Publications by authors named "G J Lascano"

24 Publications

Postweaning response on growth and nutrient digestion to using different weaning strategies when feeding moderate and high amounts of milk replacer to Holstein calves.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Sep 16;103(9):8143-8150. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634. Electronic address:

Many changes occur in the rumen as calves transition from consuming a liquid diet to a completely solid diet. These changes can influence growth and calf health, being greatly affected by preweaning diet as well as the transitional steps used to wean calves. A 2 × 2 factorial design of moderate [MOD; 0.66 kg of dry matter (DM)] or high (HI; up to 1.1 kg of DM) feeding rates of milk replacer (MR) and abrupt (AB; 7-d step-down) or gradual weaning (GR; 21-d step-down) was used to study how preweaning program affects calf performance from 2 to 4 mo of age. Calves (n = 50) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 preweaning treatments. For the following 56-d grower portion of the experiment, calves were grouped into 12 pens based on MR program, with 4 to 5 calves per pen. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, with repeated measures when applicable, by PROC MIXED in SAS (version 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). All calves received ad libitum access to water and a textured starter [42% starch and 20% crude protein (CP)] blended with 5% chopped grass hay. Overall, apparent digestibility coefficients (dC) of DM, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were greater for MOD compared with HI, and apparent dC of DM and ADF were greater for GR than for AB. No significant differences were detected between organic matter, CP, fat, starch, or sugar dC based on treatment, and no interactions were observed. However, by d 56 only starch dC differed by treatment. Weaning body weight (BW), hip width (HW), and hip height (HH) were greater for HI compared with MOD calves. Weaning HH was greater for AB than for GR calves. However, final BW, HW, HH, and body condition score, as well as average daily gain, did not differ among treatments. An interaction occurred where feed efficiency (gain/feed) was reduced with GR weaning in MOD, whereas the opposite occurred in the HI group. When feeding calves a moderate level of MR, a several-step gradual weaning is not necessary to ensure growth and development; however, calves should be gradually weaned when offered a high level of MR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17704DOI Listing
September 2020

Symposium review: Strategies to improve the efficiency and profitability of heifer raising.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Jun 5;103(6):5700-5708. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Animal Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802.

Regional Research Project NC-2042 has a main objective to study calf and heifer nutrition. Within this objective, feeding the postweaned heifer is considered a major priority to improve the profitability and sustainability of US dairy farms. Through optimizing nutrient utilization by precision feeding, using alternative feeds, high-fiber diets, and feed additives, this research group has worked to enhance dairy heifer nutrition. Research has focused on precision feeding heifers and incorporating high- and low-fiber diets into this system of feeding. This is accomplished by meeting the nutrient needs of the heifer for a desired rate of growth while enhancing total-tract nutrient digestibility, reducing waste and improving profitability. High-fiber forages have been studied as a means of controlling ad libitum dry matter intakes and thus weight gain in heifers. These results provide producers with a means of feeding heifers while reducing costs. Similarly, utilizing alternative feedstuffs in heifer diets has also been a major research area for this group including comprehensive research on distillers co-products, and new protein sources such as camelina and carinata meals. Results indicated that these products can be satisfactorily incorporated into heifer diets. Studying feed additives has also been a function of the research group. Research with Ascophyllum nodosum and cinnamaldehyde indicated that calves find these additives unpalatable and that supplementing cinnamaldehyde to postweaned heifers showed no benefit. However, sodium butyrate and yeast supplementation proved to be beneficial in the growth and feed efficiency of heifers. Research from this group has an effect on heifer feeding, resulting in new information that can aid in the sustainability of dairy farms. This review will focus on the area of postweaned heifer nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17419DOI Listing
June 2020

Effects of feeding different amounts of milk replacer on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Holstein calves to 2 months of age using different weaning strategies.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Dec 25;102(12):11040-11050. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634. Electronic address:

Growth and the digestibility of nutrients can be greatly affected by diet preweaning and the rate at which calves are weaned. A 2 × 2 factorial design [moderate (MOD) or high (HI) milk replacer (MR) feeding rates and abrupt (AB) or gradual (GR) weaning] was used to compare these effects. Calves (n = 50) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: MOD-AB, MOD-GR, HI-AB, and HI-GR. Calves assigned to MOD-AB were fed 0.66 kg of MR for the first 42 d and then 0.33 kg for the last 7 d; those assigned to MOD-GR were fed 0.66 kg of MR for 28 d, 0.33 kg for 14 d, and 0.17 kg for the last 7 d; those assigned to HI-AB were fed 0.66 kg of MR for 7 d, 0.82 kg for 7 d, 1.1 kg for 28 d, and 0.66 kg for the last 7 d; and those assigned to HI-GR were fed 0.66 kg of MR for 7 d, 0.82 kg for 7 d, 1.1 kg for 14 d, 0.66 kg for 14 d, and 0.33 kg for the last 7 d. All calves received the same MR [25% crude protein (CP), 17% fat; dry matter (DM) basis] and were given ad libitum access to water and a textured starter (42% starch and 20% CP). On d 26 to 30 and d 45 to 49, a fecal sample was taken from 5 calves in each treatment via the rectum to estimate apparent digestibility coefficients (dC). Apparent dC of DM, organic matter, and fat were greater for HI versus MOD calves. Apparent dC of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and sugar were greater for MOD versus HI calves. Apparent dC of DM was greater for AB versus GR calves [90.9, 89.0 ± 0.5384 (standard error)], and the apparent dC of acid detergent fiber was greater for GR versus AB calves (39.5, 32.3 ± 1.67). Feed efficiency was greater for HI versus MOD and AB versus GR. There were no significant differences between CP or starch dC based on treatment, and no interactions were observed. Starter consumption was greater for MOD calves compared with HI calves, and GR calves consumed more than AB calves. These results suggest that providing calves high amounts of MR preweaning enhanced readily available nutrient dC, but providing moderate amounts of MR resulted in increased fibrous fraction dC. Accordingly, the AB weaning strategy had higher dC for DM and organic matter, but there was a depression in fiber dC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17153DOI Listing
December 2019

Changes in fermentation and animal performance during recovery from classical diet-induced milk fat depression using corn with differing rates of starch degradability.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Jun 10;102(6):5079-5093. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634. Electronic address:

Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) is a multifactorial disorder that can be triggered by a variety of conditions. Feeding high amounts of starch and unsaturated fatty acids has been shown to reduce milk fat yield and composition, as well as alter ruminal biohydrogenation patterns. However, little is known about how starch degradability in the rumen influences recovery from diet-induced MFD and if production of milk fat-inhibiting isomers will persist following an episode of MFD. The objective of this study was to evaluate production performance and ruminal fermentation in cows recovering from MFD when corn with a low or high starch degradability is fed. Six ruminally fistulated Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with 2 periods. During each period, MFD was induced for 10 d by feeding a diet with low fiber, high starch, and high unsaturated fatty acid. The polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration of the diet during the induction phase was modified primarily through inclusion of soybean oil. Following induction, cows were switched to either a high degradable starch recovery diet (HDS) or a low degradable starch recovery diet (LDS) for 18 d. The 7-h starch degradability was 66.5% for LDS and 87.8% for HDS. Milk was collected every 3 d for component and fatty acid analysis. On d 0, 4, 7, 10, 16, 22, and 28 of each period, ruminal pH and rumen fluid were collected every 2 h. Milk fat yield and composition was reduced during MFD induction and progressively increased by day in both HDS and LDS during recovery. Dry matter intake was similar among treatments and increased steadily over time during recovery. Preformed fatty acids were greater for HDS-fed animals, and de novo fatty acid in milk fat was greater for LDS-fed animals. Milk trans-10 C18:1 tended to be greater for HDS, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was significantly greater for HDS. cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid was not affected by starch degradability during recovery. Total volatile fatty acids, butyrate, and valerate tended to differ or differed with recovery treatment, but ruminal pH and ammonia concentration were unaffected. The HDS diet responded similarly to the LDS diet during recovery with regard to milk fat percentage, but milk and fat yield tended to consistently be lower in HDS. When considering approaches to ameliorate diet-induced MFD, the degradability of the starch within rations should be evaluated. Although animal performance was similar, some trans fatty acid isomers were persistent in the milk through the recovery phase with HDS-fed animals, suggesting that milk fat synthesis might be potentially inhibited and biohydrogenation pathways modified in the rumen following an episode of MFD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15953DOI Listing
June 2019
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