Publications by authors named "G M Davis"

3,282 Publications

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The P4 study: Subsequent pregnancy maternal physiology after hypertensive and normotensive pregnancies.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2021 Oct 30;27:29-34. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine and Health, UNSW Sydney, Australia; Department of Women and Children's Health, St George Hospital, Sydney, Australia; The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with subsequent increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. Adverse cardiometabolic measures are noted soon after hypertensive versus normotensive pregnancy (NP); to what degree these persist into a subsequent pregnancy (SP) is unknown. This study aimed to assess women's physiology early in SP after hypertensive pregnancy (HP: preeclampsia or gestational hypertension) or NP and compare SP to 6 months postpartum findings from the index pregnancy.

Study Design: Prospective sub-study of the P4 (Postpartum, Physiology, Psychology and Paediatric) observational cohort. Measurements six months after NP versus HP, and the SP at 11-13 weeks gestation.

Main Outcome Measures: Blood pressure (BP), blood and urine tests (urine ACR, HOMA-IR, LDL cholesterol), body composition, and contribution of maternal characteristics and inter-pregnancy factors to BP and body fat (FM%) in SP.

Results: 49 women (34 NP, 15 HP). In the SP, post-HP women had higher BP (112/70 mmHg HP vs 102/64 mmHg NP; p < .001), with no significant drop from six months postpartum to early SP. On regression analysis, systolic and diastolic BP at 6-months were the major predictors for SP systolic (p < 0.001) and diastolic (p = 0.009) BP respectively in the SP. Longer interpregnancy interval and increased FM% 6-months postpartum were associated with higher SP FM% (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: BP and body fat six months postpartum were similar early in the SP for HP group, and postpartum BP and FM% were major predictors of their corresponding SP measurements. Postpartum/inter-pregnancy intervention programs to improve these cardiometabolic risk markers might help improve women's long-term health and require investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2021.10.004DOI Listing
October 2021

Benefits of merging paired-end reads before pre-processing environmental metagenomics data.

Mar Genomics 2021 Dec 2;61:100914. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, India. Electronic address:

Background: High throughput sequencing of environmental DNA has applications in biodiversity monitoring, taxa abundance estimation, understanding the dynamics of community ecology, and marine species studies and conservation. Environmental DNA, especially, marine eDNA, has a fast degradation rate. Aside from the good quality reads, the data could have a significant number of reads that fall slightly below the default PHRED quality threshold of 30 on sequencing. For quality control, trimming methods are employed, which generally precede the merging of the read pairs. However, in the case of eDNA, a significant percentage of reads within the acceptable quality score range are also dropped.

Methods: To infer the ideal merge tool that is sensitive to eDNA, two Hiseq paired-end eDNA datasets were utilized to study the merging by the tools - FLASH (Fast Length Adjustment of SHort reads), PANDAseq, COPE, BBMerge, and VSEARCH without preprocessing. We assessed these tools on the following parameters: Time taken to process, the quality, and the number of merged reads. Trimmomatic, a widely-used preprocessing tool, was also assessed by preprocessing the datasets at different parameters for the two approaches of preprocessing: Sliding Window and Maximum Information. The preprocessed read pairs were then merged using the ideal merge tool identified earlier.

Results: FLASH is the most efficient merge tool balancing data conservation, quality of reads, and processing time. We compared Trimmomatic's two quality trimming options with increasing strictness with FLASH's direct merge. The raw reads processed with Trimmomatic then merged, yielded a significant drop in reads compared to the direct merge. An average of 29% of reads was dropped when directly merged with FLASH. Maximum Information option resulted in 30.7% to 68.05% read loss with lowest and highest stringency parameters, respectively. The Sliding Window approach conserves approximately 10% more reads at a PHRED score of 25 set as the threshold for a window of size 4. The lowered PHRED cut off conserves about 50% of the reads that could potentially be informative. We noted no significant reduction of data while optimizing the number of reads read in a window with the ideal quality (Q) score.

Conclusions: Losing reads can negatively impact the downstream processing of the environmental data, especially for sequence alignment studies. The quality trim-first-merge-later approach can significantly decrease the number of reads conserved. However, direct merging of pair-end reads using FLASH conserved more than 60% of the reads. Therefore, direct merging of the paired-end reads can prevent potential removal of informative reads that do not comply by the trimming tool's strict checks. FLASH to be an efficient tool in conserving reads while carrying out quality trimming in moderation. Overall, our results show that merging paired-end reads of eDNA data before trimming can conserve more reads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margen.2021.100914DOI Listing
December 2021

Benefits and interval training in individuals with spinal cord injury: A thematic review.

J Spinal Cord Med 2021 Dec 2:1-12. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Spinal Cord Injury & Disorders Center, Hunter Holmes McGuire VAMC and Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Background: Arm crank ergometry (ACE), functional electrical stimulation leg cycling exercise (FES-LCE), and the combination of the two (FES hybrid exercise) have all been used as activities to help improve the fitness-related health of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). More recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become popular in the non-disabled community due to its ability to produce greater aerobic fitness benefits or equivalent benefits with reduced time commitment.

Objective: This thematic review of the literature sought to determine the potential benefits and practicality of using ACE, FES-LCE, and FES hybrid exercise in an interval training format for individuals with SCI.

Methods: Systematic literature searches were conducted in May 2020 and March 2021 focusing on interval training in individuals with SCI. Pre-defined nested search terms were used to narrow the available literature from 4273 citations to 1362 articles. The titles and abstracts were then reviewed to determine the appropriateness of the articles ending with fifteen articles.

Results: The literature was limited to fifteen articles with low participant numbers (n = 1-20). However, in each article, HIIT protocols either demonstrated a greater improvement in cardiovascular, metabolic, or practicality scores compared to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) protocols, or improvement during relatively brief time commitments.

Conclusion: The available literature lacked sufficient numbers of randomized control trials. However, the available evidence is encouraging concerning the potential benefits and practicality of using HIIT (ACE, FES-LCE, or FES hybrid exercise) to improve aerobic and anaerobic capacity and decrease cardiometabolic risk after SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2021.2002020DOI Listing
December 2021

Sequential Knoevenagel [4+1] Cycloaddition-Condensation-Aza-Friedel-Crafts Intramolecular Cyclization: A 4-Center-3-Component Reaction Toward Tunable Fluorescent Indolizine Tetracycles.

J Org Chem 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, College of Science, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, United States.

A two-step multicomponent reaction oxidation protocol is reported herein, which affords novel tunable fluorescent tetracyclic indolizines. The procedure involves a novel 4-center-3-component reaction, which proceeds via a sequential Knoevenagel condensation, [4+1] cycloaddition, and imine condensation to afford imino-indolizines. Products then undergo cyclization and are oxidized to afford fluorescent tetracycles, which are readily tunable through modification of diversity elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c01280DOI Listing
November 2021

Development of the Oncology Opportunity Cost Assessment Tool: Item Generation and Content Validity Testing.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Nov 22:OP2100288. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Center for Connected Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop the Oncology Opportunity Cost Assessment Tool (OOCAT), a survey instrument to evaluate the opportunity costs patients experience when seeking medical oncology care.

Methods: Development of the OOCAT involved extensive patient engagement through both focus groups and interviews. First, the study team developed a list of opportunity cost concepts, which included patients' logistical and financial considerations related to seeking care. We conducted focus groups with patients to expand upon this list of concepts, and then developed a set of questions that incorporated all the concepts generated during the focus groups. To refine these questions, we next performed cognitive interviews with another set of patients to ensure content validity and clarity of instrument items, refining the OOCAT iteratively on the basis of feedback.

Results: We engaged 23 participants (17 patients and six caregivers) across four focus groups and 17 participants in cognitive interviews. Focus group participants generated 112 concepts, which resulted in an initial OOCAT with 16 questions. Cognitive interviews resulted in modification of 12 questions and addition of two questions (related to coordination of transportation and impact on home responsibilities). The final OOCAT consisted of 18 items examining time requirements for appointments, financial implications of traveling to appointments for the patient and the caregiver, and logistical and quality-of-life challenges associated with traveling for appointments.

Conclusion: We developed the OOCAT, an instrument designed to evaluate patient-level opportunity costs of seeking medical oncology care. Further studies to validate the OOCAT are underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.21.00288DOI Listing
November 2021
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