000JJC Córdoba, Argentina.

The reproductive traits of males are under influence of sexual pressures before and after copulation. The strength of sexual selection varies across populations because they undergo varying competition for mating opportunities. Besides intraspecific pressures, individuals seem to be subjected to pressures driven by interspecific interactions in sympatry. Lizards may vary their reproductive strategies through varying sexual characters, body size, gonadal investment, and sperm traits. We evaluated the reproductive traits, involved in pre- and postcopulatory competition, in allopatric and sympatric populations of Salvator lizards. We observed a spatial gradient of male competition among populations, with the following order: allopatric zone of S. rufescens; sympatric zone; and allopatric zone of S. merianae. Accordingly, variation in secondary sexual character, the relative testis mass, and the length of sperm component was observed between allopatry and sympatry in each species, suggesting differences in the investment of reproductive traits. However, we found that these two Salvator species did not differ in secondary sexual characters in sympatry. Interestingly, the trade-off between testes and muscle varied differently from allopatry to sympatry between these Salvator species, suggesting that the influence of social context on reproductive traits investment would affect lizard species differently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8176267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823511PMC
April 2016

Variability in sperm form and function in the context of sperm competition risk in two Tupinambis lizards.

Ecol Evol 2014 Nov 7;4(21):4080-92. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

Laboratorio de Biología del Comportamiento, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA) CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Av. Vélez Sársfield 299, X5000JJC, Córdoba, Argentina.

In polyandrous species, sperm morphometry and sperm velocity are under strong sexual selection. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the role of sperm competition in sperm trait variation, this aspect is still poorly understood. It has been suggested that an increase in sperm competition pressure could reduce sperm size variation or produce a diversity of sperm to maximize male fertilization success. We aim at elucidating the variability of sperm morphometric traits and velocity in two Tupinambis lizards in the context of sperm competition risk. Sperm traits showed substantial variation at all levels examined: between species, among males within species, and within the ejaculate of individual males. Sperm velocity was found to be positively correlated with flagellum: midpiece ratio, with relatively longer flagella associated with faster sperm. Our results document high variability in sperm form and function in lizards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4242561PMC
November 2014

Use of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism after subtotal parathyroidectomy.

Int J Nephrol 2011 4;2011:246734. Epub 2011 Jun 4.

Bone and Mineral Metabolism Section, Renal Service, Hospital Privado-Centro Médico de Córdoba, Postgraduate School of Nephrology, Catholic University of Córdoba, Naciones Unidas 346, 5016 Córdoba, Argentina.

We evaluated the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) as a therapeutic option for recurrence of secondary hyperparathyroidism after subtotal parathyroidectomy in ESRD patients. Six patients underwent PEIT. A mean of 1.3 ± 0.8 ethanol injections was performed. Nodular volume was 1.5 ± 1.7 cm(3), and 2.8 ± 2.8 cm(3) of ethanol was injected per patient. After ethanol injection PTH decreased significantly (1897 ± 754 to 549 ± 863 pg/mL (P < .01)). There was also a reduction in serum calcium, phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus product. A positive and significant correlation was found between nodular volume with ethanol injected and time from parathyroidectomy. Only one patient required hospitalization due to severe hypocalcaemia. In other two cases, local discomfort and temporary mild dysphonia were registered. PEIT is an effective treatment to control recurrences of secondary hyperparathyroidism postsubtotal parathyroidectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/246734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118542PMC
July 2011

Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy in post-transplant patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Transpl Int 2007 Dec 19;20(12):1031-5. Epub 2007 Sep 19.

Bone and Mineral Metabolism Section, Renal Service, Hospital Privado-Centro Médico de Córdoba, Postgraduate School of Nephrology, Catholic University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Persistent hyperparathyroidism is frequent in postrenal transplant patients. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) is an alternative for treatment of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism but it was not described in postrenal transplant patients. We report our experience with PEIT to control hyperparathyroidism in the post-transplant period. We performed PEIT under ultrasonographic guidance and local anesthesia in eight patients because of persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation. Indications for PEIT were: high intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels with hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, osteopenia and/or bone pain. All patients had at least one visible parathyroid nodule by ultrasonography. Biochemical assays were performed immediately before PEIT, between 1 and 7 days after last PEIT, and a mean of 8.0 +/- 2.8 months after PEIT. Serum iPTH and calcium levels decreased significantly after treatment and remained unchanged until final control. Serum iPTH decreased from 286.9 +/- 107.2 to 154.6 +/- 42.2 pg/ml (P < 0.01) after PEIT (percentual reduction 36.5 +/- 9.5%). This response was significantly correlated to total ethanol volume used (r: 0.94, P < 0.0001). Hypercalcemia disappeared in six of eight patients treated. Only minor complications were registered. There were no changes in renal function related to the treatment. Our findings show that PEIT is a useful and safe alternative for patients with persistent post-transplant secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-2277.2007.00545.xDOI Listing
December 2007