Publications by authors named "G Radetti"

173 Publications

The Role of Different Indexes of Adiposity and Body Composition for the Identification of Metabolic Syndrome in Women with Obesity.

J Clin Med 2021 May 4;10(9). Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Auxology, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, 28824 Piancavallo, Italy.

The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different indexes of adiposity and/or body composition in identifying the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a group of 1528 Caucasian women with obesity: (age ± standard deviation (SD): 50.8 ± 14 years (range 18-83); body mass index (BMI) 43.3 ± 5.9 kg/m (30.7-72.9 kg/m)). The following indexes were assessed in each subject: BMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI), tri-ponderal mass index (TMI), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), and the body mass fat index (BMFI). Thereafter, a threshold value adjusted for age, which could identify MetS, was calculated for each index. A significant correlation was found among all indexes ( < 0.0001 for all). However, when the area under the curve (AUC) was compared, WtHR performed significantly better in the whole group and in the different age groups, apart from a lack of statistical difference between WtHR and BMFI in the 45-55 years age group. In conclusion, WtHR seems to be a fair index useful for identifying MetS in women with obesity. The use of thresholds appropriate for age can help further improve its accuracy, thus reinforcing the clinical evaluation for MetS screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10091975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125097PMC
May 2021

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1: an Italian survey on 158 patients.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

FIRS Laboratories RSR Ltd, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare recessive inherited disease, caused by AutoImmune Regulator (AIRE) gene mutations and characterized by three major manifestations: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), chronic hypoparathyroidism (CH) and Addison's disease (AD).

Methods: Autoimmune conditions and associated autoantibodies (Abs) were analyzed in 158 Italian patients (103 females and 55 males; F/M 1.9/1) at the onset and during a follow-up of 23.7 ± 15.1 years. AIRE mutations were determined.

Results: The prevalence of APS-1 was 2.6 cases/million (range 0.5-17 in different regions). At the onset 93% of patients presented with one or more components of the classical triad and 7% with other components. At the end of follow-up, 86.1% had CH, 77.2% AD, 74.7% CMC, 49.5% premature menopause, 29.7% autoimmune intestinal dysfunction, 27.8% autoimmune thyroid diseases, 25.9% autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia, 25.3% ectodermal dystrophy, 24% alopecia, 21.5% autoimmune hepatitis, 17% vitiligo, 13.3% cholelithiasis, 5.7% connective diseases, 4.4% asplenia, 2.5% celiac disease and 13.9% cancer. Overall, 991 diseases (6.3 diseases/patient) were found. Interferon-ω Abs (IFNωAbs) were positive in 91.1% of patients. Overall mortality was 14.6%. The AIRE mutation R139X was found in 21.3% of tested alleles, R257X in 11.8%, W78R in 11.4%, C322fsX372 in 8.8%, T16M in 6.2%, R203X in 4%, and A21V in 2.9%. Less frequent mutations were present in 12.9%, very rare in 9.6% while no mutations in 11% of the cases.

Conclusions: In Italy, APS-1 is a rare disorder presenting with the three major manifestations and associated with different AIRE gene mutations. IFNωAbs are markers of APS-1 and other organ-specific autoantibodies are markers of clinical, subclinical or potential autoimmune conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40618-021-01585-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Primary Adrenal Insufficiency in Childhood: Data From a Large Nationwide Cohort.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar;106(3):762-773

Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Endo-ERN Center for Rare Endocrine Conditions, Naples, Italy.

Context: Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that is poorly characterized in children.

Objective: To describe causes, presentation, auxological outcome, frequency of adrenal crisis and mortality of a large cohort of children with PAI.

Patients And Methods: Data from 803 patients from 8 centers of Pediatric Endocrinology were retrospectively collected.

Results: The following etiologies were reported: 85% (n = 682) congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD); 3.1% (n = 25) X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy; 3.1% (n = 25) autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1; 2.5% (n = 20) autoimmune adrenal insufficiency; 2% (n = 16) adrenal hypoplasia congenital; 1.2% (n = 10) non-21-OHD CAH; 1% (n = 8) rare syndromes; 0.6% (n = 5) familial glucocorticoid deficiency; 0.4% (n = 3) acquired adrenal insufficiency; 9 patients (1%) did not receive diagnosis. Since 21-OHD CAH has been extensively characterized, it was not further reviewed. In 121 patients with a diagnosis other than 21-OHD CAH, the most frequent symptoms at diagnosis were fatigue (67%), hyperpigmentation (50.4%), dehydration (33%), and hypotension (31%). Elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (96.4%) was the most common laboratory finding followed by hyponatremia (55%), hyperkalemia (32.7%), and hypoglycemia (33.7%). The median age at presentation was 6.5 ± 5.1 years (0.1-17.8 years) and the mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5.6 ± 11.6 months (0-56 months) depending on etiology. Rate of adrenal crisis was 2.7 per 100 patient-years. Three patients died from the underlying disease. Adult height, evaluated in 70 patients, was -0.70 ± 1.20 standard deviation score.

Conclusions: We characterized one of the largest cohorts of children with PAI aiming to improve the knowledge on diagnosis of this rare condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa881DOI Listing
March 2021

IGF1 for the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in children and adolescents: a reappraisal.

Endocr Connect 2020 Nov;9(11):1095-1102

SSD Endocrinologia Pediatrica e Centro Screening Neonatale, Ospedale Pediatrico Microcitemico, 'A. Cao', AO Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy.

A number of studies have evaluated the role of IGF1 measurement in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and the best cut-off of IGF1 SDS in the diagnosis of GHD in a large cohort of short children and adolescents. One-hundred and forty-two children and adolescents with GHD ((63 organic/genetic (OGHD), 79 idiopathic (IGHD)) and 658 short non-GHD children (median age 10.4 years) were included in the analysis. The two groups were subdivided according to age (G1 <6, G2 6 <9, G3 9 <12, G4 ≥12) and to pubertal status. Serum IGFI was measured by the same chemiluminescence assay in all samples and expressed as age- and sex-based SDS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the optimal IGF1 SDS cut-off and the diagnostic accuracy. Median IGF1 SDS was significantly lower in the GHD than in non-GHD patients. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.69, with the best IGF1 cut-off of -1.5 SDS (sensitivity 67.61%, specificity 62.62%). The AUC was 0.75 for OGHD and 0.63 for IGHD. The accuracy was better in the pubertal (AUC = 0.81) than the prepubertal group (AUC = 0.64). In our cohort, IGF1 measurement has poor accuracy in discriminating GHD from non-GHD. Our findings confirm and reinforce the belief that IGF1 values should not be used alone in the diagnosis of GHD but should be interpreted in combination with other clinical and biochemical parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-20-0347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774770PMC
November 2020

Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis are not at higher risk for developing clinically overt thyroid cancer: a 10-year follow-up study.

Eur J Endocrinol 2020 Sep;183(3):317-323

Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, Unit of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Laboratory for Endocrine Disruptors, Pavia, Italy.

Objective: The association between chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains controversial. The incidence of DTC increases when screening procedures are implemented, as typically occurs in CAT patients being routinely submitted to thyroid ultrasound (US). The aim of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the long-term development of DTC in patients with CAT.

Design And Methods: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was designed. For the study, 510 patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) with a 10-year follow-up were enrolled. Patients were divided in two groups according to the presence (CAT+ NOD+; n = 115) or absence (CAT+ NOD-; n = 395) of co-existent nodules at diagnosis. The main outcome measures were appearance of new thyroid-nodules and development of DTC during follow-up.

Results: During a 10-year median follow-up period, new thyroid-nodules were detected in 34/115 (29.5%) patients in the CAT+ NOD+ group and in 41/395 (10.3%) in the CAT+ NOD- group (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that thyroid-volume at diagnosis and belonging to the CAT+ NOD+ group significantly predicted the appearance of a new thyroid nodule during follow-up, independently of baseline age and sex. Among the 75 patients experiencing the appearance of a new nodule, 27 (39%) met the criteria for fine-needle-aspiration-cytology (FNAC). A benign cytological diagnosis was rendered in all cases.

Conclusions: In our series of CAT patients, the appearance of new thyroid-nodules was frequent, but none of them were found to be malignant. The presence of CAT appears to be associated with a negligible risk of developing clinically overt DTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-0350DOI Listing
September 2020
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