Publications by authors named "G Soots"

173 Publications

Banking of cryopreserved heart valves in Europe: assessment of a 10-year operation in the European Homograft Bank (EHB).

J Heart Valve Dis 2000 Mar;9(2):207-14

European Homograft Bank, International Association, Brussels, Belgium.

Background And Aim Of The Study: The preparation, banking and distribution of cryopreserved heart valves has been carried out at the European Homograft Bank (EHB) in Brussels without interruption since January 1989. We present an assessment of the Bank's activities during this 10-year period.

Methods: Heart valve donors aged <62 years form three categories: multiorgan donors with non-transplantable hearts; recipients of cardiac transplantation; and non-beating heart cadavers with a warm ischemia time of less than 6 h. Past history and biology are checked for transmissible diseases. Dissection, incubation in antibiotics and cryopreservation in 10% dimethylsulfoxide with storage in liquid nitrogen vapors (about -150 degrees C), and quality control are according to the standards of the Belgian Ministry of Health. Cryopreserved valves are shipped to the implantation centers in a dry shipper at about -150 degrees C.

Results: Between January 30th 1989 and December 31st 1998, 1,817 non-transplantable hearts and 12 excised semilunar valves were obtained. In total, 2,077 valves (1,032 pulmonary, 931 aortic and 13 mitral) were decontaminated, cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen vapor (six more valves were refrigerated). In total, 1,515 valves were discarded at different stages of the protocol, the main causes of rejection being significant macroscopic lesions (68.2% aortic and 26.67% pulmonary). Inadequate excision at procurement (10.37% pulmonary), persistent contamination after antibiotics (5.6%) and positive serology for hepatitis B and C and Q fever (5.4%) were other frequent causes for rejection. Among the 2,117 accepted valves, 1,398 were graded first and 719 second choice, mainly on the basis of morphology. In total, 2,090 cryopreserved valves and one refrigerated valve were implanted in 39 institutions between May 1989 and December 1998. Of requests, 10.02% could not be satisfied. In total, 967 pulmonary valves were implanted in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT); 424 during a Ross procedure, and 76 in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). Of the aortic valves, 732 were implanted in the LVOT and 266 in the RVOT. Mitral homografts were used for tricuspid valve replacement in two cases, and in the mitral position in seven. Complications at distribution and thawing included 10 bag ruptures and 16 transversal conduit wall fractures. Of the valves shipped, 317 (13.16%) were not used and were returned safely in the dry shipper. Comparison of distribution rates in the first 5.5 and last 4.5 years of EHB activity shows: (i) a significant increase in pulmonary valve implantations in the RVOT (from 71.95% to 81.95%); and (ii) a marked increase (265%) in pulmonary homograft implantations as part of a Ross operation, and a significant decrease (28%) in aortic homograft implantation in the LVOT.

Conclusion: While macroscopic lesions of procured aortic valves remain the most frequent and unavoidable cause of homograft rejection during quality control, the high percentage of inadequate surgical heart valve excision should be corrected. The rates of bacterial contamination and positive serology seem acceptable. Storage and shipping of cryopreserved homografts in liquid nitrogen vapor permits them to be spared very efficiently. The increasing use of pulmonary valves for RVOT reconstruction either in congenital heart disease or as part of the Ross procedure compensates for the limited availability of good quality aortic valves.
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March 2000

[Primary Aspergillus endocarditis. Apropos of a case and review of the international literature].

Ann Chir 1992 ;46(2):110-5

Service de Chirurgie Cardio-Vasculaire B, Hôpital Cardiologie de Lille.

The authors report a case of primary aspergillus endocarditis with endophthalmitis and vertebral osteomyelitis. No underlying disease and no predisposing factors were found. Valve replacement plus combined antifungal chemotherapy proved to be effective as the patient is asymptomatic 18 months after the first symptoms. 48 cases of aspergillus endocarditis, without prior cardiac surgery have been reported in the literature. Aspergillus endocarditis was valvular or mural. Extracardiac dissemination was common but endophthalmitis and osteomyelitis were infrequent. In 11 cases, the diagnosis was made by histologic examination of embolectomy or ocular, skin biopsy tissue. All patients were febrile. Blood cultures showed no Aspergillus species. Clinical manifestations of endocarditis were described in less than fifty per cent of cases. Echocardiographic visualization of vegetations was obtained in 5 cases. Many patients experienced embolic phenomena. Mortality from Aspergillus endocarditis is extremely high (96%). Surgery is the main treatment, consisting of valve replacement. Antifungal chemotherapy should be combined. The proper duration and dosage and the combination of antifungal drugs have not been clearly defined.
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July 1992

Cold blood cardioplegia and warm cardioplegic reperfusion in heart transplantation.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1991 ;5(8):400-4; discussion 405

Hôpital Cardiologique, University of Lille, France.

The major cause of early death after heart transplantation is graft failure. In 99 consecutive heart transplantations two protocols of myocardial protection were employed. In group 1 (n = 38) initial cold crystalloid cardioplegia combined with cold saline storage and peroperative surface cooling was used. In group 2 (n = 61) cold crystalloid cardioplegia was injected initially and cold blood cardioplegia (Buckberg) was infused every 30 min as soon as the graft arrived in the operating room. No surface cooling was used. Warm blood cardioplegic reperfusion was administered before removal of the aortic clamp. There were 8 early (within 30 days) deaths in group 1 and 6 in group 2 patients. In group 1 there were 5 cardiac deaths against 3 in group 2. Mean ischemic time was 153 +/- 37 min in group 1 and 158 +/- 51 min (p greater than 0.05) in group 2. The post-transplantation need for catecholamines was ten times higher in group 1 patients than in group 2. The first endomyocardial biopsy (after 1 week) showed cytologic lesions compatible with ischemia in 40% of group 1 and only 9% in group 2 patients. We conclude from this initial experience that intermittent cold blood cardioplegia and warm blood cardioplegic reperfusion are useful in heart transplantation in restoring the damage suffered by the graft during brain death and graft storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1010-7940(91)90183-kDOI Listing
November 1991

End-to-side aortoprosthetic anastomoses: long-term computed tomography assessment.

Ann Vasc Surg 1990 Nov;4(6):584-91

Service de Chirurgie Cardio-Vasculaire, Hôpital Cardiologique, Lille, France.

Fifty-two asymptomatic patients underwent routine computed tomographic evaluation of aortobifemoral bypass grafts implanted end-to-side on the aorta five to 10 years after operation. Anteroposterior diameters were measured at the level of the stem and the limbs of the graft, the aortoprosthetic anastomosis, and the infraanastomotic aorta. The stems of the prostheses were found to be dilated between 30 and 110% (mean 58%) of initial values. The limbs of the graft were dilated between 15 and 150% of initial values, the mean being 52%. The anteroposterior diameter of the aortoprosthetic anastomosis measured between 27 and 48 mm with a mean of 32 mm. Eight patients (15%) had an anastomotic false aneurysm. The aorta distal to the prosthetic anastomosis was completely occluded in 48 cases (92%). A mural thrombus was encountered at the level of the aortoprosthetic anastomosis in 21 (40%) patients. These findings raise questions as to the possible role of side-to-end aortoprosthetic anastomoses in the genesis of anastomotic dilatations, false aneurysms, intraprosthetic thrombosis, and thrombosis of the branches of aortofemoral bifurcation prosthetic grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0890-5096(06)60844-3DOI Listing
November 1990

[Cystic adventitial disease of the popliteal artery].

Authors:
G Soots

J Mal Vasc 1990 ;15(2):179-81

Service de Chirurgie Cardio-Vasculaire A, Hôpital cardiologique, Lille.

This strange lesion has been described as colloid degeneration, adventitial cyst, adventitial cystic disease, cystic degeneration of the popliteal artery. The disease was also observed in other localizations and the first case, which was described in 1946 by Atkins and Key (I) concerned an iliac artery. Bizard (2) in 1978 reported a case of the common femoral artery. Ejrup and Hiertonn (4) described the first popliteal localization in 1954. Bergan in 1970 reported 40 cases and collected 115 operated cases in Rutherford's Vascular Surgery (5). Usually a young patient complaints from a recent severe intermittent claudication. At surgery a cystic lesion is found into the adventitia of the popliteal artery, containing gelatinous material which may be easily evacuated without opening the lumen of the artery. This lesion is totally different from atheroma and also from medial cystic necrosis as described by Erdheim.
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July 1990
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