Publications by authors named "G Libeau"

77 Publications

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Antibodies among Livestock on Corsica, France, 2014-2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 05;26(5):1041-1044

We conducted a serologic survey for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antibodies in livestock (cattle, sheep, and goats; N = 3,890) on Corsica (island of France) during 2014-2016. Overall, 9.1% of animals were seropositive, suggesting this virus circulates on Corsica. However, virus identification is needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/10.3201/eid2605.191465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181912PMC
May 2020

Peste des Petits Ruminants at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in the Northern Albertine Rift and Nile Basin, East Africa.

Viruses 2020 03 7;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, London NW1 0TU, UK, (M.B.).

In the recent past, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in East Africa causing outbreaks in small livestock across different countries, with evidences of spillover to wildlife. In order to understand better PPR at the wildlife-livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exposure, disease outbreaks, and viral sequences in the northern Albertine Rift. PPRV antibodies indicated a widespread exposure in apparently healthy wildlife from South Sudan (2013) and Uganda (2015, 2017). African buffaloes and Uganda kobs <1-year-old from Queen Elizabeth National Park (2015) had antibodies against PPRV N-antigen and local serosurvey captured a subsequent spread of PPRV in livestock. Outbreaks with PPR-like syndrome in sheep and goats were recorded around the Greater Virunga Landscape in Kasese (2016), Kisoro and Kabale (2017) from western Uganda, and in North Kivu (2017) from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This landscape would not be considered typical for PPR persistence as it is a mixed forest-savannah ecosystem with mostly sedentary livestock. PPRV sequences from DRC (2017) were identical to strains from Burundi (2018) and confirmed a transboundary spread of PPRV. Our results indicate an epidemiological linkage between epizootic cycles in livestock and exposure in wildlife, denoting the importance of PPR surveillance on wild artiodactyls for both conservation and eradication programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12030293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150925PMC
March 2020

Genetic Evidence for Transboundary Circulation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Across West Africa.

Front Vet Sci 2019 21;6:275. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, Montpellier, France.

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease affecting predominantly small ruminants. Due to its transboundary nature, regional coordination of control strategies will be key to the success of the on-going PPR eradication campaign. Here, we aimed at exploring the extent of transboundary movement of PPR in West Africa using phylogenetic analyses based on partial viral gene sequences. We collected samples and obtained partial nucleoprotein gene sequence from PPR-infected small ruminants across countries within West Africa. This new sequence data was combined with publically available data from the region to perform phylogenetic analyses. A total of fifty-five sequences were obtained in a region still poorly sampled. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the majority of virus sequences obtained in this study were placed within genetic clusters regrouping samples from multiple West African countries. Some of these clusters contained samples from countries sharing borders. In other cases, clusters grouped samples from very distant countries. Our results suggest extensive and recurrent transboundary movements of PPR within West Africa, supporting the need for a regional coordinated strategy for PPR surveillance and control in the region. Simple phylogenetic analyses based on readily available data can provide information on PPR transboundary dynamics and, therefore, could contribute to improve control strategies. On-going and future projects dedicated to PPR should include extensive genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of circulating viral strains in their effort to support the campaign for global eradication of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6713047PMC
August 2019

Evolution of Attenuation and Risk of Reversal in Peste des Petits Ruminants Vaccine Strain Nigeria 75/1.

Viruses 2019 08 7;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 7.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-34398 Montpellier, France.

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus of the genus. The current PPR eradication effort relies mainly on the implementation of massive vaccination campaigns. One of the most widely used PPR vaccines is the Nigeria 75/1 strain obtained after attenuation by 75 serial passages of the wild type isolate in cell cultures. Here we use high throughput deep sequencing of the historical passages that led to the Nigeria 75/1 attenuated strain to understand the evolution of PPRV attenuation and to assess the risk of reversal in different cell types. Comparison of the consensus sequences of the wild type and vaccine strains showed that only 18 fixed mutations separate the two strains. At the earliest attenuation passage at our disposal (passage 47), 12 out of the 18 mutations were already present at a frequency of 100%. Low-frequency variants were identified along the genome in all passages. Sequencing of passages after the vaccine strain showed evidence of genetic drift during cell passages, especially in cells expressing the SLAM receptor targeted by PPRV. However, 15 out of the 18 mutations related to attenuation remained fixed in the population. In vitro experiments suggest that one mutation in the leader region of the PPRV genome affects virus replication. Our results suggest that only a few mutations can have a serious impact on the pathogenicity of PPRV. Risk of reversion to virulence of the attenuated PPRV strain Nigeria 75/1 during serial passages in cell cultures seems low but limiting the number of passages during vaccine production is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11080724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6724400PMC
August 2019

Optimization and evaluation of a non-invasive tool for peste des petits ruminants surveillance and control.

Sci Rep 2019 03 18;9(1):4742. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-34398, Montpellier, France.

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and devastating viral disease affecting mainly sheep and goats, but also a large number of wild species within the order Artiodactyla. A better understanding of PPR transmission dynamics in multi-host systems is necessary to efficiently control the disease, in particular where wildlife and livestock co-occur. Notably, the role of wildlife in PPR epidemiology is still not clearly understood. Non-invasive strategies to detect PPR infection without the need for animal handling could greatly facilitate research on PPR epidemiology and management of the disease in atypical hosts and in complex field situations. Here, we describe optimized methods for the direct detection of PPR virus genetic material and antigen in fecal samples. We use these methods to determine the detection window of PPR in fecal samples, and compare the sensitivity of these methods to standard invasive sampling and PPR diagnostic methods using field samples collected at a wildlife-livestock interface in Africa. Our results show that quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-QPCR) amplification of PPRV from fecal swabs has good sensitivity in comparison to ocular swabs. Animals infected by PPRV could be identified relatively early on and during the whole course of infection based on fecal samples using RT-QPCR. Partial gene sequences could also be retrieved in some cases, from both fecal and ocular samples, providing important information about virus origin and relatedness to other PPRV strains. Non-invasive strategies for PPRV surveillance could provide important data to fill major gaps in our knowledge of the multi-host PPR epidemiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41232-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426962PMC
March 2019

Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Peste des petits ruminants virus circulating in small ruminants in eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Mar 8;15(1):84. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of clinical studies, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.

Background: Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a severe, highly infectious and fatal viral disease of small ruminants. Four lineages of PPR virus have been identified globally based on sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and fusion (F) gene. The aim of this study was to isolate and genetically characterize recently circulating PPR virus in small ruminants in the eastern Amhara region in Ethiopia. A total of 28 anti-mortem samples (gum debris, nasal and ocular swab) were collected from clinically suspicious animals and examined for the presence of PPRV by a one-step RT-PCR assay. Samples positive with RT-PCR were subjected to isolation of the virus which were subsequently genetically characterized by sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N) gene and phylogenetic analysis of PPR virus (PPRV) strains.

Results: Of the 28 clinical samples examined, 46.4% were positive with RT-PCR for viral nucleic acid. The PPRV was successfully isolated on CHS-20 cell line with the ovine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) receptor expressed on the cell surface and confirmed with RT-PCR and IFAT assay. The nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the PPRV obtained were clustered genetically with Lineage IV isolates of the virus.

Conclusion: The successful isolation of the virus and molecular findings of this study confirmed active lineage IV PPRV infections among populations of sheep and goats in eastern Amhara, suggesting risks for potential spread of the disease to currently free areas. Thus, we recommend systematic vaccination to contain outbreaks in affected districts and geographically linked surrounding districts to which the disease could potentially spread due to different epidemiological linkages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1828-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408798PMC
March 2019

Development of a PPRV challenge model in goats and its use to assess the efficacy of a PPR vaccine.

Vaccine 2019 03 13;37(12):1667-1673. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-34398 Montpellier, France; ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier, France.

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a severe disease of small ruminants and has high economic impacts in developing countries. Endemic in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, the disease is currently progressing with occurrences reported in North Africa, Turkey and in Georgia, and now threatens Europe. Much remains unknown about the infection dynamics, the virulence of the different strains and species/breed susceptibility. Robust experimental challenge models are needed to explore these fields and to confirm the efficacy of currently sold vaccines. We first assessed virulence of two PPR virus strains (CI89 and MA08) in Saanen goats. Whereas the MA08 strain led to classical severe clinical signs of PPR, the CI89 strain appeared to cause a mild disease in Saanen goats, highlighting the difference in virulence between strains in this animal model. We further demonstrated the importance of the inoculation route in the appearance of clinical signs and that ocular excretion is a better choice than blood for viral detection. After developing a robust challenge model, we assessed the efficacy of a vaccine (PPR-VAC®, BVI Botswana) against the MA08 strain and demonstrated that this vaccine blocked viral excretion and significantly reduced clinical signs. These results reinforce the paradigm that a strain from one lineage could protect against strains from other lineages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.057DOI Listing
March 2019

First genetic characterization of Peste des Petits Ruminants from Niger: On the advancing front of the Asian virus lineage.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Oct 25;65(5):1145-1151. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, Montpellier, France.

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a serious transboundary infectious disease of small ruminants. The causal agent, PPR virus (PPRV), can be separated into four genetically distinct lineages using phylogenetic analysis. In recent decades, lineage IV of PPRV has dramatically extended its geographic distribution from Asia to the Middle East and to Africa, where it has progressively replaced other PPRV lineages. Lineages I and II are historically distributed in West Africa. Currently, lineage II appears to dominate the region, whereas the last recorded occurrence of lineage I dates back to 1994. Recent studies reported the presence of lineage IV in Nigeria, suggesting that this lineage is expanding in West Africa. In Niger, a close neighbour of Nigeria, PPRV has never been genetically characterized, despite reports of PPR incidence. In this study, pathological samples collected from sick goats were collected in 2013 during a suspected PPR outbreak in southern Niger close to the Nigerian border were compared to samples collected in a previous investigation in October 2001 in south-western Niger. These strains were characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis to identify their genetic lineage. Our results show that in 2001, lineages I and II were cocirculating in south-western Niger, whereas the strain that caused the outbreak in 2013 belonged to lineage IV and is closely related to strains identified in Nigeria. These results confirm the progression of lineage IV in West Africa. The process of PPRV lineage replacement and its implications for the epidemiology and the control of the disease in this region are unclear and should be the subject of further studies in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12901DOI Listing
October 2018

Identification of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Georgia, 2016.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 08;24(8):1576-1578

A phylogenetic analysis of samples taken from reported outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in Georgia revealed a closer relationship to viruses from northern and eastern Africa than to viruses from countries closer to Georgia. This finding has crucial implications for the control of PPRV in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2408.170334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056095PMC
August 2018

Peste des petits ruminants infection in domestic ruminants in Sudan.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Apr 20;49(4):747-754. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, 2444, Austria.

The existence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in domestic ruminants and camels in Sudan during 2008-2012 was investigated. Lung tissues and serum samples were randomly collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and camels at different areas of Sudan. A total of 12,384 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy 7413 sheep, 1988 camels, 1501 cattle, 1459 goats, and 23 gazelles at different areas in the Sudan. They were examined for PPR antibodies using competitive ELISA (cELISA). The overall detected seroprevalence of PPR in tested sera was 49.4%; seroprevalence values within species were 67.1, 48.2, 25.8, 2.1, and 21.7% in sheep, goat, cattle, camels, and gazelles, respectively. The highest seroprevalence (68.1%) was observed in sera collected from Darfur states, then the central states (54.3%). A total of 1276 lung tissue samples (623 sheep, 324 cattle, 220 camels, and 109 goats) were collected. The majority of lung samples were collected from clinically healthy animals that showed lesions on PM in slaughterhouses (95%) and during PPR outbreaks; samples were tested for PPR antigen using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA). PPR antigen was detected in 233 out of the 1276 tested samples (18.3%). Positive results were observed in samples collected from clinically healthy and diseased animals. The observed prevalence values in each species were 33.6, 21.1, 15.4, and 12.3% in camel, goat, sheep, and cattle, respectively. PPR antigen was detected in samples from different areas; however, the highest prevalence (63.9%) was found in samples collected from the eastern states, then Khartoum state (28%). Trials for virus isolation were done in different cell cultures. Out of 30 IcELISA-positive samples inoculated in primary bovine and ovine kidney cells, Vero cells, the PPR virus was successfully isolated from 15 (eight sheep, five camels, and two goats) samples in the three cell culture types. Using RT-PCR, PPRV nucleic acid was detected in all 25 IcELISA-positive tested samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1254-3DOI Listing
April 2017

Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

Adv Virus Res 2016 14;95:1-42. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

CIRAD, UMR Contrôle des maladies animales exotiques et émergentes (CMAEE), Montpellier, France; INRA, UMR CMAEE 1309, Montpellier, France.

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2016.02.001DOI Listing
January 2017

Serological profile of foot-and-mouth disease in wildlife populations of West and Central Africa with special reference to Syncerus caffer subspecies.

Vet Res 2015 Jul 8;46:77. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EuFMD), Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

The role which West and Central African wildlife populations might play in the transmission dynamics of FMD is not known nor have studies been performed in order to assess the distribution and prevalence of FMD in wild animal species inhabiting those specific regions of Africa. This study reports the FMD serological profile extracted from samples (n = 696) collected from wildlife of West and Central Africa between 1999 and 2003. An overall prevalence of FMDV NSP reactive sera of 31.0% (216/696) was estimated, where a significant difference in seropositivity (p = 0.000) was reported for buffalo (64.8%) as opposed to other wild animal species tested (17.8%). Different levels of exposure to the FMDV resulted for each of the buffalo subspecies sampled (p = 0.031): 68.4%, 50.0% and 0% for Nile Buffalo, West African Buffalo and African Forest Buffalo, respectively. The characterisation of the FMDV serotypes tested for buffalo found presence of antibodies against all the six FMDV serotypes tested, although high estimates for type O and SAT 3 were reported for Central Africa. Different patterns of reaction to the six FMDV serotypes tested were recorded, from sera only positive for a single serotype to multiple reactivities. The results confirmed that FMDV circulates in wild ruminants populating both West and Central Africa rangelands and in particular in buffalo, also suggesting that multiple FMDV serotypes might be involved with type O, SAT 2 and SAT 1 being dominant. Differences in serotype and spill-over risk between wildlife and livestock likely reflect regional geography, historical circulation and differing trade and livestock systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-015-0213-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4495843PMC
July 2015

Impact and Epidemiological Investigations into the Incursion and Spread of Peste des Petits Ruminants in the Comoros Archipelago: An Increased Threat to Surrounding Islands.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Aug 27;63(4):452-9. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

UMR CMAEE, CIRAD, Sainte Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

Late October 2012, a great number of deaths of unknown origin occurred in goat herds in the suburbs of Ngazidja, located in the Comoros archipelago. Few weeks later, laboratory testing requested by the animal health authorities resulted in the identification of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) infection. Notably, the Index case could be attributed to a sick goat imported from Tanzania. Viral isolation was successful from the lungs leading to the whole N nucleoprotein gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain belongs to the lineage III which includes strains of eastern African origin. In addition, to evaluate the impact of PPR on the Comorian indigenous domesticated ruminant population, a cross-sectional PPR serological survey was conducted between April and July 2013. A low overall PPRV antibody prevalence 2.24% (95% CI [1.38; 3.08]) was detected with a Grande Comore prevalence of 3.34% (IC = [2.09; 4.63]) with a limited spread of the disease mainly due to farm practices such as limited contacts between farm animals and rapid slaughtering of sick animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12296DOI Listing
August 2016

Molecular evolution of peste des petits ruminants virus.

Emerg Infect Dis 2014 Dec;20(12):2023-33

Despite safe and efficacious vaccines against peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), this virus has emerged as the cause of a highly contagious disease with serious economic consequences for small ruminant agriculture across Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. We used complete and partial genome sequences of all 4 lineages of the virus to investigate evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of PPRV. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of all PPRV lineages mapped the time to most recent common ancestor and initial divergence of PPRV to a lineage III isolate at the beginning of 20th century. A phylogeographic approach estimated the probability for root location of an ancestral PPRV and individual lineages as being Nigeria for PPRV, Senegal for lineage I, Nigeria/Ghana for lineage II, Sudan for lineage III, and India for lineage IV. Substitution rates are critical parameters for understanding virus evolution because restrictions in genetic variation can lead to lower adaptability and pathogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2012.140684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257836PMC
December 2014

Emergence of Lineage IV Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Ethiopia: Complete Genome Sequence of an Ethiopian Isolate 2010.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Aug 14;63(4):435-42. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, UK.

Isolates of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) can be segregated genetically into four lineages. For decades, lineages I-III have been reported across Africa whilst lineage IV has predominantly circulated across Asia. However, the lineage distribution is currently changing in Africa. Importantly, full genome sequence data for African field isolates have been lacking. Here, we announce the first complete genome sequence of a field isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) from East Africa. This isolate was derived from the intestine of a goat suffering from severe clinical disease during the 2010 outbreak in Ethiopia. The full genome sequence of this isolate, PPRV Ethiopia/2010, clusters genetically with other lineage IV isolates of PPRV, sharing high levels of sequence identity across the genome. Further, we have carried out a phylogenetic analysis of all of the available African partial N gene and F gene PPRV sequences to investigate the epidemiology of PPRV with a focus on the emergence of different lineages of PPRV in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12287DOI Listing
August 2016

Complete Genome Sequences of Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Viruses from the Middle East and East Africa.

Genome Announc 2014 Oct 23;2(5). Epub 2014 Oct 23.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, United Kingdom

For the first time, complete genome sequences of four lineage III peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viruses (Oman 1983, United Arab Emirates 1986, Ethiopia 1994, and Uganda 2012) originated from the Middle East and East Africa are reported here. The availability of complete genome sequences from all four lineages (I to IV) of the PPR virus (PPRV) would greatly help in a comprehensive understanding of the molecular evolution and emergence of PPRV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01023-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4208319PMC
October 2014

Dried fluid spots for peste des petits ruminants virus load evaluation allowing for non-invasive diagnosis and genotyping.

BMC Vet Res 2014 Oct 11;10:247. Epub 2014 Oct 11.

CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-34398, Montpellier, France.

Background: Active surveillance of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) should ease prevention and control of this disease widely present across Africa, Middle East, central and southern Asia. PPR is now present in Turkey at the gateway to the European Union. In Bangladesh, the diagnosis and genotyping of PPR virus (PPRV) may be hampered by inadequate infrastructures and by lack of proper clinical material, which is often not preserved under cold chain up to laboratories. It has been shown previously that Whatman® 3MM filter paper (GE Healthcare, France) preserves the nucleic acid of PPRV for at least 3 months at 32°C.

Results: In this study, we demonstrate the performances of filter papers for archiving RNA from local PPRV field isolates for further molecular detection and genotyping of PPRV, at -70°C combined with ambient temperature, for periods up to 16 months. PPR-suspected live animals were sampled and their blood and nasal swabs were applied on filter papers then air dried. Immediately after field sampling, RT-PCR amplifying a 448-bp fragment of the F gene appeared positive for both blood and nasal swabs when animals were in febrile stage and only nasal swabs were detected positive in non-febrile stage. Those tested positive were monitored by RT-PCR up to 10 months by storage at -70°C. At 16 months, using real time RT-PCR adapted to amplify the N gene from filter paper, high viral loads could still be detected (~2 x 10(7) copy numbers), essentially from nasal samples. The material was successfully sequenced and a Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction achieved adequate resolution to establish temporal relationships within or between the geographical clusters of the PPRV strains.

Conclusions: This clearly reveals the excellent capacity of filter papers to store genetic material that can be sampled using a non-invasive approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-014-0247-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4203889PMC
October 2014

Complete Genome Sequence of a Field Strain of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Isolated during 2010-2014 Epidemics in Senegal.

Genome Announc 2014 Sep 18;2(5). Epub 2014 Sep 18.

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection is expanding and results in regular epizootic activities in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a field strain of PPRV isolated in Senegal (SnDk11I13) in 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00772-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4175193PMC
September 2014

Protective efficacy of a single immunization with capripoxvirus-vectored recombinant peste des petits ruminants vaccines in presence of pre-existing immunity.

Vaccine 2014 Jun 14;32(30):3772-9. Epub 2014 May 14.

INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France; CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-97170 Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe, France.

Sheeppox, goatpox and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are highly contagious ruminant diseases widely distributed in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Capripoxvirus (CPV)-vectored recombinant PPR vaccines (rCPV-PPR vaccines), which have been developed and shown to protect against both Capripox (CP) and PPR, would be critical tools in the control of these important diseases. In most parts of the world, these disease distributions overlap each other leaving concerns about the potential impact that pre-existing immunity against either disease may have on the protective efficacy of these bivalent rCPV-PPR vaccines. Currently, this question has not been indisputably addressed. Therefore, we undertook this study, under experimental conditions designed for the context of mass vaccination campaigns of small ruminants, using the two CPV recombinants (Kenya sheep-1 (KS-1) strain-based constructs) developed previously in our laboratory. Pre-existing immunity was first induced by immunization either with an attenuated CPV vaccine strain (KS-1) or the attenuated PPRV vaccine strain (Nigeria 75/1) and animals were thereafter inoculated once subcutaneously with a mixture of CPV recombinants expressing either the hemagglutinin (H) or the fusion (F) protein gene of PPRV (10(3) TCID50/animal of each). Finally, these animals were challenged with a virulent CPV strain followed by a virulent PPRV strain 3 weeks later. Our study demonstrated full protection against CP for vaccinated animals with prior exposure to PPRV and a partial protection against PPR for vaccinated animals with prior exposure to CPV. The latter animals exhibited a mild clinical form of PPR and did not show any post-challenge anamnestic neutralizing antibody response against PPRV. The implications of these results are discussed herein and suggestions made for future research regarding the development of CPV-vectored vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.05.025DOI Listing
June 2014

Testing a new formulation for Peste des Petits Ruminants vaccine in Ethiopia.

Vaccine 2014 May 11;32(24):2878-81. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (IBET), Animal Cell Technology Unit, Apartado 12, P-2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal; Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica-Universidade de Lisboa (ITQB-UNL), Animal Cell Technology Unit, Apartado 12, P-2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal. Electronic address:

In this paper extended tests on a new candidate formulation for Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) vaccine carried out at National Veterinary Institute (NVI) in Ethiopia are presented. This work was performed in the frame of the VACNADA project from GALVmed which aimed at procuring vaccines against neglected veterinary diseases to African vaccine producing laboratories, in particular PPR. After the eradication of Rinderpest, Peste des Petits Ruminants became the next veterinary disease on target for elimination, requiring an effective and thermostable vaccine. In this work a Tris/Trehalose formulation was evaluated in thermal stability studies in comparison to the current used formulation of the live attenuated PPR vaccine, the Weybridge medium. The extended results presented herein show an increased thermal stability of the vaccine, especially at 37 and 45 °C, as expected from previously published results (Silva A.C. et al., 2011). Furthermore, during the course of this project, the NVI teams have clearly demonstrated ability to produce higher quality PPR vaccines after a successful transfer of the technology. These results should significantly enhance the utility of the vaccine in the eradication of PPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.02.039DOI Listing
May 2014

The incursion, persistence and spread of peste des petits ruminants in Tanzania: epidemiological patterns and predictions.

Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2013 ;80(1):593

Peste des petits ruminants virus, which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, has only recently been officially declared to be present in Tanzania. An epidemiological study was carried out between September 2008 and October 2010 to investigate the incursion, persistence and spread of the virus in Tanzania. The investigation involved serosurveillance, outbreak investigation and computation of epidemiological indices such as the effective reproductive number, persistence and the threshold level for vaccination. Field and molecular epidemiological techniques were applied to isolate, characterise and trace the origin of the virus in Tanzania. A total of 2182 serum samples from goats and 1296 from sheep from 79 villages across 12 districts were investigated. Village-level prevalence of infection was variable (0.00% – 88.00%) and was higher in pastoral than in agro-pastoral villages. The overall antibody response to the virus was 22.10% (CI95% = 20.72% – 23.48%). About 68.00% and 73.00% of seropositive goats and sheep, respectively, did not show clinical signs. The proportion of seropositive animals differed significantly (p ≤ 0.001) between age groups, sex and farming practices. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that the isolated strains belong to lineage III, whose origin is in East Africa and the Middle East. This indicates that one of the northern neighbouring countries is most likely the source of infection. The computed overall effective reproductive number, the threshold level of vaccination necessary to eradicate the disease and persistence were 4.75% and 98.00%, respectively. These estimates indicate that achieving elimination of the peste des petits ruminants virus from pastoral flocks will require significant effort and development of highly effective intervention tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v80i1.593DOI Listing
April 2016

Peste des Petits Ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease?

Vet Microbiol 2013 Jul 22;165(1-2):38-44. Epub 2012 Dec 22.

CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-97170 Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe, France.

Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a widespread viral disease caused by a Morbillivirus (Paramyxoviridae). There is a single serotype of PPR virus, but four distinct genetic lineages. Morbidity and mortality are high when occurring in naive sheep and goats populations. Cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are asymptomatically infected. Other wild ruminants and camels may express clinical signs and mortality. PPR has recently spread in southern and northern Africa, and in central and far-east Asia. More than one billion sheep and goats worldwide are at risk. PPR is also present in Europe through western Turkey. Because of its clinical incidence and the restrictions on animal movements, PPR is a disease of major economic importance. A live attenuated vaccine was developed in the 1980s, and has been widely used in sheep and goats. Current researches aim (i) to make it more thermotolerant for use in countries with limited cold chain, and (ii) to add a DIVA mark to shorten and reduce the cost of final eradication. Rinderpest virus-another Morbillivirus-was the first animal virus to be eradicated from Earth. PPRV has been proposed as the next candidate. Considering its wide distribution and its multiple target host species which have an intense mobility, it will be a long process that cannot exclusively rely on mass vaccination. PPR specific epidemiological features and socio-economic considerations will also have to be taken into account, and sustained international, coordinated, and funded strategy based on a regional approach of PPR control will be the guarantee toward success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.12.013DOI Listing
July 2013

RNA interference against animal viruses: how morbilliviruses generate extended diversity to escape small interfering RNA control.

J Virol 2012 Jan 9;86(2):786-95. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

UMR CMAEE, CIRAD, F-34398 Montpellier, France.

Viruses are serious threats to human and animal health. Vaccines can prevent viral diseases, but few antiviral treatments are available to control evolving infections. Among new antiviral therapies, RNA interference (RNAi) has been the focus of intensive research. However, along with the development of efficient RNAi-based therapeutics comes the risk of emergence of resistant viruses. In this study, we challenged the in vitro propensity of a morbillivirus (peste des petits ruminants virus), a stable RNA virus, to escape the inhibition conferred by single or multiple small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against conserved regions of the N gene. Except with the combination of three different siRNAs, the virus systematically escaped RNAi after 3 to 20 consecutive passages. The genetic modifications involved consisted of single or multiple point nucleotide mutations and a deletion of a stretch of six nucleotides, illustrating that this virus has an unusual genomic malleability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.06210-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3255857PMC
January 2012

Asian lineage of peste des petits ruminants virus, Africa.

Emerg Infect Dis 2011 Jul;17(7):1223-31

Control of Exotic and Emerging Animal Diseases, Montpellier, France.

Interest in peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has been stimulated by recent changes in its host and geographic distribution. For this study, biological specimens were collected from camels, sheep, and goats clinically suspected of having PPRV infection in Sudan during 2000-2009 and from sheep soon after the first reported outbreaks in Morocco in 2008. Reverse transcription PCR analysis confirmed the wide distribution of PPRV throughout Sudan and spread of the virus in Morocco. Molecular typing of 32 samples positive for PPRV provided strong evidence of the introduction and broad spread of Asian lineage IV. This lineage was defined further by 2 subclusters; one consisted of camel and goat isolates and some of the sheep isolates, while the other contained only sheep isolates, a finding with suggests a genetic bias according to the host. This study provides evidence of the recent spread of PPRV lineage IV in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1707.101216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3381390PMC
July 2011

Potential of adenovirus and baculovirus vectors for the delivery of shRNA against morbilliviruses.

Antiviral Res 2011 Apr 26;90(1):98-101. Epub 2011 Feb 26.

CIRAD, UMR Contrôle des Maladies, Montpellier F-34398, France.

Morbilliviruses are important pathogens of humans, ruminants, carnivores and marine mammals. Although good vaccines inducing long-term immunity are available, recurrent outbreaks of measles, canine distemper and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are observed. In control strategies, antivirals thus could be useful to confine virus spread and application of interfering RNAs is a promising approach, provided they can be delivered efficiently into the host cells. We have constructed recombinant adenovirus and baculovirus vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against the PPR virus (PPRV) and compared them in vitro. It was found that both recombinant viruses inhibited PPRV replication with the baculovirus vector, which inhibited generation of infectious progeny by more than 2 log10 and the nucleoprotein expression of PPRV by 73%, being the more efficient. The results show that baculoviral shRNA-expressing vectors have the potential for therapeutic use against morbillivirus infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.02.007DOI Listing
April 2011

Global distribution of peste des petits ruminants virus and prospects for improved diagnosis and control.

J Gen Virol 2010 Dec 15;91(Pt 12):2885-97. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Woking, Surrey, UK.

Viral diseases of farm animals, rather than being a diminishing problem across the world, are now appearing with regularity in areas where they have never been seen before. Across the developing world, viral pathogens such as peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) place a huge disease burden on agriculture, in particular affecting small ruminant production and in turn increasing poverty in some of the poorest parts of the world. PPRV is currently considered as one of the main animal transboundary diseases that constitutes a threat to livestock production in many developing countries, particularly in western Africa and south Asia. Infection of small ruminants with PPRV causes a devastating plague and as well as being endemic across much of the developing world, in recent years outbreaks of PPRV have occurred in the European part of Turkey. Indeed, the relevance of many once considered 'exotic' viruses is now also high across the European Union and may threaten further regions across the globe in the future. Here, we review the spread of PPRV across Africa, Asia and into Europe through submissions made to the OIE Regional Reference Laboratories. Further, we discuss current control methods and the development of further tools to aid both diagnosis of the disease and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.025841-0DOI Listing
December 2010

An outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in camels in the Sudan.

Acta Trop 2010 Nov 11;116(2):161-5. Epub 2010 Aug 11.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Shambat, Khartoum North, Sudan.

In mid-August 2004, an outbreak of a previously unknown fatal disease of camels was reported to Kassala State veterinary authorities. Several areas in the state were visited during August-October 2004 to collect epidemiological data and specimens for diagnosis. Clinically the disease was characterized by sudden death of apparently healthy animals and yellowish and later bloody diarrhea and abortion. The disease outbreaks coincided with the seasonal movement of animals towards autumn green pasture. Death was always sudden and proceeded with colic and difficulty in respiration. Mortality rate ranged between 0% and 50% and vary in accordance with the area with a mean of 7.4%. More than 80% of deaths were in pregnant and recently-delivered she-camels. All age, sex and breed groups were affected but more than 50% of deaths were reported in adult animals in comparison to calves and young camels. The main post-mortem findings include lung congestion and consolidation, paleness and fragility of liver, enlarged lymph nodes and congestion and hemorrhage of small intestine and stomach. Agar gel diffusion test (AGDT), RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture gave positive results for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a virus belonging to the Morbillivirus, Genus, member of the family Paramyxoviridae. The effect of this new devastating disease on camel production in the affected area was discussed as well as proposals for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2010.08.002DOI Listing
November 2010

Resurgence of Morbillivirus infection in Mediterranean dolphins off the French coast.

Vet Rec 2010 May;166(21):654-5

Laboratoire Départemental Vétérinaire de l'Hérault, 306 rue Croix de Las Cazes, CS 69013, F-34967 Montpellier Cedex 2, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.b4837DOI Listing
May 2010