Publications by authors named "G Guidarelli"

28 Publications

Developmental instability and phenotypic evolution in a small and isolated bear population.

Biol Lett 2021 04 21;17(4):20200729. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Research Institute on Terrestrial Ecosystems, National Research Council, 00015 Montelibretti, Rome, Italy.

We explored fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and morphological integration (MI) in the skull of the small, highly inbred and divergent Apennine bear (), to explore its uniqueness and investigate any potential effects of inbreeding depression. We used 3D geometric morphometrics contrasting Apennine bears with other two large outbred bear populations from Scandinavia and Kamchatka as controls. Shape divergence and variability were explored by a principal component analysis on aligned coordinates of 39 landmarks. Procrustes ANOVA, morphological disparity and the global integration index were used to explore FA, shape variance and MI. By remarking Apennine bears as a highly divergent phenotype, we recorded the highest FA and deviation from self-similarity compared with the other two control populations. We conclude that Apennine bears are likely facing developmental instability as a consequence of inbreeding depression, whereas the divergent trait covariance pattern may represent a potential source of evolutionary novelties. We discuss the implications for the conservation and management of this imperiled taxon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2020.0729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086926PMC
April 2021

Elevated gut microbiome abundance of is associated with reduced visceral adipose tissue and healthier metabolic profile in Italian elderly.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-19

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna , Bologna, Italy.

Aging is accompanied by physiological changes affecting body composition and functionality, including accumulation of fat mass at the expense of muscle mass, with effects upon morbidity and quality of life. The gut microbiome has recently emerged as a key environmental modifier of human health that can modulate healthy aging and possibly longevity. However, its associations with adiposity in old age are still poorly understood. Here we profiled the gut microbiota in a well-characterized cohort of 201 Italian elderly subjects from the NU-AGE study, by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We then tested for association with body composition from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), with a focus on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Dietary patterns, serum metabolome and other health-related parameters were also assessed. This study identified distinct compositional structures of the elderly gut microbiota associated with DXA parameters, diet, metabolic profiles and cardio-metabolic risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2021.1880221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889099PMC
February 2021

A Novel Approach to Improve the Estimation of a Diet Adherence Considering Seasonality and Short Term Variability - The NU-AGE Mediterranean Diet Experience.

Front Physiol 2019 5;10:149. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

In this work we present a novel statistical approach to improve the assessment of the adherence to a 1-year nutritional intervention within the framework of the NU-AGE project. This was measured with a single adherence score based on 7-days food records, under limitations on the number of observations per subject and time frame of intervention. The results of the NU-AGE dietary intervention were summarized by variations of the NU-AGE index as described in the NU-AGE protocol. Food and nutrient intake of all participants was assessed by means of 7-days food records at recruitment and after 10 to 14 months of intervention (depending on the subject availability). Sixteen food groups and supplementations covering the dietary goals of the NU-AGE diet have been used to estimate the NU-AGE index before and after the intervention. The 7-days food record is a reliable tool to register food intakes, however, as with other tools used to assess lifestyle dietary compliance, it is affected by uncertainty in this estimation due to the possibility that the observed week is not fully representative of the entire intervention period. Also, due to logistic limitations, the effects of seasonality can never be completely removed. These variabilities, if not accounted for in the index estimation, will reduce the statistical power of the analyses. In this work we discuss a method to assess these uncertainties and thus improve the resulting NU-AGE index. The proposed method is based on Hierarchical Bayesian Models. This model explicitly includes country-specific averages of the NU-AGE index, index variation induced by the dietary intervention, and country based seasonality. This information is used to evaluate the NU-AGE index uncertainty and thus to estimate the "real" NU-AGE index for each subject, both before and after the intervention. These corrections reduce the possibility of misinterpreting measurement variability as real information, improving the power of the statistical tests that are performed with the resulting index. The results suggest that this method is able to reduce the short term and seasonal variability of the measured index in the context of multicenter dietary intervention trials. Using this method to estimate seasonality and variability would allow one to obtain better measurements from the subjects of a study, and be able to simplify the scheduling of diet assessments. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT01754012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413567PMC
March 2019

Gender-specific association of body composition with inflammatory and adipose-related markers in healthy elderly Europeans from the NU-AGE study.

Eur Radiol 2019 Sep 4;29(9):4968-4979. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this work was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between body composition (BC) markers for adipose and lean tissue and bone mass, and a wide range of specific inflammatory and adipose-related markers in healthy elderly Europeans.

Methods: A whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was made in 1121 healthy (65-79 years) women and men from five European countries of the "New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy aging in Europe" project (NCT01754012) cohort to measure markers of adipose and lean tissue and bone mass. Pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-6Rα, TNF-α, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, pentraxin 3, CRP, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TGF-β1) molecules as well as adipose-related markers such as leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and resistin were measured by magnetic bead-based multiplex-specific immunoassays and biochemical assays.

Results: BC characteristics were different in elderly women and men, and more favorable BC markers were associated with a better adipose-related inflammatory profile, with the exception of skeletal muscle mass index. No correlation was found with the body composition markers and circulating levels of some standard pro- and anti-inflammatory markers like IL-6, pentraxin 3, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-6Rα, glycoprotein 130, TNF-α-R1, and TNF-α-R2.

Conclusions: The association between BC and inflammatory and adipose-related biomarkers is crucial in decoding aging and pathophysiological processes, such as sarcopenia. DXA can help in understanding how the measurement of fat and muscle is important, making the way from research to clinical practice.

Key Points: • Body composition markers concordantly associated positively or negatively with adipose-related and inflammatory markers, with the exception of skeletal muscle mass index. • No correlation was found with the body composition markers and circulating levels of some standard pro- and anti-inflammatory markers like IL-6, pentraxin 3, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-6Rα, gp130, TNF-α-R1, and TNF-α-R2. • Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) shows a good correlation with inflammatory profile in age-related sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5973-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6682581PMC
September 2019

A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Body Composition Among Healthy Elderly From the European NU-AGE Study: Sex and Country Specific Features.

Front Physiol 2018 30;9:1693. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Body composition (BC) is an emerging important factor for the characterization of metabolic status. The assessment of BC has been studied in various populations and diseases such as obesity, diabetes, endocrine diseases as well as physiological and paraphysiological conditions such as growth and aging processes, and physical training. A gold standard technique for the assessment of human BC at molecular level is represented by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is able to precisely assess the body mass (and areal bone mineral density-aBMD) on a regional and whole-body basis. For the first time, within the framework of the NU-AGE project, BC has been assessed by means of a whole-body DXA scan in 1121 sex-balanced free-living, apparently healthy older adults aged 65-79 years enrolled in 5 European countries (Italy, France, United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Poland). The aim of this analysis is to provide a complete profile of BC in healthy elderly participants from five European countries and to investigate country- and sex-related differences by state-of-the-art DXA technology. To compare BC data collected in different centers, specific indexes and ratios have been used. Non-parametric statistical tests showed sex-specific significant differences in certain BC parameters. In particular, women have higher fat mass (FM) (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by 67%, < 2.2e-16) and lower lean mass (Lean Mass index: by -18%, < 2.2e-16) than men. On the other hand, men have higher android FM than women (Android/gynoid FM ratio: by 56%, < 2.2e-16). Interesting differences also emerged among countries. Polish elderly have higher FM (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by 52%, < 2.2e-16) and lower lean mass (Skeletal Mass index: by -23%, < 2.2e-16) than elderly from the other four countries. At variance, French elderly show lower FM (Fat/Lean mass ratio: by -34%, < 2.2e-16) and higher lean mass (Skeletal Mass index: by 18%, < 2.2e-16). Moreover, five BC profiles in women and six in men have been identified by a cluster analysis based on BC parameters. Finally, these data can serve as reference for normative average and variability of BC in the elderly populations across Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283977PMC
November 2018
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