Publications by authors named "Gabriel Somarriba"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Longitudinal Changes in Body Composition by Dual-energy Radiograph Absorptiometry Among Perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Youth: Increased Risk of Adiposity Among HIV-infected Female Youth.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 10;37(10):1002-1007

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics.

Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy has allowed youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV+) to live into adulthood, but many youth may experience metabolic and body composition changes that predispose to greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This longitudinal study evaluated changes in body composition measured by dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry (DXA) in a cohort of PHIV+ youth compared with HIV- controls over a 7-year period.

Methods: PHIV+ youth and HIV- controls were prospectively enrolled in a single-site study to assess nutrition and CVD risk. Anthropometrics and DXA scans were longitudinally obtained to assess percent body fat and regional fat distribution. Using general linear models, we analyzed differences in body composition and anthropometric measures by sex between PHIV+ youth and controls over time.

Results: Two hundred thirty-five participants (156 PHIV+ and 79 HIV- controls) with at least 1 DXA performed since study enrollment were included for analysis. During the study period, 471 DXAs were obtained in the PHIV+ group and 95 in HIV- controls. PHIV+ females demonstrated greater increase in weight and body mass index over time compared with HIV- females, and significant increases in total percent body fat [estimate = 1.212 (95% confidence interval: 0.837-1.587) percent per year; P < 0.001) and percent trunk fat [1.3818 (95% confidence interval: 0.922-1.84); P < 0.001] compared with HIV- females and PHIV+ males.

Conclusions: PHIV+ females demonstrate an unfavorable change in fat redistribution and percent body fat over time that exceeds the pattern seen in PHIV+ males or HIV- females. Providers should have heightened awareness of body composition changes of PHIV+ females that may eventually lead to increased CVD risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000001963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6105572PMC
October 2018

Associations Between Dietary Intake Before 6 Months of Age and Rapid Weight Gain Among HIV-exposed Uninfected Infants.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2017 11;65(5):e104-e109

*Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL †Discipline of Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Escola Paulista de Medicina - EPM, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP ‡Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil §Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Introduction: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants are potentially at risk for cardiovascular disease due to in utero exposures. Feeding practices of the infant could compound this risk. Few studies have, however, evaluated dietary intake of HEU infants. We determined dietary factors associated with rapid weight gain (RWG) among HEU infants from birth to 6 months followed at the University of Miami HIV Screening Program.

Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis, logistic regression was used to determine dietary factors associated with RWG defined as a >0.67 SD change in weight-for-age z score from birth to assessment (0.3-6 months). Other covariates included demographics, birth, maternal and gestational characteristics, and antiretroviral exposures.

Results: A total of 86 full-term HEU infants with a mean age of 3.4 months (SD 1.8 months) were included in this analysis. Fifty-five percent of mothers were obese. Overall, 39.5% of infants exhibited RWG. A significant association between consumption of infant cereal and RWG (odds ratio, 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-12.10) was found after adjusting for birth weight, current age, and energy intake. Those infants who consumed the highest tertile of protein were less likely to gain weight rapidly after adjusting for the same covariates (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.94).

Conclusions: Overall differences in weight gain during early infancy are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding in young HEU infants in the United States. Dietary counseling for families of HEU should reinforce current feeding practice recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000001607DOI Listing
November 2017

A multicenter study of diet quality on birth weight and gestational age in infants of HIV-infected women.

Matern Child Nutr 2017 10 8;13(4). Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

We determined factors associated with diet quality and assessed the relationship between diet quality, birth weight, and gestational age in a prospective national multicenter cohort study. We evaluated diet quality with the Healthy Eating Index (HEI, scale 0-100) in the third trimester of pregnancy with three 24-hr multiple-pass dietary recalls in 266 HIV+ women enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Covariates included demographics, food security, pre-pregnancy body mass index, HIV disease severity, substance use, and antiretroviral exposures. A two-stage multivariate process using classification and regression trees (CART) followed by multiple regression described HEI tendencies, controlled possible confounding effects, and examined the association of HEI with birth weight and gestational age. To assess the stability of the CART solution, both the HEI 2005 and 2010 were evaluated. The mean HEI scores were 56.1 and 47.5 for the 2005 and 2010 HEI, respectively. The first-stage CART analysis examined the relationship between HEI and covariates. Non-US born versus US-born mothers had higher HEI scores (15-point difference, R  = 0.28). There was a secondary partition due to alcohol/cigarette/illicit drug usage (3.5-point difference, R  = 0.03) among US-born women. For the second-stage CART adjusted multiple regression, birth weight z-score was positively related to HEI 2005 and 2010 (partial r's > 0.13, P's ≤ 0.0398), but not gestational age (r = 0.00). We conclude that diet quality among HIV+ women is associated with higher birth weight. Despite the influence of a large cultural effect and poor prenatal behaviors, interventions to improve diet in HIV+ women may help to increase birth weight.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5575978PMC
October 2017

Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among US adolescents with disabilities.

World J Diabetes 2015 Feb;6(1):200-7

Sarah E Messiah, Gabriel Somarriba, Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, United States.

Aim: To generate prevalence estimates of weight status and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adolescents with and without disabilities.

Methods: Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted among 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and without disabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) were examined by the following standardized body mass index (BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities; overweight (BMI ≥ 85(th) - < 95(th) percentile for age and sex), obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile) and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m(2)). Linear regression models were fit with each cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently as continuous outcomes to show relationships with disability status.

Results: Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%) and severely obese (12%) vs their peers without disabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P ≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight, obese and severely obese children with disabilities had abnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well as MetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% of severely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%, 16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents with disabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS (OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs their peers with no disabilities.

Conclusion: Results show that adolescents with disabilities are disproportionately affected by obesity and poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers with no disabilities. Health care professionals should monitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents with disabilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v6.i1.200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4317313PMC
February 2015

Park-based afterschool program to improve cardiovascular health and physical fitness in children with disabilities.

Disabil Health J 2014 Jul 20;7(3):335-42. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

Miami Dade Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: Children with disabilities are more likely to be overweight or obese and less likely to engage in physical activities versus their peers without disabilities.

Objective: The effect of a structured afterschool program housed in a large county parks system on several obesity-related health outcomes among children with disabilities was examined.

Methods: Children/adolescents with a developmental and/or intellectual disability ages 6-22 (N = 52, mean age 13.7 years) who participated in an afterschool (either 2010-2011 or 2011-2012 school year) health and wellness program called Fit-2-Play™ were assessed. Pre-post comparison of outcome variables (mean height, weight, waist/hip/midarm circumference, fitness tests, and a 9-item health and wellness knowledge assessment) via general linear mixed models analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the program for normal and overweight/obese participants.

Results: Normal weight participants significantly improved pre-post mean number of push-ups (9.69-14.23, p = 0.01) and laps on the PACER test (8.54-11.38, p < 0.01) and the overweight/obese group significantly improved the number of sit ups (7.51-9.84, p < 0.01) and push ups (4.77-9.89, p < 0.001). Pre-post mean health and wellness knowledge composite scores significantly improved for all participants (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Parks-based afterschool programs can be effective community resources for instilling physical health in both normal weight and overweight/obese children with disabilities. More studies are needed to ascertain whether community-based afterschool health and wellness programs can be implemented and sustained across this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2014.02.006DOI Listing
July 2014

Body mass index and waist circumference of HIV-infected youth in a Miami cohort: comparison to local and national cohorts.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014 Oct;59(4):449-54

*Division of Pediatric Clinical Research †Holtz Children's Hospital/Jackson Memorial Hospital ‡Infectious Disease, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.

Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected youth are healthier because of effective antiretroviral therapies. We compared anthropometric measurements and prevalence of overweight and obesity between perinatally HIV-infected youth, a local HIV-uninfected comparison group, and 2007 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. In addition, we compared only African American HIV-infected youth with NHANES African Americans.

Methods: Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) of HIV-infected youth, aged 10 to 19 years, were compared among groups. BMI percentiles were categorized as underweight (<5%), normal (5% to <85%), overweight (85% to <95%), and obese (≥ 95%). Clinical correlates were modeled as predictors of BMI and WC.

Results: A total of 134 HIV-infected (including 103 African Americans) (mean age 16.5 years), 75 HIV-uninfected (mean age 14.2 years), and 3216 NHANES (including 771 NHANES African Americans) (mean age 15.0 years) youth were included in the analysis. Height and weight z scores of HIV-infected youth were lower than those of HIV-uninfected and NHANES (P ≤ 0.056) youth. BMI, WC, and BMI category were not statistically different between groups. In the HIV-infected African American group, BMI z score was lower (0.49 vs 0.76, P = 0.04) compared with NHANES African Americans. There were no significant predictors of BMI or WC for the HIV-infected group.

Conclusions: HIV-infected children have similar BMIs and WCs as uninfected children both locally and nationally and show similar high rates of obesity and overweight. When compared with a more racially similar African American national sample, HIV-infected children have a lower BMI, suggesting that there may be persistent anthropometric differences in HIV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000000394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524541PMC
October 2014

Cardiac effects in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents: a view from the United States of America.

J Int AIDS Soc 2013 Jun 18;16:18597. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Jackson Memorial Medical Center and the Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Holtz Children's Hospital, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a primary cause of acquired heart disease, particularly of accelerated atherosclerosis, symptomatic heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cardiac complications often occur in late-stage HIV infections as prolonged viral infection is becoming more relevant as longevity improves. Thus, multi-agent HIV therapies that help sustain life may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events and accelerated atherosclerosis.

Discussion: Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the two-to-five-year incidence of symptomatic heart failure ranged from 4 to 28% in HIV patients. Patients both before and after HAART also frequently have asymptomatic abnormalities in cardiovascular structure. Echocardiographic measurements indicate left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in 18%, LV hypertrophy in 6.5%, and left atrial dilation in 40% of patients followed on HAART therapy. Diastolic dysfunction is also common in long-term survivors of HIV infection. Accelerated atherosclerosis has been found in HIV-infected young adults and children without traditional coronary risk factors. Infective endocarditis, although rare in children, has high mortality in late-stage AIDS patients with poor nutritional status and severely compromised immune systems. Although lymphomas have been found in HIV-infected children, the incidence is low and cardiac malignancy is rare. Rates of congenital cardiovascular malformations range from 5.6 to 8.9% in cohorts of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children with HIV-infected mothers. In non-HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers, foetal exposure to ART is associated with reduced LV dimension, LV mass, and septal wall thickness and with higher LV fractional shortening and contractility during the first two years of life.

Conclusions: Routine, systematic, and comprehensive cardiac evaluation, including a thorough history and directed laboratory assays, is essential for the care of HIV-infected adults and children as cardiovascular illness has become a part of care for long-term survivors of HIV infection. The history should include traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, prior opportunistic infections, environmental exposures, and therapeutic and illicit drug use. Laboratory tests should include a lipid profile, fasting glucose, and HIV viral load. Asymptomatic cardiac disease related to HIV can be fatal, and secondary effects of HIV infection often disguise cardiac symptoms, so systematic echocardiographic monitoring is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3687072PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.16.1.18597DOI Listing
June 2013

Associations between fibroblast growth factor 23 and cardiac characteristics in pediatric heart failure.

Pediatr Nephrol 2013 Oct 6;28(10):2035-42. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1120 NW 14th St., Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Background: In adults with heart failure, elevated levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are associated with mortality. Data on FGF23 levels in pediatric heart failure are lacking.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 17 healthy children (mean age 13 years) and 20 pediatric patients with heart failure (mean age 12 years) who underwent echocardiography and for whom the following measurements were taken: plasma FGF23 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum phosphate, creatinine and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Symptom severity was assessed with the New York Heart Association and the Ross classification systems.

Results: Of the 20 patients, 11 had dilated cardiomyopathy, four had congenital heart disease, three had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, one had a failing heart transplant and one had pulmonary hypertension. Mean phosphate levels in these patients were within the reported reference range for healthy children. Median PTH levels were in the normal range in patients and controls. The median FGF23 level was higher in patients versus controls (110.9 vs. 66.4 RU/ml; P = 0.03) and higher in patients on diuretics versus other patients (222.4 vs. 82.1 RU/ml; P = 0.01). Levels of FGF23 and NT-proBNP were directly correlated (r = 0.47, P = 0.04), and patients with greater physical functional impairment had higher FGF23 levels (142.5 in those with moderate-severe limitation vs. 92.8 RU/ml in those with no limitation; P = 0.05). Among patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, higher FGF23 levels were associated with a greater left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (r = 0.63, P = 0.04).

Conclusion: FGF23 levels are elevated in children with heart failure and are associated with diuretic use, severity of heart failure and left ventricular dilation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-013-2515-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3755096PMC
October 2013

Growth and body composition of uninfected children exposed to human immunodeficiency virus: comparison with a contemporary cohort and United States National Standards.

J Pediatr 2013 Jul 26;163(1):249-54.e1-2. Epub 2013 Jan 26.

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA.

Objective: To compare growth and body composition of uninfected children exposed to HIV with a contemporary HIV-unexposed group and to US references.

Study Design: Uninfected children exposed to HIV under 2 years were enrolled into a longitudinal observational study and unexposed children under 2 years of age in a cross-sectional evaluation. Weights, lengths, head circumferences, skinfold thicknesses, and arm and thigh circumferences were measured and adjusted for age using Centers for Disease Control and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey standards. Uninfected children exposed to HIV were compared with an unexposed nearest-neighbor matched comparison group. Uninfected children exposed to HIV were compared by age to Centers for Disease Control standards for growth measures and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey standards for body composition.

Results: One hundred eleven uninfected children exposed to HIV and 82 children not exposed to HIV were evaluated. For the matched comparison for both groups, the mean age was 10 months, 59% were male, and 73% were African American. No statistical differences were found in anthropometric measurements between uninfected children who were or were not exposed to HIV. Uninfected children exposed to HIV were smaller than US standards at birth with mean (SD) weight-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores of -0.39 (1.06); P = .002 and -0.35 (1.04); P = .005, respectively. Over the first 2 years of life, there was a trend toward increasing weight-for-age z-score, length-for-age z-score, and weight-for-length z-score in uninfected children exposed to HIV. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds among uninfected children exposed to HIV were lower than national standards and there was a trend that mid-upper arm circumference decreased over time.

Conclusions: Growth and body composition of uninfected children who were or were not exposed to HIV were similar. Uninfected children exposed to HIV weigh less at birth and show a pattern of slightly accelerated growth in the first 2 years of life. Uninfected children exposed to HIV had less subcutaneous fat and decreasing mid-upper arm circumference over time when compared with US standards.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.12.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3641163PMC
July 2013

Exercise capacity in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: an analysis from the Cardiac Risk Factors in Childhood Cancer Survivors Study.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013 Apr 19;60(4):663-8. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Holtz Children's Hospital of the UM/Jackson Memorial Medical Center, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.

Background: Childhood cancer survivors may have premature symptomatic cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases that contribute to reduced capacity for physical activity. Studies of exercise capacity and identification of risk factors for reduced capacity in survivors are limited.

Procedure: We assessed maximal myocardial oxygen consumption (V(O(2)max), a measure of exercise capacity) in survivors at least 4 years after cancer diagnosis and sibling controls. We evaluated associations between V(O(2)max) and age, sex, treatments, cardiac structure and function, biomarkers, endocrine function, and physical activity.

Results: Of 72 survivors (mean age, 22 years; range, 8.0-40 years) and 32 siblings (mean age, 20.2 years; range, 8-46 years), about half were male. Mean time since diagnosis was 13.4 years (range, 4.5-31.6 years). In age- and sibling-pair adjusted analyses, V(O(2)max) was lower in survivors than siblings (males, 28.53 vs. 30.90 ml/kg/minute, P = 0.08; females, 19.81 vs. 23.40 ml/kg/minute, P = 0.03). In males, older age (P = 0.01), higher percent body fat (P < 0.001) and high or low left ventricular (LV) mass Z-scores (P = 0.03) predicted lower V(O(2)max). In females, older age (P < 0.001), methotrexate exposure (P = 0.01), and higher, but normal, LV load-dependent contractility (P = 0.02) predicted lower V(O(2)max).

Conclusions: Fitness for most survivors and controls was poor and generally lower in survivors, particularly females. Older age, higher body fat, methotrexate exposure, and extremes of LV mass/function were associated with lower V(O(2)max) in survivors. Because physical activity can improve nutritional and cardiac conditions, survivors should be encouraged to exercise regularly with close monitoring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.24410DOI Listing
April 2013

Interventions to address chronic disease and HIV: strategies to promote exercise and nutrition among HIV-infected individuals.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2012 Dec;9(4):351-63

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics (D820), University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Batchelor Children's Research Institute, PO Box 016820, Miami, FL 33101, USA.

Food insecurity, micronutrient deficits, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and bone disorders complicate the treatment of HIV infection. Nutrition and exercise interventions can be effective in ameliorating these symptoms that are associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this literature review, we examine the most recent nutrition and exercise interventions for HIV-infected patients. Macronutrient supplementation can be useful in treating malnutrition and wasting. Multivitamin (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplements and vitamin D may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity and mortality. Nutritional counseling and exercise interventions are effective for treating obesity, fat redistribution, and metabolic abnormalities. Physical activity interventions improve body composition, strength, and fitness in HIV-infected individuals. Taken collectively, the evidence suggests that a proactive approach to nutrition and physical activity guidance and interventions can improve outcomes and help abrogate the adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychological consequences of HIV and its treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11904-012-0135-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492509PMC
December 2012

Physical fitness in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2013 Jan 31;29(1):112-20. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Divisions of Pediatric Clinical Research, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA.

Obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and antiretroviral therapies may predispose HIV-infected children to poor physical fitness. Estimated peak oxygen consumption (VO(2) peak), maximal strength and endurance, and flexibility were measured in HIV-infected and uninfected children. Among HIV-infected children, anthropometric and HIV disease-specific factors were evaluated to determine their association with VO(2) peak. Forty-five HIV-infected children (mean age 16.1 years) and 36 uninfected children (mean age 13.5 years) participated in the study. In HIV-infected subjects, median viral load was 980 copies/ml (IQR 200-11,000 copies/ml), CD4% was 28% (IQR 15-35%), and 82% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Compared to uninfected children, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body fat, and siblingship, HIV-infected children had lower VO(2) peak (25.92 vs. 30.90 ml/kg/min, p<0.0001), flexibility (23.71% vs. 46.09%, p=0.0003), and lower-extremity strength-to-weight ratio (0.79 vs. 1.10 kg lifted/kg of body weight, p=0.002). Among the HIV-infected children, a multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, race, percent body fat, and viral load showed VO(2) peak was 0.30 ml/kg/min lower per unit increase in percent body fat (p<0.0001) and VO(2) peak (SE) decreased 29.45 (± 1 .62), 28.70 (± 1.87), and 24.09 (± 0.75) ml/kg/min across HAART exposure categories of no exposure, <60, and ≥ 60 months, respectively (p<0.0001). HIV-infected children had, in general, lower measures of fitness compared to uninfected children. Factors negatively associated with VO(2) peak in HIV-infected children include higher body fat and duration of HAART ≥ 60 months. Future studies that elucidate the understanding of these differences and mechanisms of decreased physical fitness should be pursued.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2012.0047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3537323PMC
January 2013

Biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010 Oct;55(2):182-8

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: : We compared biomarkers of vascular dysfunction among HIV-infected children to a demographically similar group of uninfected children and determined factors associated with these biomarkers.

Methods And Results: : We measured several biomarkers of vascular dysfunction: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (MCP-1) (inflammation); fibrinogen and P-selectin (coagulant dysfunction); soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM), and E-selectin (endothelial dysfunction); and leptin (metabolic dysfunction). Anthropometry, body composition, CD4%, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Mean age was 14.8 years (106 HIV-infected children) and 12.3 years (55 control children). Sex and body mass index Z scores were similar. Infected children had higher sICAM, sVCAM, MCP-1, IL-6, and fibrinogen levels. E-selectin (P = 0.07), and CRP (P = 0.08) trended to be greater in the HIV group, yet leptin and P-selectin were similar. In multivariable analyses in the HIV-infected children alone, each 1 standard deviation increase in waist to hip ratio was associated with increases in sICAM (17%), MCP-1 (19%), IL6 (18%), and CRP (59%). CD4% was inversely associated with sVCAM, MCP-1, IL6, fibrinogen, and CRP.

Conclusions: : HIV-infected children have higher levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction than healthy children. Risk factors associated with these biomarkers include higher waist to hip ratios and HIV disease severity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181e222c9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943965PMC
October 2010

The effect of a structured exercise program on nutrition and fitness outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2010 Mar;26(3):313-9

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Batchelor Children's Research Institute, Miami, Florida 33101, USA.

The feasibility and effectiveness of a hospital-based exercise-training program followed by a home-based program for improving fitness, strength, and changes in body composition in children and adolescents with HIV were evaluated. Subjects participated in nonrandomized 24-session, hospital supervised exercise training program followed by an 314 unsupervised home-based maintenance program. Outcome measurements included muscular strength/endurance, flexibility, relative peak VO(2), body composition, and lipids. Seventeen subjects (eight females) with a median age of 15.0 years (range: 6.0-22.6) and BMI z-score of 0.61 (range: -1.70-2.57) at entry completed the intervention. After 24 training sessions, the median increases in muscular strength were between 8% and 50%, depending on muscle group. The median increases in muscle endurance, relative peak VO(2), and lean body mass were 38.7% (95% CI: 12.5-94.7; p = 0.006), 3.0 ml/kg/min (95% CI: 1.5-6.0; p < 0.001), and 4.5% (95% CI: 2.4-6.6; p < 0.001), respectively. Twelve children completed the home-based maintenance program. Median changes in these outcomes between completion of the hospital-based intervention and a follow-up after completion of the home-based program were near zero. No adverse events occurred during the intervention. A supervised hospital-based fitness program is feasible, safe, and effective for improving general fitness and strength as well as lean body mass in children with HIV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2009.0198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2864046PMC
March 2010

The effect of aging, nutrition, and exercise during HIV infection.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2010 30;2:191-201. Epub 2010 Sep 30.

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Medical advances continue to change the face of human immunodeficiency virus- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). As life expectancy increases, the number of people living with HIV rises, presenting new challenges for the management of a chronic condition. Aging, nutrition, and physical activity can influence outcomes in other chronic conditions, and emerging data show that each of these factors can impact viral replication and the immune system in HIV. HIV infection results in a decline of the immune system through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. From initial infection, viral replication is a continuous phenomenon. Immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging, results in an increased susceptibility to infections secondary to a delayed immune response, and this phenomenon may be increased in HIV-infected patients. Optimal nutrition is an important adjunct in the clinical care of patients with HIV. Nutritional interventions may improve the quality and span of life and symptom management, support the effectiveness of medications, and improve the patient's resistance to infections and other disease complications by altering immunity. Moderate physical activity can improve many immune parameters, reduce the risk of acute infection, and combat metabolic abnormalities. As people with HIV age, alternative therapies such as nutrition and physical activity may complement medical management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S9069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3218696PMC
November 2011

Exercise Rehabilitation in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy.

Prog Pediatr Cardiol 2008 Apr;25(1):91-102

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Children with cardiomyopathy carry significant risk of morbidity and mortality. New research and technology have brought about significant advancements to the diagnosis and clinical management of children with cardiomyopathy. However, currently heart transplantation remains the standard of care for children with symptomatic and progressive cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular rehabilitation programs have yielded success in improving cardiac function, overall physical activity, and quality of life in adults with congestive heart failure from a variety of conditions. There is encouraging and emerging data on its effects in children with chronic illness and with its proven benefits in other pediatric disorders, the implementation of a program for with cardiomyopathy should be considered. Exercise rehabilitation programs may improve specific endpoints such quality of life, cardiovascular function and fitness, strength, flexibility, and metabolic risk. With the rapid rise in pediatric obesity, children with cardiomyopathy may be at similar risk for developing these modifiable risk factors. However, there are potentially more detrimental effects of inactivity in this population of children. Future research should focus on the physical and social effects of a medically supervised cardiac rehabilitation program with correct determination of the dosage and intensity of exercise for optimal benefits in this special population of children. It is imperative that more detailed recommendations for children with cardiomyopathy be made available with evidence-based research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppedcard.2007.11.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2390891PMC
April 2008

Nutrition in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy.

Prog Pediatr Cardiol 2007 Nov;24(1):59-71

Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially improve cardiac function and quality of life, are imperative to consider in children with all types of cardiomyopathy. Growth failure is one of the most significant clinical problems of children with cardiomyopathy with nearly one-third of children with this disorder manifesting some degree of growth failure during the course of their illness. Optimal intake of macronutrients can help improve cardiac function. In addition, several specific nutrients have been shown to correct myocardial abnormalities that often occur with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, antioxidants that can protect against free radical damage that often occurs in heart failure and nutrients that augment myocardial energy production are important therapies that have been explored more in adults with cardiomyopathy than in the pediatric population. Future research directions should pay particular attention to the effect of overall nutrition and specific nutritional therapies on clinical outcomes and quality of life in children with pediatric cardiomyopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppedcard.2007.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2151740PMC
November 2007

Reliability of upper extremity anaerobic power assessment in persons with tetraplegia.

J Spinal Cord Med 2005 ;28(2):109-13

Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, Department of Neuro-logical Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

Background/objective: Reliable assessment of upper extremity anaerobic power in persons with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) may indicate the ability to successfully and safely perform many daily activities.

Purpose: To examine test-retest reliability of upper extremity Wingate anaerobic testing (WAnT) in persons with motor/sensory complete tetraplegia.

Methods: Forty-five persons with cervical-level SCI (15 individuals each at C5, C6, and C7 levels of injury) performed 2-arm WAnT bouts, with 2 to 4 days between bouts. Subjects performed the WAnT seated in their wheelchairs using a tabletop-mounted Monarch 834E ergometer. Resistance loads were applied relative to injury level, with 1%, 2%, and 3% of body mass applied to subjects with C5, C6, and C7 level injuries, respectively. All subjects were directed to crank the ergometer at maximal velocity for a 30-second period. Values of peak power (Ppeak) and mean power (Pmean) were determined using an SMI OptoSensor 2000 system. Ppeak and Pmean were compared between trials and between groups using 2-way analyses of variance for repeated measures. Coefficients of determination (r2) were calculated between trials.

Results: There were no significant differences in Ppeak or Pmean detected between the 2 trials of WAnT in the C5, C6, or C7 groups. Regression analyses revealed statistically significant associations between bouts for Pmean and Ppeak in each of the 3 groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Upper extremity WAnT is reliable for upper extremity anaerobic power assessment in persons with cervical SCI at or below the C5 level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2005.11753807DOI Listing
June 2005

Effect of variable loading in the determination of upper-limb anaerobic power in persons with tetraplegia.

J Rehabil Res Dev 2004 Jan-Feb;41(1):9-14

Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA.

This article examines the effects of levels of resistance loading during arm Wingate Anaerobic Testing (WAnT) in persons with differing levels of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-nine persons with motor-complete SCI tetraplegia (13 each at C5, C6, and C7) performed six bouts of arm-crank WAnT with relative loads equivalent to 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 percent of body mass (BM). Power output was determined with the use of the SMI OptoSensor 2000 (Sports Medicine Industries, Inc., St. Cloud, MN, USA) hardware and software package. Values of peak power (P(peak)) and mean power (P(mean)) were examined statistically between groups (C5, C6, and C7) and across levels of resistance loading. Resistance loads that provided the greatest values of P(mean) for the three groups were as follows: C5 = 1.0 or 1.5 percent of BM; C6 = 1.5 or 2.0 percent of BM; and C7 = 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 percent of BM. Appropriate loading for arm WAnT is specific to the level of tetraplegia and may provide a useful assessment of upper limb power production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1682/jrrd.2004.01.0009DOI Listing
August 2007