Publications by authors named "Gabe S Sonke"

125 Publications

The construct validity of the Steep Ramp Test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with breast cancer, and the impact of chemotherapy-related symptom burden.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2022 Jun 19. Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, The Netherlands cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Center for Quality of Life, The Netherlands cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Center of Expertise Urban Vitality, Faculty of Health, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the construct validity of the Steep Ramp Test by longitudinally comparing the correlation between Maximum Short Exercise Capacity (MSEC) of the Steep Ramp Test (SRT) and direct measurements of VOpeak during or shortly after treatment in patients with breast cancer and the potential impact of chemotherapy-induced symptom burden.

Design: Cross-sectional SETTING: Multicenter PARTICIPANTS: We used data from two studies that included women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy, resulting in 274 observations. 161 patients performed the Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) and the Steep Ramp Test in two test sessions on different time points around chemotherapy treatment.

Interventions: Not Applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fatigue was assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, and nausea and vomiting and pain by the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire -Core 30. The longitudinal correlation between the Maximum Short Exercise Capacity and VOpeak was investigated using a linear mixed model. Interaction terms were added to the model, to investigate whether the correlation varied by symptom burden.

Results: We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between VO₂peak and Maximum Short Exercise Capacity (.61, 95% CI; .51 .70, p < .01) over time. This correlation was slightly attenuated (-.07, 95% CI; -.13 .00, p = .04) in patients' with chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, indicating smaller correlations of VOpeak with the Maximum Short Exercise Capacity with increasing symptom burden. Pain and fatigue did not significantly modify the correlation.

Conclusion: The Steep Ramp Test can only be used as a proxy for changes in aerobic capacity with great caution and with attention for the level of nausea and vomiting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2022.05.014DOI Listing
June 2022

Local and systemic therapy in breast cancer patients with central nervous system metastases.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Neuro-Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: As survival of patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases from breast cancer is poor and incidence rates are increasing, there is a growing need for better treatment strategies. In the current study, the efficacy of local and systemic therapies was analyzed in breast cancer patients with CNS metastases.

Methods: Medical records from breast cancer patients with brain and/or leptomeningeal metastases (LM) treated at a tertiary referral center and a teaching hospital between 2010 and 2020 were retrospectively studied. Main outcomes of interest were overall survival (OS) and CNS progression free survival. Analyses were performed among patients with brain metastases (BM) and patients with LM, for the different systemic and local therapies for CNS metastases, and for subgroups based on breast cancer subtypes.

Results: We identified 155 patients, 97 with BM and 58 with LM. Median OS was 15.9 months for patients with BM and 1.5 months for patients with LM. Median OS was significantly longer for HER2-positive patients with BM (22.8 months) vs triple negative (8.4 months) and hormone receptor positive/HER2-negative (5.9 months) (P < 0.001). Patients with BM receiving both local and systemic therapy also had a longer median OS (21.8 months), compared to the other three subgroups (local therapy only: 9.9 months, systemic therapy only: 4.3 months, no therapy: 0.5 months, P < 0.001). No significant difference in OS was observed between different systemic treatment regimens.

Conclusion: Breast cancer patients with BM show longest median OS when the subtype is HER2-positive and when they are treated with both local and systemic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-022-06605-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of HIPEC according to HRD/BRCAwt genomic profile in stage III ovarian cancer: Results from the phase III OVHIPEC trial.

Int J Cancer 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The addition of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) with cisplatin to interval cytoreductive surgery improves recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with stage III ovarian cancer. Homologous recombination deficient (HRD) ovarian tumors are usually more platinum sensitive. Since hyperthermia impairs BRCA1/2 protein function, we hypothesized that HRD tumors respond best to treatment with HIPEC. We analyzed the effect of HIPEC in patients in the OVHIPEC trial, stratified by HRD status and BRCAm status. Clinical data and tissue samples were collected from patients included in the randomized, phase III OVHIPEC-1 trial. DNA copy number variation (CNV) profiles, HRD-related pathogenic mutations and BRCA1 promotor hypermethylation were determined. CNV-profiles were categorized as HRD or non-HRD, based on a previously validated algorithm-based BRCA1-like classifier. Hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 99% confidence intervals (CI) for the effect of RFS and OS of HIPEC in the BRCAm, the HRD/BRCAwt and the non-HRD group were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Tumor DNA was available from 200/245 (82%) patients. Seventeen (9%) tumors carried a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 and 14 (7%) in BRCA2. Ninety-one (46%) tumors classified as BRCA1-like. The effect of HIPEC on RFS and OS was absent in BRCAm tumors (HR 1.25; 99%CI 0.48-3.29), and most present in HRD/BRCAwt (HR 0.44; 99%CI 0.21-0.91), and non-HRD/BRCAwt tumors (HR 0.82; 99%CI 0.48-1.42), interaction P value: 0.024. Patients with HRD tumors without pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation appear to benefit most from treatment with HIPEC, while benefit in patients with BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations and patients without HRD seems less evident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.34124DOI Listing
May 2022

Comprehensive characterization of pre- and post-treatment samples of breast cancer reveal potential mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2022 May 6;8(1):60. Epub 2022 May 6.

Division of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Oncode Institute, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

When locally advanced breast cancer is treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the recurrence risk is significantly higher if no complete pathologic response is achieved. Identification of the underlying resistance mechanisms is essential to select treatments with maximal efficacy and minimal toxicity. Here we employed gene expression profiles derived from 317 HER2-negative treatment-naïve breast cancer biopsies of patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, deep whole exome, and RNA-sequencing profiles of 22 matched pre- and post-treatment tumors, and treatment outcome data to identify biomarkers of response and resistance mechanisms. Molecular profiling of treatment-naïve breast cancer samples revealed that expression levels of proliferation, immune response, and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization combined predict response to chemotherapy. Triple negative patients with high proliferation, high immune response and low ECM expression had a significantly better treatment response and survival benefit (HR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.85; p = 0.02), while in ER+ patients the opposite was seen (HR 4.73, 95% CI 1.51-14.8; p = 0.008). The characterization of paired pre-and post-treatment samples revealed that aberrations of known cancer genes were either only present in the pre-treatment sample (CDKN1B) or in the post-treatment sample (TP53, APC, CTNNB1). Proliferation-associated genes were frequently down-regulated in post-treatment ER+ tumors, but not in triple negative tumors. Genes involved in ECM were upregulated in the majority of post-chemotherapy samples. Genomic and transcriptomic differences between pre- and post-chemotherapy samples are common and may reveal potential mechanisms of therapy resistance. Our results show a wide range of distinct, but related mechanisms, with a prominent role for proliferation- and ECM-related genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-022-00428-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9076915PMC
May 2022

[Clinical efficiency research with expensive drugs: doing more with less investment].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2022 02 15;166. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek-Nederlands Kanker Instituut, afd. Medische Oncologie, Amsterdam.

Novel innovative drugs have improved disease control, survival and quality of life for many patients. The costs of these drugs, however, are extremely high and threaten the long-term affordability of our health care system. Efficient use of existing drugs can decrease drug expenditure whilst improving patients' quality of life at the same time. Efficiency adjustments should not compromise treatment efficacy and therefore, clinical research on the matter is crucial. In this article, we demonstrate that efficiency research is feasible, as exemplified by the SONIA study. We make the case for a 'revolving fund' in which savings from one study are used to fund a next one. A revolving fund thus stimulates efficiency research and capitalizes research investments in the interest of both patients and society.
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February 2022

The Effects of Being Informed About Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Symptoms With And Without Self-Affirmation on Perceived Cognitive Symptoms of Breast Cancer Patients: A Randomized Prospective, Longitudinal Study.

Clin Breast Cancer 2022 Jul 26;22(5):439-454. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Informing patients about chemotherapy-related cognitive symptoms (CRCS) may increase perceived cognitive symptoms. This longitudinal randomized study evaluated this Adverse Information Effect (AIE) in breast cancer patients and examined whether self-affirmation (SA) can reduce AIEs (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04813965).

Patients And Methods: Before (neo) adjuvant chemotherapy, 160 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were randomly allocated to receive: standard information on side-effects (control), standard information with additional information about CRCS (information), or standard and additional information with a subsequent self-affirmative text (information+SA). Online-questionnaires assessed the perceived frequency (MOS-cog) and severity (MDASI-cog) of cognitive symptoms before chemotherapy (baseline, T0), and 2.5-months (T1) and 6.5-months (T2) post-chemotherapy. Higher scores indicate less frequent, and more severe symptoms, respectively. Baseline-to-follow-up analyses using a mixed-effects modeling approach compared groups over time.

Results: At T0-T2, 148, 140 and 133 patients responded, respectively (attrition rates: 8%, 5%, 5%). Frequency (ES = -0.36, P =.003) and severity (ES = 0.54, P <.001) of symptoms worsened from baseline to T1, without differences between groups. At T2, symptom frequency remained stable for informed (ES=-0.3, P =.021) and self-affirmed (ES=-0.3, P =.019) patients, but returned to baseline levels for controls. At T2, symptom severity remained increased for informed patients (ES = 0.3, P =.006), but normalized for self-affirmed patients (ES = 0.2, P =.178) and controls.

Conclusion: No AIEs occurred until T2. The initial overall increase in perceived cognitive symptoms recovered at T2 for controls, but not for patients who received additional information about CRCS. Self-affirmation attenuated these longer-term AIEs for the perceived severity but not the frequency of symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2022.03.001DOI Listing
July 2022

The effect of trastuzumab on cardiac function in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and reduced baseline left ventricular ejection fraction.

Int J Cancer 2022 Aug 27;151(4):616-622. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC, Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

We investigated the effect of trastuzumab on cardiac function in a real-world historic cohort of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with reduced baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Thirty-seven patients with HER2-positive MBC and baseline LVEF of 40% to 49% were included. Median LVEF was 46% (interquartile range [IQR] 44%-48%) and median follow-up was 18 months (IQR 9-34 months). During this period, the LVEF did not worsen in 24/37 (65%) patients, while 13/37 (35%) patients developed severe cardiotoxicity defined as LVEF <40% with median time to severe cardiotoxicity of 7 months (IQR 4-10 months) after beginning trastuzumab. Severe cardiotoxicity was reversible (defined as LVEF increase to a value <5%-points below baseline value) in 7/13 (54%) patients, partly reversible (defined as absolute LVEF increase ≥10%-points from nadir to a value >5%-points below baseline) in 3/13 (23%) patients and irreversible (defined as absolute LVEF increase <10%-points from nadir and to a value >5%-points below baseline) in 3/13 (23%) patients. Likelihood of reversibility was numerically higher in patients who received cardio-protective medications (CPM), including ACE-inhibitors, beta-blockers and angiotensine-2 inhibitors, compared to those who did not receive any CPM (71% vs 13%, P = .091). Sixty-five percent of patients who received trastuzumab for HER2-positive MBC did not develop severe cardiotoxicity during a median follow-up of 18 months, despite having a compromised baseline LVEF. If severe cardiotoxicity occurred, it was at least partly reversible in more than two-thirds of the cases. Risks and benefits of trastuzumab use should be balanced carefully in this vulnerable population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.34024DOI Listing
August 2022

Low probability of disease cure in advanced ovarian carcinomas before the PARP inhibitor era.

Br J Cancer 2022 Mar 31. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Univ Lyon; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1; Faculté de médecine Lyon-Sud; EA UCBL/HCL 3738 CICLY; Pharmacie, Lyon, France.

Background: In ovarian carcinomas, the likelihood of disease cure following first-line medical-surgical treatment has been poorly addressed. The objective was to: (a) assess the likelihood of long-term disease-free (LDF) > 5 years; and (b) evaluate the impact of the tumour primary chemosensitivity (assessed with the modelled CA-125 KELIM) with respect to disease stage, and completeness of debulking surgery.

Methods: Three Phase III trial datasets (AGO-OVAR 9; AGO-OVAR 7; ICON-7) were retrospectively investigated in an "adjuvant dataset", whilst the Netherlands Cancer Registry was used in a "neoadjuvant dataset". The prognostic values of KELIM, disease stage and surgery outcomes regarding the likelihood of LDF were assessed using univariate/multivariate analyses.

Results: Of 2029 patients in the "adjuvant dataset", 82 (4.0%) experienced LDF (Stage I-II: 25.9%; III: 2.1%; IV: 0.5%). Multivariate analyses identified disease stage and KELIM (OR = 4.24) as independent prognostic factors. Among the 1452 patients from the "neoadjuvant dataset", 36 (2.4%) had LDF (Stage II-III: 3.3%; IV: 1.3%). Using multivariate tests, high-risk diseases (OR = 0.18) and KELIM (OR = 2.96) were significant.

Conclusion: The probability of LDF > 5 years after first-line treatment in 3486 patients (<4%) was lower than thought. These data could represent a reference for future studies meant to assess progress related to PARP inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-022-01732-7DOI Listing
March 2022

Prognostic Value of Stromal Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Young, Node-Negative, Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Who Did Not Receive (neo)Adjuvant Systemic Therapy.

J Clin Oncol 2022 Mar 30:JCO2101536. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Division of Clinical Medicine and Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is considered aggressive, and therefore, virtually all young patients with TNBC receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. Increased stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) have been associated with a favorable prognosis in TNBC. However, whether this association holds for patients who are node-negative (N0), young (< 40 years), and chemotherapy-naïve, and thus can be used for chemotherapy de-escalation strategies, is unknown.

Methods: We selected all patients with N0 TNBC diagnosed between 1989 and 2000 from a Dutch population-based registry. Patients were age < 40 years at diagnosis and had not received (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy, as was standard practice at the time. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks were retrieved (PALGA: Dutch Pathology Registry), and a pathology review including sTILs was performed. Patients were categorized according to sTILs (< 30%, 30%-75%, and ≥ 75%). Multivariable Cox regression was performed for overall survival, with or without sTILs as a covariate. Cumulative incidence of distant metastasis or death was analyzed in a competing risk model, with second primary tumors as competing risk.

Results: sTILs were scored for 441 patients. High sTILs (≥ 75%; 21%) translated into an excellent prognosis with a 15-year cumulative incidence of a distant metastasis or death of only 2.1% (95% CI, 0 to 5.0), whereas low sTILs (< 30%; 52%) had an unfavorable prognosis with a 15-year cumulative incidence of a distant metastasis or death of 38.4% (32.1 to 44.6). In addition, every 10% increment of sTILs decreased the risk of death by 19% (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.81; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.87), which are an independent predictor adding prognostic information to standard clinicopathologic variables (χ = 46.7, < .001).

Conclusion: Chemotherapy-naïve, young patients with N0 TNBC with high sTILs (≥ 75%) have an excellent long-term prognosis. Therefore, sTILs should be considered for prospective clinical trials investigating (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy de-escalation strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.01536DOI Listing
March 2022

Overall Survival with Ribociclib plus Letrozole in Advanced Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2022 03;386(10):942-950

From the Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (G.N.H.), and Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (C.L.A.), and Baylor University Medical Center, Texas Oncology, US Oncology (J.O.), Dallas - all in Texas; the Institute of Oncology, Davidoff Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel (S.M.S.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville (H.A.B.); the Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore (Y.-S.Y.); the Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute and Borstkanker Onderzoek Groep Study Center, Amsterdam (G.S.S.); Florida Cancer Specialists, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Fort Myers (L.H.); the Department of Medical Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest-René Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain (M.C.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Medical School, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (F.A.) - both in France; the Department of Comprehensive Cancer Care, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic (K.P.); the Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (E.P.W.); the Department of Gynecology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany (W.J.); the Department of Surgery, Oncology, and Gastroenterology, University of Padua, and the Division of Medical Oncology 2, Istituto Oncologico Veneto, IRCCS, Padua, Italy (P.C.); the Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Genomics and Cancer, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (D.A.C.); Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ (J.P.Z., A.C.); and Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland (T.T., F.L.G., P.S.).

Background: In a previous analysis of this phase 3 trial, first-line ribociclib plus letrozole resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than letrozole alone among postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer. Whether overall survival would also be longer with ribociclib was not known.

Methods: Here we report the results of the protocol-specified final analysis of overall survival, a key secondary end point. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either ribociclib or placebo in combination with letrozole. Overall survival was assessed with the use of a stratified log-rank test and summarized with the use of Kaplan-Meier methods after 400 deaths had occurred. A hierarchical testing strategy was used for the analysis of progression-free survival and overall survival to ensure the validity of the findings.

Results: After a median follow-up of 6.6 years, 181 deaths had occurred among 334 patients (54.2%) in the ribociclib group and 219 among 334 (65.6%) in the placebo group. Ribociclib plus letrozole showed a significant overall survival benefit as compared with placebo plus letrozole. Median overall survival was 63.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.4 to 71.0) with ribociclib plus letrozole and 51.4 months (95% CI, 47.2 to 59.7) with placebo plus letrozole (hazard ratio for death, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.93; two-sided P = 0.008). No new safety signals were observed.

Conclusions: First-line therapy with ribociclib plus letrozole showed a significant overall survival benefit as compared with placebo plus letrozole in patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer. Median overall survival was more than 12 months longer with ribociclib than with placebo. (Funded by Novartis; MONALEESA-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01958021.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2114663DOI Listing
March 2022

Challenges in breast cancer genetic testing. A call for novel forms of multidisciplinary care and long-term evaluation.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2022 Mar 4:103642. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Family Cancer Clinic.

Current methods of next generation sequencing may simultaneously detect multiple germline breast cancer susceptibility variants. However, it is a challenge to maximize the clinical benefit of genetic analysis for patients and family members while minimizing potentially harmful effects. Relevant issues include criteria for referral, the choice of gene panel, handling of variants of unknown significance, cancer risk counselling in clinical context including family history data, risks of tumours other than breast cancer, handling of potential germline findings revealed by tumour testing and the clinical management of gene variant carriers, including surveillance, targeted therapy, radiotherapy and risk-reducing surgery. We outline current challenges in the field of breast cancer genetics and call for novel forms of multidisciplinary care and long-term evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2022.103642DOI Listing
March 2022

Standardizing HIPEC and perioperative care for patients with ovarian cancer in the Netherlands using a Delphi-based consensus.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2022 Feb 26;39:100945. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objective: Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) is standard of care in the Netherlands in patients with stage III epithelial ovarian cancer following interval cytoreductive surgery (CRS). Differences in patient selection, technical aspects, and perioperative management exist between centers performing HIPEC. Standardization aims to reduce unwanted variation in clinical practice. As part of an implementation process, we aimed to standardize perioperative care for patients treated with CRS and HIPEC using a Delphi-based consensus approach.

Methods: We performed a two-phase modified Delphi method involving a multidisciplinary panel of 40 experts who completed a survey on CRS and HIPEC. During a consensus meeting, survey outcomes and available scientific evidence was discussed. Items without consensus (<75% agreement) were adjusted and evaluated in a second survey.

Results: Consensus was reached in the first round on 51% of items. After two rounds, consensus was reached on the majority of items (82%) including patient selection, preoperative workup, technical aspects of CRS and HIPEC, and postoperative care. No consensus was reached on the role of HIPEC in rare ovarian cancer types, preoperative bowel preparation, timing to create bowel anastomoses, and manipulation of the perfusate.

Conclusions: Dutch experts reached consensus on most items regarding interval CRS and HIPEC for ovarian cancer. This consensus study may help to align treatment protocols and to minimize practice variation. Topics without consensus may be put on the research agenda of HIPEC for ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2022.100945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8894234PMC
February 2022

Three-year follow-up of de-escalated axillary treatment after neoadjuvant systemic therapy in clinically node-positive breast cancer: the MARI-protocol.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2022 May 3;193(1):37-48. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: In clinically node-positive (cN+) breast cancer patients, evidence supporting response-guided treatment after neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NST) instead of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is increasing, but follow-up results are lacking. We assessed three-year axillary recurrence-free interval (aRFI) in cN+ patients with response-adjusted axillary treatment according to the 'Marking Axillary lymph nodes with Radioactive Iodine seeds' (MARI)-protocol.

Methods: We retrospectively assessed all stage II-III cytologically proven cN+ breast cancer patients who underwent the MARI-protocol between July 2014 and November 2018. Pre-NST axillary staging with FDG-PET/CT (less- or more than four suspicious axillary nodes; cALN < 4 or cALN ≥ 4) and post-NST pathological axillary response measured in the pre-NST largest tumor-positive axillary lymph node marked with an iodine seed (MARI-node; ypMARI-neg or ypMARI-pos) determined axillary treatment: no further treatment (cALN < 4, ypMARI-neg), axillary radiotherapy (ART) (cALN < 4, ypMARI-pos and cALN ≥ 4, ypMARI-neg) or ALND plus ART (cALN ≥ 4, ypMARI-pos).

Results: Of 272 women included, the MARI-node was tumor-negative in 56 (32%) of 174 cALN < 4 patients and 43 (44%) of 98 cALN ≥ 4 patients. According to protocol, 56 (21%) patients received no further axillary treatment, 161 (59%) received ART and 55 (20%) received ALND plus ART. Median follow-up was 3.0 years (IQR 1.9-4.1). Five patients (one no further treatment, four ART) had axillary metastases. Three-year aRFI was 98% (95% CI 96-100). The overall recurrence risk remained highest for patients with ALND (HR 4.36; 95% CI 0.95-20.04, p = 0.059).

Conclusions: De-escalation of axillary treatment according to the MARI-protocol prevented ALND in 80% of cN+ patients with an excellent three-year aRFI of 98%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-022-06545-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8993719PMC
May 2022

Socioeconomic status and its relation with breast cancer recurrence and survival in young women in the Netherlands.

Cancer Epidemiol 2022 04 5;77:102118. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Inequalities in Cancer Outcomes Network (ICON), Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and breast cancer survival are most pronounced in young patients. We further investigated the relation between SES, subsequent recurrent events and mortality in breast cancer patients < 40 years. Using detailed data on all recurrences that occur between date of diagnosis of the primary tumor and last observation, we provide a unique insight in the prognosis of young breast cancer patients according to SES.

Methods: All women < 40 years diagnosed with primary operated stage I-III breast cancer in 2005 were selected from the nationwide population-based Netherlands Cancer Registry. Data on all recurrences within 10 years from primary tumor diagnosis were collected directly from patient files. Recurrence patterns and absolute risks of recurrence, contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and mortality - accounting for competing risks - were analysed according to SES. Relationships between SES, recurrence patterns and excess mortality were estimated using a multivariable joint model, wherein the association between recurrent events and excess mortality (expected mortality derived from the general population) was included.

Results: We included 525 patients. The 10-year recurrence risk was lowest in high SES (18.1%), highest in low SES (29.8%). Death and CBC as first events were rare. In high, medium and low SES 13.2%, 15.3% and 19.1% died following a recurrence. Low SES patients had shorter median time intervals between diagnosis, first recurrence and 10-year mortality (2.6 and 2.7 years, respectively) compared to high SES (3.5 and 3.3 years, respectively). In multivariable joint modeling, high SES was significantly related to lower recurrence rates over 10-year follow-up, compared to low SES. A strong association between the recurrent event process and excess mortality was found.

Conclusions: High SES is associated with lower recurrence risks, less subsequent events and better prognosis after recurrence over 10 years than low SES. Breast cancer risk factors, adjuvant treatment adherence and treatment of recurrence may possibly play a role in this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2022.102118DOI Listing
April 2022

Efficacy and safety of olaparib according to age in BRCA1/2-mutated patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer: Analysis of the phase III SOLO2/ENGOT-Ov21 study.

Gynecol Oncol 2022 04 31;165(1):40-48. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

ARCAGY-GINECO Université Paris Descartes, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Background: Olaparib has significantly improved outcome and patient-centered endpoints in BRCA1/2-mutated patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (PSOC). Specific information on efficacy and safety of olaparib for older patients appears of special interest.

Methods: 295 patients from the SOLO2 trial randomly assigned to olaparib or placebo were categorized according to age-cutoff at 65 years. Efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life (QoL) of olaparib relative to placebo within in each age group was analyzed.

Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in patients ≥65 years (N = 62;21.0%) compared to patients <65 years (N = 233;78.9%). No significant difference in the magnitude of progression-free survival (PFS) benefit from olaparib for older patients (N = 40, hazard ratio [HR] 0.43, 95%-confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.81) as compared with younger patients (N = 155, HR 0.31 (95%-CI 0.22-0.43) was seen (interaction P = 0.33). The overall survival (OS)benefit seen in younger patients in the olaparib arm was not observed in older patients. Older and younger patients had comparable safety profiles and QoL scores although higher discontinuation rates for toxicity, and higher frequency of AML/MDS were noted in the older subset. TWiST analysis revealed clinically meaningful duration of good QoL on olaparib for both age groups (≥65: 13.5 vs <65: 18.4 months, P = 0.05).

Conclusions: Results of this large phase III cohort of BRCA1/2-mutated PSOC patients treated with olaparib underline impressive efficacy of olaparib maintenance irrespective of age. Although toxicity and tolerability did not raise significant concerns, some caution, close monitoring, and follow-up needs to be exercised for older patients given higher discontinuation rates, frequency of AML/MDS, and no clear effects on OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2022.01.024DOI Listing
April 2022

Oral Contraceptive Use in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Absolute Cancer Risks and Benefits.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2022 04;114(4):540-552

Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: To help BRCA1 and 2 mutation carriers make informed decisions regarding use of combined-type oral contraceptive preparation (COCP), absolute risk-benefit estimates are needed for COCP-associated cancer.

Methods: For a hypothetical cohort of 10 000 women, we calculated the increased or decreased cumulative incidence of COCP-associated (breast, ovarian, endometrial) cancer, examining 18 scenarios with differences in duration and timing of COCP use, uptake of prophylactic surgeries, and menopausal hormone therapy.

Results: COCP use initially increased breast cancer risk and decreased ovarian and endometrial cancer risk long term. For 10 000 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 10 years of COCP use from age 20 to 30 years resulted in 66 additional COCP-associated cancer cases by the age of 35 years, in addition to 625 cases expected for never users. By the age of 70 years such COCP use resulted in 907 fewer cancer cases than the expected 9093 cases in never users. Triple-negative breast cancer estimates resulted in 196 additional COCP-associated cases by age 40 years, in addition to the 1454 expected. For 10 000 BRCA2 mutation carriers using COCP from age 20 to 30 years, 80 excess cancer cases were estimated by age 40 years in addition to 651 expected cases; by the age of 70 years, we calculated 382 fewer cases compared with the 6156 cases expected. The long-term benefit of COCP use diminished after risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by menopausal hormone therapy use.

Conclusion: Although COCP use in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers initially increases breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer risk, it strongly decreases lifetime cancer risk. Risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and menopausal hormone therapy use appear to counteract the long-term COCP-benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djac004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9002279PMC
April 2022

Analytical and pharmacological consequences of the in vivo deamidation of trastuzumab and pertuzumab.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2022 Feb 10;414(4):1513-1524. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Analytical Biochemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, A. Deusinglaan 1, 9700 AV, Groningen, The Netherlands.

A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method is presented for the quantitative determination of the in vivo deamidation of the biopharmaceutical proteins trastuzumab and pertuzumab at an asparagine in their complementarity determining regions (CDRs). For each analyte, two surrogate peptides are quantified after tryptic digestion of the entire plasma protein content: one from a stable part of the molecule, representing the total concentration, and one containing the deamidation-sensitive asparagine, corresponding to the remaining non-deamidated concentration. Using a plasma volume of 10 µL and a 2-h digestion at pH 7, concentrations between 2 and 1000 µg/mL can be determined for the various protein forms with values for bias and CV below 15% and without unacceptable in vitro deamidation taking place. A considerable difference between the total and non-deamidated concentrations, and thus a substantial degree of deamidation, was observed in plasma for both trastuzumab and pertuzumab. After a 56-day forced deamidation test 40% of trastuzumab and 68% of pertuzumab was deamidated, while trastuzumab and pertuzumab showed up to 47% and 35% of deamidation, respectively, in samples collected from breast cancer patients during treatment with a combination of both drugs. A good correlation between the non-deamidated concentration results and those of a receptor binding assay indicate a loss of receptor binding for both trastuzumab and pertuzumab along with the deamidation in their CDRs. Deamidated trastuzumab also lost its capability to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells in a cell-based viability assay, suggesting a relation between the degree of deamidation and pharmacological activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03756-zDOI Listing
February 2022

Physical Fitness and Chemotherapy Tolerance in Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2022 04;54(4):537-542

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the NETHERLANDS.

Introduction: An optimal relative dose intensity (RDI) of adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with better survival in patients with breast cancer. Little is known about the role of physical fitness in attaining an adequate RDI in patients with early-stage breast cancer. We investigated the association between pretreatment physical fitness and RDI in this population.

Methods: We pooled individual patient data from two randomized exercise trials that studied exercise programs in early breast cancer: the Physical Exercise During Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (n = 230) and the Physical Activity during Chemotherapy Treatment (n = 204) study. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between pretreatment fitness and achieving an optimal RDI (≥85%). In addition, we added an interaction term to the model to explore the potential moderating effect of participating in an exercise program.

Results: Data were available for 419 patients (mean age at diagnosis, 50.0 ± 8.6 yr). In the total sample, lower pretreatment physical fitness was associated with significantly lower odds of achieving ≥85% RDI: age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.66 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.46-0.94). In patients allocated to the supervised exercise intervention during chemotherapy (n = 173), the association between pretreatment physical fitness and RDI was almost completely mitigated (OR, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.54-1.56)), whereas it was more pronounced in patients who received care as usual (n = 172; OR, 0.31 (95% CI, 0.13-0.63); Pinteraction = 0.022).

Conclusions: Early-stage breast cancer patients with relatively lower levels of pretreatment physical fitness have lower odds of achieving an optimal dose of chemotherapy. Given that physical fitness is modifiable and our results suggest that following a moderate-to-high intensity exercise training during chemotherapy could improve treatment completion, clinicians should not refrain from referring patients to supportive exercise programs because of low fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8920022PMC
April 2022

Residual cancer burden after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and long-term survival outcomes in breast cancer: a multicentre pooled analysis of 5161 patients.

Lancet Oncol 2022 01 11;23(1):149-160. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Background: Previous studies have independently validated the prognostic relevance of residual cancer burden (RCB) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We used results from several independent cohorts in a pooled patient-level analysis to evaluate the relationship of RCB with long-term prognosis across different phenotypic subtypes of breast cancer, to assess generalisability in a broad range of practice settings.

Methods: In this pooled analysis, 12 institutes and trials in Europe and the USA were identified by personal communications with site investigators. We obtained participant-level RCB results, and data on clinical and pathological stage, tumour subtype and grade, and treatment and follow-up in November, 2019, from patients (aged ≥18 years) with primary stage I-III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery. We assessed the association between the continuous RCB score and the primary study outcome, event-free survival, using mixed-effects Cox models with the incorporation of random RCB and cohort effects to account for between-study heterogeneity, and stratification to account for differences in baseline hazard across cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status and HER2 status. The association was further evaluated within each breast cancer subtype in multivariable analyses incorporating random RCB and cohort effects and adjustments for age and pretreatment clinical T category, nodal status, and tumour grade. Kaplan-Meier estimates of event-free survival at 3, 5, and 10 years were computed for each RCB class within each subtype.

Findings: We analysed participant-level data from 5161 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy between Sept 12, 1994, and Feb 11, 2019. Median age was 49 years (IQR 20-80). 1164 event-free survival events occurred during follow-up (median follow-up 56 months [IQR 0-186]). RCB score was prognostic within each breast cancer subtype, with higher RCB score significantly associated with worse event-free survival. The univariable hazard ratio (HR) associated with one unit increase in RCB ranged from 1·55 (95% CI 1·41-1·71) for hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative patients to 2·16 (1·79-2·61) for the hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive group (with or without HER2-targeted therapy; p<0·0001 for all subtypes). RCB score remained prognostic for event-free survival in multivariable models adjusted for age, grade, T category, and nodal status at baseline: the adjusted HR ranged from 1·52 (1·36-1·69) in the hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative group to 2·09 (1·73-2·53) in the hormone receptor-negative, HER2-positive group (p<0·0001 for all subtypes).

Interpretation: RCB score and class were independently prognostic in all subtypes of breast cancer, and generalisable to multiple practice settings. Although variability in hormone receptor subtype definitions and treatment across patients are likely to affect prognostic performance, the association we observed between RCB and a patient's residual risk suggests that prospective evaluation of RCB could be considered to become part of standard pathology reporting after neoadjuvant therapy.

Funding: National Cancer Institute at the US National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00589-1DOI Listing
January 2022

Pre-approval and post-approval availability of evidence and clinical benefit of conditionally approved cancer drugs in Europe: A comparison with standard approved cancer drugs.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2022 May 5;88(5):2169-2179. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Aims: Cancer drugs are increasingly approved through expedited regulatory pathways including the European conditional marketing authorization (CMA). Whether, when taking CMA post-approval confirmatory trials into account, the level of evidence and clinical benefit between CMA and standard approved (SMA) drugs differs remains unknown.

Methods: We identified all CMA cancer indications converted to SMA in 2006-2020 and compared these to similar SMA indications with regard to pivotal trial and CMA post-approval confirmatory trial design, outcomes and demonstrated clinical benefit (per the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale). We tested for differences in clinical benefit and whether substantial clinical benefit was demonstrated. To account for the clinical benefit of unconverted CMA indications, we performed sensitivity analyses.

Results: We included 15 SMA and 15 converted CMA cancer indications (17 remained unconverted). Approval of 11 SMA (73%) and four CMA indications (27%) was supported by a controlled trial. Improved overall survival (OS) was demonstrated for four SMA indications (27%). Improved quality of life (QoL) was demonstrated for three SMA (20%) and one CMA indication(s) (7%). Of subsequent CMA post-approval confirmatory trials, 11 were controlled (79%), one demonstrated improved OS (7%) and five improved QoL (36%). After conversion, CMA indications were associated with similar clinical benefit (P = .31) and substantial clinical benefit as SMA indications (risk ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 0.57-3.4).

Conclusion: While CMA cancer indications are initially associated with less comprehensive evidence than SMA indications, levels of evidence and clinical benefit are similar after conversion from CMA to SMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.15141DOI Listing
May 2022

Maintenance olaparib for patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation (SOLO1/GOG 3004): 5-year follow-up of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 12 26;22(12):1721-1731. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Women & Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

Background: There is a high unmet need for treatment regimens that increase the chance of long-term remission and possibly cure for women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. In the primary analysis of SOLO1/GOG 3004, the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib significantly improved progression-free survival versus placebo in patients with a BRCA mutation; median progression-free survival was not reached. Here, we report an updated, post-hoc analysis of progression-free survival from SOLO1, after 5 years of follow-up.

Methods: SOLO1 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, done across 118 centres in 15 countries, that enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1 and with BRCA-mutated, newly diagnosed, advanced, high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer with a complete or partial clinical response after platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) via a web-based or interactive voice-response system to receive olaparib (300 mg twice daily) or placebo tablets orally as maintenance monotherapy for up to 2 years; randomisation was by blocks and was stratified according to clinical response after platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients, treatment providers, and data assessors were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Efficacy is reported in the intention-to-treat population and safety in patients who received at least one dose of treatment. The data cutoff for this updated, post-hoc analysis was March 5, 2020. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01844986) and is ongoing but closed to new participants.

Findings: Between Sept 3, 2013, and March 6, 2015, 260 patients were randomly assigned to olaparib and 131 to placebo. The median treatment duration was 24·6 months (IQR 11·2-24·9) in the olaparib group and 13·9 months (8·0-24·8) in the placebo group; median follow-up was 4·8 years (2·8-5·3) in the olaparib group and 5·0 years (2·6-5·3) in the placebo group. In this post-hoc analysis, median progression-free survival was 56·0 months (95% CI 41·9-not reached) with olaparib versus 13·8 months (11·1-18·2) with placebo (hazard ratio 0·33 [95% CI 0·25-0·43]). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were anaemia (57 [22%] of 260 patients receiving olaparib vs two [2%] of 130 receiving placebo) and neutropenia (22 [8%] vs six [5%]), and serious adverse events occurred in 55 (21%) of 260 patients in the olaparib group and 17 (13%) of 130 in the placebo group. No treatment-related adverse events that occurred during study treatment or up to 30 days after discontinuation were reported as leading to death. No additional cases of myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia were reported since the primary data cutoff, including after the 30-day safety follow-up period.

Interpretation: For patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation, after, to our knowledge, the longest follow-up for any randomised controlled trial of a PARP inhibitor in this setting, the benefit derived from 2 years' maintenance therapy with olaparib was sustained beyond the end of treatment, extending median progression-free survival past 4·5 years. These results support the use of maintenance olaparib as a standard of care in this setting.

Funding: AstraZeneca; Merck Sharpe & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Kenilworth, NJ, USA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00531-3DOI Listing
December 2021

Translational and pharmacological principles of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for ovarian cancer.

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2022 Jan 4;78:86-102. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Dept. of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The long-term survival of advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients remains poor, despite extensive cytoreductive surgery, chemotherapy, and the recent addition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi). Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has shown survival benefit by specifically targeting peritoneal metastases, the primary site of disease recurrence. Different aspects of how HIPEC exerts its effect remain poorly understood. Improved understanding of the effects of hyperthermia on ovarian cancer cells, the synergy of hyperthermia with intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of intraperitoneally administered cisplatin may help identify ways to optimize the efficacy of HIPEC. This review provides an overview of these translational and pharmacological principles of HIPEC and aims to expose knowledge gaps that may direct further research to optimize the HIPEC procedure and ultimately improve survival for women with advanced ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2021.06.004DOI Listing
January 2022

Clinicopathologic predictors of early relapse in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: development of prediction models using nationwide data.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 12 9;75:102008. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Research and Development, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organization (IKNL), Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Objective: To identify clinicopathologic factors predictive of early relapse (platinum-free interval (PFI) of ≤6 months) in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in first-line treatment, and to develop and internally validate risk prediction models for early relapse.

Methods: All consecutive patients diagnosed with advanced stage EOC between 01-01-2008 and 31-12-2015 were identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy as initial EOC treatment were selected. Two prediction models, i.e. pretreatment and postoperative, were developed. Candidate predictors of early relapse were fitted into multivariable logistic regression models. Model performance was assessed on calibration and discrimination. Internal validation was performed through bootstrapping to correct for model optimism.

Results: A total of 4,557 advanced EOC patients were identified, including 1,302 early relapsers and 3,171 late or non-relapsers. Early relapsers were more likely to have FIGO stage IV, mucinous or clear cell type EOC, ascites, >1 cm residual disease, and to have undergone NACT-ICS. The final pretreatment model demonstrated subpar model performance (AUC = 0.64 [95 %-CI 0.62-0.66]). The final postoperative model based on age, FIGO stage, pretreatment CA-125 level, histologic subtype, presence of ascites, treatment approach, and residual disease after debulking, demonstrated adequate model performance (AUC = 0.72 [95 %-CI 0.71-0.74]). Bootstrap validation revealed minimal optimism of the final postoperative model.

Conclusion: A (postoperative) discriminative model has been developed and presented online that predicts the risk of early relapse in advanced EOC patients. Although external validation is still required, this prediction model can support patient counselling in daily clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2021.102008DOI Listing
December 2021

Tolerability of maintenance olaparib in newly diagnosed patients with advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation in the randomized phase III SOLO1 trial.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 10 2;163(1):41-49. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Women & Infants Hospital, Providence, RI, United States.

Objectives: In the phase III SOLO1 trial (NCT01844986), maintenance olaparib provided a substantial progression-free survival benefit in patients with newly diagnosed, advanced ovarian cancer and a BRCA mutation who were in response after platinum-based chemotherapy. We analyzed the timing, duration and grade of the most common hematologic and non-hematologic adverse events in SOLO1.

Methods: Eligible patients were randomized to olaparib tablets 300 mg twice daily (N = 260) or placebo (N = 131), with a 2-year treatment cap in most patients. Safety outcomes were analyzed in detail in randomized patients who received at least one dose of study drug (olaparib, n = 260; placebo, n = 130).

Results: Median time to first onset of the most common hematologic (anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia) and non-hematologic (nausea, fatigue/asthenia, vomiting) adverse events was <3 months in olaparib-treated patients. The first event of anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea and vomiting lasted a median of <2 months and the first event of fatigue/asthenia lasted a median of 3.48 months in the olaparib group. These adverse events were manageable with supportive treatment and/or olaparib dose modification in most patients, with few patients requiring discontinuation of olaparib. Of 162 patients still receiving olaparib at month 24, 64.2% were receiving the recommended starting dose of olaparib 300 mg twice daily.

Conclusions: Maintenance olaparib had a predictable and manageable adverse event profile in the newly diagnosed setting with no new safety signals identified. Adverse events usually occurred early, were largely manageable and led to discontinuation in a minority of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.07.016DOI Listing
October 2021

Improved risk estimation of locoregional recurrence, secondary contralateral tumors and distant metastases in early breast cancer: the INFLUENCE 2.0 model.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Oct 2;189(3):817-826. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Health Technology and Services Research, Technical Medical Centre, University of Twente, POBox 217, Enschede, 7500 AE, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To extend the functionality of the existing INFLUENCE nomogram for locoregional recurrence (LRR) of breast cancer toward the prediction of secondary primary tumors (SP) and distant metastases (DM) using updated follow-up data and the best suitable statistical approaches.

Methods: Data on women diagnosed with non-metastatic invasive breast cancer were derived from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (n = 13,494). To provide flexible time-dependent individual risk predictions for LRR, SP, and DM, three statistical approaches were assessed; a Cox proportional hazard approach (COX), a parametric spline approach (PAR), and a random survival forest (RSF). These approaches were evaluated on their discrimination using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) statistic and on calibration using the Integrated Calibration Index (ICI). To correct for optimism, the performance measures were assessed by drawing 200 bootstrap samples.

Results: Age, tumor grade, pT, pN, multifocality, type of surgery, hormonal receptor status, HER2-status, and adjuvant therapy were included as predictors. While all three approaches showed adequate calibration, the RSF approach offers the best optimism-corrected 5-year AUC for LRR (0.75, 95%CI: 0.74-0.76) and SP (0.67, 95%CI: 0.65-0.68). For the prediction of DM, all three approaches showed equivalent discrimination (5-year AUC: 0.77-0.78), while COX seems to have an advantage concerning calibration (ICI < 0.01). Finally, an online calculator of INFLUENCE 2.0 was created.

Conclusions: INFLUENCE 2.0 is a flexible model to predict time-dependent individual risks of LRR, SP and DM at a 5-year scale; it can support clinical decision-making regarding personalized follow-up strategies for curatively treated non-metastatic breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06335-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505302PMC
October 2021

Adjuvant Aromatase Inhibitors or Tamoxifen Following Chemotherapy for Perimenopausal Breast Cancer Patients.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 11;113(11):1506-1514

Division of Molecular Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The benefit of adjuvant aromatase inhibitors (AI) vs tamoxifen has been investigated in randomized clinical trials for premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with early, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. The optimal endocrine treatment for chemotherapy-treated perimenopausal women, who generally develop chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea, is uncertain.

Methods: All Dutch women who received adjuvant chemotherapy and endocrine treatment for stage I-III, ER+ (>10% positive cells), invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2007 were identified through the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Included women were considered perimenopausal based on an age at diagnosis of 45 to 50 years (n = 2295). For each patient, AI treatment duration relative to total endocrine treatment duration was calculated. Predominantly tamoxifen-treated patients (AI < 25%) were compared with those receiving AI and tamoxifen for a similar duration (AI 25%-75%) and those mostly using AI (AI > 75%). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were calculated using time-dependent Cox regression.

Results: After an average follow-up of 7.6 years, 377 RFS events occurred. Women mostly receiving AI (AI > 75%) had the best RFS (adjusted HR = 0.63, 95% confidence interval = 0.46 to 0.86) followed by those receiving AI 25% to 75% (adjusted HR = 0.85, 95% confidence interval = 0.65 to 1.12) compared with predominantly tamoxifen-treated women. Trend analyses showed that every 10% increase in AI-endocrine treatment ratio reduced RFS event risk by 5% (2-sided Ptrend = .002). In total, 236 deaths occurred; hazard ratios for overall survival showed similar trends.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the best adjuvant endocrine treatment for chemotherapy-treated, ER+ breast cancer patients diagnosed aged 45-50 years consists of mainly AI followed by a switch strategy and mainly tamoxifen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8562974PMC
November 2021

Three-Year Follow-up of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Anthracyclines in the Presence of Dual ERBB2 Blockade in Patients With ERBB2-Positive Breast Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of the TRAIN-2 Randomized, Phase 3 Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jul;7(7):978-984

Department of Medical Oncology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Primary analysis of the TRAIN-2 study showed high pathologic complete response rates after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without anthracyclines plus dual ERBB2 (formerly HER2) blockade.

Objective: To evaluate 3-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of an anthracycline-free and anthracycline-containing regimen with dual ERBB2 blockade in patients with stage II and III ERBB2-positive breast cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 438 patients with stage II and III ERBB2-positive breast cancer were enrolled in this randomized, clinical, open-label phase 3 trial across 37 hospitals in the Netherlands from December 9, 2013, until January 14, 2016. Follow-up analyses were performed after a median follow-up of 48.8 months (interquartile range, 44.1-55.2 months). Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis.

Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned on a 1:1 basis, stratified by age, tumor stage, nodal stage, and estrogen receptor status, to receive 3 cycles of fluorouracil (500 mg/m2), epirubicin (90 mg/m2), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2), followed by 6 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin or 9 cycles of paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 days 1 and 8) and carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve, 6 mg/mL/min). Both groups received trastuzumab (6 mg/kg; loading dose 8 mg/kg) and pertuzumab (420 mg intravenously; loading dose 840 mg) every 3 weeks.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Three-year EFS, OS, and safety.

Results: A total of 438 women were randomized, with 219 per group (anthracycline group, median age, 49 years [interquartile range, 43-55 years]; and nonanthracycline group, median age, 48 years [interquartile range, 43-56 years]). A total of 23 EFS events (10.5%) occurred in the anthracycline group and 21 EFS events (9.6%) occurred in the nonanthracycline group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.50-1.63; favoring nonanthracyclines). Three-year EFS estimates were 92.7% (95% CI, 89.3%-96.2%) in the anthracycline group and 93.6% (95% CI, 90.4%-96.9%) in the nonanthracycline group and 3-year OS estimates were 97.7% (95% CI, 95.7%-99.7%) in the anthracycline group and 98.2% (95% CI, 96.4%-100%) in the nonanthracycline group. The results were irrespective of hormone receptor and nodal status. A decline in left ventricular ejection fraction of 10% or more from baseline to less than 50% was more common in patients who received anthracyclines than those who did not (17 of 220 [7.7%] vs 7 of 218 [3.2%]; P = .04). Two patients treated with anthracyclines developed acute leukemia.

Conclusions And Relevance: This follow-up analysis of the TRAIN-2 study shows similar 3-year EFS and OS estimates with or without anthracyclines in patients with stage II and III ERBB2-positive breast cancer. Anthracycline use is associated with increased risk of febrile neutropenia, cardiotoxic effects, and secondary malignant neoplasms.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01996267.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.1371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138752PMC
July 2021

Characterization of Oligometastatic Disease in a Real-World Nationwide Cohort of 3447 Patients With de Novo Metastatic Breast Cancer.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 06 4;5(3). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Observational studies in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) show that long-term overall survival (OS) is associated with limited tumor burden, or oligo-MBC (OMBC). However, a uniform definition of OMBC is lacking. In this real-world nationwide cohort, we aimed to define the optimal OMBC threshold and factors associated with survival in patients with OMBC.

Methods: 3535 patients aged younger than 80 years at diagnosis of de novo MBC in the Netherlands between January 2000 and December 2007 were included. Detailed clinical, therapy, and outcome data were collected from medical records of a sample of the patients. Using inverse-sampling-probability weighting, the analysis cohort (n = 3447) was constructed. We assessed OS according to number of metastases at diagnosis to determine the optimal OMBC threshold. Next, we applied Cox regression models with inverse-sampling-probability weighting to study associations with OS and progression-free survival in OMBC. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Compared with more than 5 distant metastases, adjusted hazard ratios for OS (with 95% confidence interval [CI] based on robust standard errors) for 1, 2-3, and 4-5 metastases were 0.70 (95% CI = 0.52 to 0.96), 0.63 (95% CI = 0.45 to 0.89), and 0.91 (95% CI = 0.61 to 1.37), respectively. Ten-year OS estimates for patients with no more than 3 vs more than 3 metastases were 14.9% and 3.4% (<.001). In multivariable analyses, premenopausal andperimenopausal status, absence of lung metastases, and local therapy of metastases (surgery and/or radiotherapy) added to systemic therapy were statistically significantly associated with better OS and progression-free survival in OMBC, independent of local therapy of the primary tumor.

Conclusion: OMBC defined as MBC limited to 1-3 metastases was associated with favorable OS. In OMBC, local therapy of metastases was associated with better OS, particularly if patients were premenopausal or perimenopausal without lung metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099998PMC
June 2021

Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Ovarian and Colorectal Cancer: A Review.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Aug;7(8):1231-1238

Center for Gynecologic Oncology Amsterdam, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam.

Importance: The peritoneal surface is a common site of disease in ovarian and colorectal cancer. Peritoneal metastases carry a poor prognosis, despite maximal therapeutic efforts, including surgical removal of tumor deposits and intravenous chemotherapy. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a single intraoperative procedure that delivers chemotherapy directly into the abdominal cavity, leading to high intracellular drug concentration at the peritoneal surface. This review describes the current knowledge regarding the mechanism of action, safety, and efficacy of HIPEC in the treatment of peritoneal metastases from epithelial ovarian and colorectal cancers and explores current knowledge gaps.

Observations: Toxic effects of HIPEC are limited. Evidence from a randomized trial shows improved recurrence-free and overall survival after HIPEC in patients with ovarian cancer who are ineligible for primary cytoreductive surgery (CRS). The effect of HIPEC for patients with ovarian cancer undergoing primary CRS or CRS for recurrent disease has not yet been determined, and results of ongoing trials must be awaited. A recent study in patients with peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer did not show a benefit of HIPEC when added to perioperative chemotherapy.

Conclusions And Relevance: Based on available evidence, various international guidelines include the option to add HIPEC to interval CRS for patients with stage III ovarian cancer. The role of HIPEC in colorectal cancer is less well defined. Future studies will need to tailor patient selection, timing, and optimal regimens of HIPEC to improve the effectiveness of this specialized treatment in ovarian, colorectal, and other tumor types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.0580DOI Listing
August 2021

Pathologic response of ductal carcinoma in situ to neoadjuvant systemic treatment in HER2-positive breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Aug 4;189(1):213-224. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The presence of extensive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) adjacent to HER2-positive invasive breast cancer (IBC) is often a contra-indication for breast-conserving surgery, even in case of excellent treatment response of the invasive component. Data on the response of DCIS to neoadjuvant systemic treatment (NST) are limited. Therefore, we estimated the response of adjacent DCIS to NST-containing HER2-blockade in HER2-positive breast cancer patients and assessed the association of clinicopathological and radiological factors with response.

Methods: Pre-NST biopsies were examined to determine presence of DCIS in all women with HER2-positive IBC treated with trastuzumab-containing NST ± pertuzumab between 2004 and 2017 in a comprehensive cancer center. When present, multiple DCIS factors, including grade, calcifications, necrosis, hormone receptor, and Ki-67 expression, were scored. Associations of clinicopathological and radiological factors with complete response were assessed using logistic regression models.

Results: Adjacent DCIS, observed in 138/316 patients with HER2-positive IBC, was eradicated after NST in 46% of patients. Absence of calcifications suspicious for malignancy on pre-NST mammography (odds ratio (OR) 3.75; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.72-8.17), treatment with dual HER2-blockade (OR 2.36; 95% CI 1.17-4.75), a (near) complete response on MRI (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.31-9.64), and absence of calcifications (OR 3.19; 95% CI 1.34-7.60) and Ki-67 > 20% in DCIS (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.09-6.89) on pre-NST biopsy were significantly associated with DCIS response.

Conclusions: As DCIS can respond to NST containing HER2-blockade, the presence of extensive DCIS in HER2-positive breast cancer before NST should not always indicate a mastectomy. The predictive factors we found could be helpful when considering breast-conserving surgery in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06235-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302531PMC
August 2021
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