Publications by authors named "G Ian Taylor"

4,915 Publications

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An update of the aetiological factors involved in molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Private Paediatric Dental Clinic, 2 Papadiamantopoulou Street, 11528, Athens, Greece.

Purpose: To systematically review the aetiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). To this day, the aetiology remains unknown. Determining risk factors would allow risk assessment and enhance early diagnosis of MIH in young patients. The aim was to assess, evaluate and summarise the relationship between MIH and reported aetiological hypotheses.

Methods: Electronic database searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, LILACS and Cochrane Library were conducted. Authors conformed to PRISMA guidelines. Studies were screened, data extracted, assessment of risk of bias and calibration was completed by two independent reviewers. Meta-analyses with heterogeneity calculations were performed.

Results: Of the potential 8949 studies, 64 studies were included in the qualitative analysis whilst 45 were included in the quantitative analysis. Prenatal factors: results are inconclusive as only unspecified maternal illnesses appear to be linked to MIH. Perinatal factors: prematurity (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.24-1.70; p = 0.0002) and caesarean delivery (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.09, 1.93; p < 0.00001) are associated with an increased risk of developing MIH. Birth complications are also highlighted. These three factors can lead to hypoxia, and children with perinatal hypoxia are more likely to develop MIH (OR 2.76; 95% CI 2.09-3.64; p < 0.0001). Postnatal factors: measles, urinary tract infection, otitis media, gastric disorders, bronchitis, kidney diseases, pneumonia and asthma are associated with MIH. Fever and antibiotic use, which may be considered as consequences of childhood illnesses, are also associated with MIH. Genetic factors: an increasing number of studies highlight the genetic and epigenetic influences in the development of MIH.

Conclusion: Several systemic and genetic and/or epigenetic factors acting synergistically or additively are associated with MIH, revealing a multifactorial aetiology model. Peri- and postnatal aetiological factors are more likely to increase the odds of causing MIH than prenatal factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40368-021-00646-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Per protocol analyses produced larger treatment effect sizes than intention to treat: a meta-epidemiological study: Impact of per-protocol method on treatment effects in RCTs.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Institute of Health Research, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, EX1 2LU; MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit & Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, Institute of Health and Well Being, University of Glasgow, G2 3AX.

Objective: To undertake meta-analysis and compare treatment effects estimated by the intention-to-treat (ITT) method and per-protocol (PP) method in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). PP excludes trial participant who are non-adherence to trial protocol in terms of eligibility, interventions, or outcome assessment.

Study Design And Setting: Five high impact journals were searched for all RCTs published between July 2017 to June 2019. Primary outcome was a pooled estimate that quantified the difference between the treatment effects estimated by the two methods. Results are presented as ratio of odds ratios (ROR). Meta-regression was used to explore the association between level of trial protocol non-adherence and treatment effect. Sensitivity analyses compared results with varying within-study correlations and across various study characteristics.

Results: Random-effects meta-analysis (N = 156) showed that PP estimates were on average 2% greater compared to the ITT estimates (ROR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.04, p = 0.03). The divergence further increased with higher degree of protocol non-adherence. Sensitivity analyses reassured consistent results with various within-study correlations and across various study characteristics.

Conclusions: There was evidence of larger treatment effect with PP compared to ITT analysis. PP analysis should not be used to assess the impact of protocol non-adherence in RCTs. Instead, in addition to ITT, investigators should consider randomisation based casual method such as Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2021.06.010DOI Listing
June 2021

Painless loss of vision: rapid diagnosis of a central retinal artery occlusion utilizing point-of-care ultrasound.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2021 Jun 18;2021(6):omab038. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Associate Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine and faculty for the Emergency Ultrasound Fellowship Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has become an essential part of the evaluation of vision loss among emergency physicians in the emergency department (ED). It is frequently used to evaluate for vitreous hemorrhage, foreign bodies, retinal detachment, optic neuritis and posterior vitreous detachment; however, it can also be used to evaluate for a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). A POCUS can reveal a hyperechoic density in the optic nerve sheath just proximal to the retinal surface, and this is referred to as a retrobulbar 'spot sign' (RBSS). We present the case of an 88-year-old male that presented to our community ED with a painless loss of vision to his right eye. A POCUS revealed an RBSS of the central retinal artery and he was subsequently diagnosed with a CRAO. At his 1-month follow-up, he has regained light perception and 15% of his vision, however, remains with significant visual impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omab038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212687PMC
June 2021

Exploring partial intrinsic and extrinsic symmetry in 3D medical imaging.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jun 3;72:102127. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; Laboratory for Computer Aided Medical Procedures, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

We present a novel methodology to detect imperfect bilateral symmetry in CT of human anatomy. In this paper, the structurally symmetric nature of the pelvic bone is explored and is used to provide interventional image augmentation for treatment of unilateral fractures in patients with traumatic injuries. The mathematical basis of our solution is based on the incorporation of attributes and characteristics that satisfy the properties of intrinsic and extrinsic symmetry and are robust to outliers. In the first step, feature points that satisfy intrinsic symmetry are automatically detected in the Möbius space defined on the CT data. These features are then pruned via a two-stage RANSAC to attain correspondences that satisfy also the extrinsic symmetry. Then, a disparity function based on Tukey's biweight robust estimator is introduced and minimized to identify a symmetry plane parametrization that yields maximum contralateral similarity. Finally, a novel regularization term is introduced to enhance similarity between bone density histograms across the partial symmetry plane, relying on the important biological observation that, even if injured, the dislocated bone segments remain within the body. Our extensive evaluations on various cases of common fracture types demonstrate the validity of the novel concepts and the accuracy of the proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2021.102127DOI Listing
June 2021

Cultural competence in pediatric radiology: Hispanic culture.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Radiology, Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-021-05113-9DOI Listing
June 2021