Publications by authors named "G Rao"

3,434 Publications

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Right aortic arch with mirror image branching found incidentally during coronary surgery.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 9;9:2050313X211030014. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Heart Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

Right aortic arch with a left innominate (brachiocephalic) artery with mirror image branching (RAMI) is a rare congenital anomaly, and it is unusual to diagnose it in adulthood. There are very few cases of cardiac surgery being performed for acquired cardiac disease on a congenital RAMI patient. We present a patient who had an incidental finding of a RAMI anomaly found during coronary artery bypass surgery. Post-operatively computerised tomography showed both his congenital lesions and his bypass grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X211030014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274131PMC
July 2021

Structured Q1 headache services as the solution to the ill-health burden of headache: 1. Rationale and description.

J Headache Pain 2021 Jul 21;22(1):78. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

In countries where headache services exist at all, their focus is usually on specialist (tertiary) care. This is clinically and economically inappropriate: most headache disorders can effectively and more efficiently (and at lower cost) be treated in educationally supported primary care. At the same time, compartmentalizing divisions between primary, secondary and tertiary care in many health-care systems create multiple inefficiencies, confronting patients attempting to navigate these levels (the "patient journey") with perplexing obstacles.High demand for headache care, estimated here in a needs-assessment exercise, is the biggest of the challenges to reform. It is also the principal reason why reform is necessary.The structured headache services model presented here by experts from all world regions on behalf of the Global Campaign against Headache is the suggested health-care solution to headache. It develops and refines previous proposals, responding to the challenge of high demand by basing headache services in primary care, with two supporting arguments. First, only primary care can deliver headache services equitably to the large numbers of people needing it. Second, with educational supports, they can do so effectively to most of these people. The model calls for vertical integration between care levels (primary, secondary and tertiary), and protection of the more advanced levels for the minority of patients who need them. At the same time, it is amenable to horizontal integration with other care services. It is adaptable according to the broader national or regional health services in which headache services should be embedded.It is, according to evidence and argument presented, an efficient and cost-effective model, but these are claims to be tested in formal economic analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-021-01265-zDOI Listing
July 2021

CRISPR-Based Crop Improvements: A Way Forward to Achieve Zero Hunger.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Center for Rice Improvement, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006, China.

Zero hunger is one of the sustainable development goals set by the United Nations in 2015 to achieve global food security by 2030. The current harvest of crops is insufficient; feeding the world's population and meeting the goal of zero hunger by 2030 will require larger and more consistent crop production. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas) technology is widely used for the plant genome editing. In this review, we consider this technology as a potential tool for achieving zero hunger. We provide a comprehensive overview of CRISPR-Cas technology and its most important applications for food crops' improvement. We also conferred current and potential technological breakthroughs that will help in breeding future crops to end global hunger. The regulatory aspects of deploying this technology in commercial sectors, bioethics, and the production of transgene-free plants are also discussed. We hope that the CRISPR-Cas system will accelerate the breeding of improved crop cultivars compared with conventional breeding and pave the way toward the zero hunger goal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c02653DOI Listing
July 2021

Is intra-operative enteroscopy still relevant in small bowel disorders in the era of capsule endoscopy and device assisted enteroscopy? real-world experience from a tertiary care hospital.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Asian Institute of Gastroenterology, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Background And Aims: With the advent of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) and device assisted enteroscopy (DAE),the indication of intra-operative enteroscopy (IOE) has become limited due to reported high morbidity/mortality. Most of the earlier studies on IOE were small/from pre VCE/DAE era. We aimed to evaluate the impact of IOE in management of small bowel disorders (SBD)in post VCE/DAE era.

Methods: Patients with SBD undergoing IOE over last 15 years were evaluated retrospectively. Overall diagnostic/therapeutic yield, incremental diagnostic yield over pre-operative investigations and adverse events were noted. We also evaluated the number of cases in which IOE changed the management or guided surgical or endoscopic therapy. Re-bleeding and recurrence were evaluated in patients with available follow up data.

Results: A total of 89 patients(59 males,9-82 years) were included in the study. Overall diagnostic and therapeutic yield were 92.1% and 85.4% respectively. Common findings of IOE were : benign ulcers/strictures(30.1%),vascular lesions(26%),diverticula(15.1%) and tumors(13.7%). 49.4%(44/89), 36%(32/89) and 20.2%(18/89) underwent VCE,DAE or both respectively prior to IOE. Incremental diagnostic yield over pre-operative work up was 31.5%(28/89) and IOE changed the management in 37.1%(33/89) patients. IOE was used to guide surgery/endotherapy in 39.3%(35/89) patients. Recurrent GI bleed occurred in 21.2%(14/66) patients. Morbidity and mortality rates were 20.2%(18/89) and 3.4%(3/89) respectively.

Conclusions: IOE remains an essential technique to evaluate SBD and can detect new and additional lesions even after extensive pre-operative evaluation. IOE is useful in guiding therapy in pre-operatively identified lesions and can change management in a substantial proportion of patients. Hence, IOE has a definitive role in post VCE/DAE era in carefully selected patients with SBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15626DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of cell culture infectious clones for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b and transcription analysis of 1b-infected hepatoma cells.

Antiviral Res 2021 Jul 9:105136. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, And Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of Ministry of Education, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 501180, China; Department of Infectious Disease, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Globally, hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b is most prevalent, and its infection has been found to associate with a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than other genotype viruses. However, an efficient infectious HCV genotype 1b culture system is unavailable, which has largely hampered the study of this important genotype virus. In this study, by using a systematic approach combining adaptive mutations and infectious 1a TNcc sequences, we succeeded in culture adaption of two full-length 1b clones for the reference strain Con1 and a clinical isolate A6, and designated as Con1cc and A6cc, respectively. Con1cc and A6cc replicated efficiently in hepatoma Huh7.5.1 cells, released HCV infectivity titers of 10 and 10 focus forming units per milliliter, respectively, and maintained the engineered mutations after passages. Both viruses responded to sofosbuvir and velpatasvir in a dose-dependent manner. With culture infectious 1b clones, we characterized the transcriptomes of 1b Con1cc-infected cells, in comparison with 2a-infected and uninfected cells. In conclusion, we have developed infectious clones for genotype 1b and shown a novel strategy for culture adaptation of HCV isolates by using a genetically close backbone sequence. Furthermore, this study provides transcriptional landscape of HCV 1b-infected hepatoma cells facilitating the study of genotype 1b infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105136DOI Listing
July 2021