Publications by authors named "G Milne"

552 Publications

Urinary PGE-M in Men with Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 13;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Urinary PGE-M is a stable metabolite of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 is a product of the inflammatory COX signaling pathway and has been associated with cancer incidence and metastasis. Its synthesis can be inhibited by aspirin. We investigated the association of PGE-M with lethal prostate cancer in a case-control study of African American (AA) and European American men. We measured urinary PGE-M using mass-spectrometry. Samples were obtained from 977 cases and 1022 controls at the time of recruitment. We applied multivariable logistic and Cox regression modeling to examine associations of PGE-M with prostate cancer and participant survival. Median survival follow-up was 8.4 years, with 246 deaths among cases. Self-reported aspirin use over the past 5 years was assessed with a questionnaire. Race/ethnicity was self-reported. Urinary PGE-M levels did not differ between men with prostate cancer and population-based controls. We observed no association between PGE-M and aggressive disease nor prostate-cancer-specific survival. However, we observed a statistically significant association between higher (>median) PGE-M and all-cause mortality in AA cases who did not regularly use aspirin (HR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.23-3.37). Among cases who reported using aspirin, there was no association. Our study does not support a meaningful association between urinary PGE-M and prostate cancer. Moreover, PGE-M levels were not associated with aggressive prostate cancer. However, the observed association between elevated PGE-M and all-cause mortality in AA non-aspirin users reinforces the potential benefit of aspirin to reduce mortality among AA men with prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391815PMC
August 2021

Oxidative stress is associated with characteristic features of the dysfunctional chronic pain phenotype.

Pain 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Departments of Anesthesiology Medicine Biostatistics, and Orthopaedic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States.

Abstract: The dysfunctional chronic pain (Dysfunctional CP) phenotype is an empirically identifiable CP subtype with unclear pathophysiological mechanisms that cuts across specific medical CP diagnoses. This study tested whether the multidimensional pain and psychosocial features that characterize the dysfunctional CP phenotype are associated broadly with elevated oxidative stress (OS). Measures of pain intensity, bodily extent of pain, catastrophizing cognitions, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, pain interference, and function were completed by 84 patients with chronic osteoarthritis before undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Blood samples were obtained at the initiation of surgery before incision or tourniquet placement. Plasma levels of F2-isoprostanes and isofurans, the most highly specific measures of in vivo OS, were quantified using gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The results indicated that controlling for differences in age, sex, and body mass index, higher overall OS (mean of isoprostanes and isofurans) was associated with significantly (P < 0.05) greater pain intensity, more widespread pain, greater depressive symptoms and pain catastrophizing, higher pain interference, and lower function. OS measures were not significantly associated with sleep disturbance or anxiety levels (P >0.10). The results build on prior case-control findings suggesting that presence of a CP diagnosis is associated with elevated OS, highlighting that it may specifically be individuals displaying characteristics of the dysfunctional CP phenotype who are characterized by elevated OS. Clinical implications of these findings remain to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002429DOI Listing
August 2021

Excess respiratory mortality and hospitalizations associated with influenza in Australia, 2007-2015.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Royal Melbourne Hospital, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Influenza is the most common vaccine-preventable disease in Australia, causing significant morbidity and mortality. We assessed the burden of influenza across all ages in terms of influenza-associated mortality and hospitalizations using national mortality, hospital-discharge and influenza surveillance data.

Methods: Influenza-associated excess respiratory mortality and hospitalization rates from 2007 to 2015 were estimated using generalized additive models with a proxy of influenza activity based on syndromic and laboratory surveillance data. Estimates were made for each age group and year.

Results: The estimated mean annual influenza-associated excess respiratory mortality was 2.6 per 100 000 population [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 3.4 per 100 000 population]. The excess annual respiratory hospitalization rate was 57.4 per 100 000 population (95% CI: 32.5, 82.2 per 100 000 population). The highest mortality rates were observed among those aged ≥75 years (35.11 per 100 000 population; 95% CI: 19.93, 50.29 per 100 000 population) and hospitalization rates were also highest among older adults aged ≥75 years (302.95 per 100 000 population; 95% CI: 144.71, 461.19 per 100 000 population), as well as children aged <6 months (164.02 per 100 000 population; 95% CI: -34.84, 362.88 per 100 000 population). Annual variation was apparent, ranging from 1.0 to 3.9 per 100 000 population for mortality and 24.2 to 94.28 per 100 000 population for hospitalizations. Influenza A contributed to almost 80% of the average excess respiratory hospitalizations and 60% of the average excess respiratory deaths.

Conclusions: Influenza causes considerable burden to all Australians. Expected variation was observed among age groups, years and influenza type, with the greatest burden falling to older adults and young children. Understanding the current burden is useful for understanding the potential impact of mitigation strategies, such as vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab138DOI Listing
August 2021

The prostaglandin pathway is activated in patients who fail medical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with lower urinary tract symptoms.

Prostate 2021 Sep 20;81(13):944-955. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Little is known about how benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops and why patients respond differently to medical therapy designed to reduce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) trial randomized men with symptoms of BPH and followed response to medical therapy for up to 6 years. Treatment with a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) or an alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist (α-blocker) reduced the risk of clinical progression, while men treated with combination therapy showed a 66% decrease in risk of progressive disease. However, medical therapies for BPH/LUTS are not effective in many patients. The reasons for nonresponse or loss of therapeutic response in the remaining patients over time are unknown. A better understanding of why patients fail to respond to medical therapy may have a major impact on developing new approaches for the medical treatment of BPH/LUTS. Prostaglandins (PG) act on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), where PGE and PGF elicit smooth muscle contraction. Therefore, we measured PG levels in the prostate tissue of BPH/LUTS patients to assess the possibility that this signaling pathway might explain the failure of medical therapy in BPH/LUTS patients.

Method: Surgical BPH (S-BPH) was defined as benign prostatic tissue collected from the transition zone (TZ) of patients who failed medical therapy and underwent surgical intervention to relieve LUTS. Control tissue was termed Incidental BPH (I-BPH). I-BPH was TZ obtained from men undergoing radical prostatectomy for low-volume, low-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa, Gleason score ≤ 7) confined to the peripheral zone. All TZ tissue was confirmed to be cancer-free. S-BPH patients divided into four subgroups: patients on α-blockers alone, 5ARI alone, combination therapy (α-blockers plus 5ARI), or no medical therapy (none) before surgical resection. I-BPH tissue was subgrouped by prior therapy (either on α-blockers or without prior medical therapy before prostatectomy). We measured prostatic tissue levels of prostaglandins (PGF , PGI , PGE , PGD , and TxA ), quantitative polymerase chain reaction levels of mRNAs encoding enzymes within the PG synthesis pathway, cellular distribution of COX1 (PTGS1) and COX2 (PTGS2), and tested the ability of PGs to contract bladder smooth muscle in an in vitro assay.

Results: All PGs were significantly elevated in TZ tissues from S-BPH patients (n = 36) compared to I-BPH patients (n = 15), regardless of the treatment subgroups. In S-BPH versus I-BPH, mRNA for PG synthetic enzymes COX1 and COX2 were significantly elevated. In addition, mRNA for enzymes that convert the precursor PGH to metabolite PGs were variable: PTGIS (which generates PGI ) and PTGDS (PGD ) were significantly elevated; nonsignificant increases were observed for PTGES (PGE ), AKR1C3 (PGF ), and TBxAS1 (TxA ). Within the I-BPH group, men responding to α-blockers for symptoms of BPH but requiring prostatectomy for PCa did not show elevated levels of COX1, COX2, or PGs. By immunohistochemistry, COX1 was predominantly observed in the prostatic stroma while COX2 was present in scattered luminal cells of isolated prostatic glands in S-BPH. PGE and PGF induced contraction of bladder smooth muscle in an in vitro assay. Furthermore, using the smooth muscle assay, we demonstrated that α-blockers that inhibit alpha-adrenergic receptors do not appear to inhibit PG stimulation of GPCRs in bladder muscle. Only patients who required surgery to relieve BPH/LUTS symptoms showed significantly increased tissue levels of PGs and the PG synthetic enzymes.

Conclusions: Treatment of BPH/LUTS by inhibition of alpha-adrenergic receptors with pharmaceutical α-blockers or inhibiting androgenesis with 5ARI may fail because of elevated paracrine signaling by prostatic PGs that can cause smooth muscle contraction. In contrast to patients who fail medical therapy for BPH/LUTS, control I-BPH patients do not show the same evidence of elevated PG pathway signaling. Elevation of the PG pathway may explain, in part, why the risk of clinical progression in the MTOPS study was only reduced by 34% with α-blocker treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24190DOI Listing
September 2021

Isofurans and Isoprostanes as Potential Markers of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Prospective Observational Study.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: F2-Isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) and Isofurans (IsoF), specific markers of lipid peroxidation in vivo, have been reported to be elevated and have prognostic implications following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Platelet activation and vasoconstriction are attributed to these compounds. Elevated IsoF to F2-IsoPs ratios have been proposed as in vivo biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction. In this pilot study, we examined their performance as specific biomarkers for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) development following SAH.

Methods: Eighteen patients with SAH and six controls with normal neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis results underwent CSF sampling and abstraction of clinical, demographic, and laboratory data. Samples (two) of CSF were collected on day 1 and once on days 5-8 post bleed. F2-IsoP and IsoF assays were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy methods. Levels are expressed in median (interquartile range) for nonnormally distributed data. Repeated sample measurements were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, whereas the Mann-Whitney U-test was used for other nonnormally distributed data.

Results: Mean age was 61 ± 15.7 (SAH cases) versus 48 ± 10 (controls) years, and 80% of patients with SAH were women. Median Hunt and Hess score was 3 (2-4), and modified Fisher scale was 3 (3-4). Thirty nine percent of patients developed DCI. F2-IsoP were significantly higher in SAH cases than in controls [47.5 (30.2-53.5) vs. 26.0 (21.2-34.5) pg/mL]. No significant differences were observed in patients with or without DCI [41 (33.5-52) vs. 44 (28.5-55.5) pg/mL]. IsoF were elevated in the second CSF sample in nine patients but were undetectable in the remainder cases and all controls. Patients who developed DCI had significantly higher IsoF than those who did not [57 (34-72) vs. 0 (0-34) pg/mL]. Patients who met criteria for DCI had a significantly higher IsoF to F2IsoPs ratio on the late CSF sample [1.03 (1-1.38) vs. 0 (0-0.52)].

Conclusions: Preliminary findings from this study suggest that IsoF may represent a specific biomarker predicting DCI following SAH. Future studies to further explore the value of IsoF as biomarkers of secondary brain injury following SAH seem warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-021-01285-2DOI Listing
July 2021
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