Publications by authors named "G Bartsch"

756 Publications

Trend analysis and regional tumor incidence in Germany for testicular cancer between 2003 and 2014.

Andrology 2019 07;7(4):408-414

Department of Urology, Mainz University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is one the most common solid tumors in men between the age of 15 and 35 with an overall incidence rate of 1-1.5 %. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated different incidence patterns in western civilized countries with overall rising incidence trends.

Objective: To analyze differences in regional tumor incidence rates for TGCT and perform a trend analysis for TGCT between 2003 and 2014 in Germany.

Material And Methods: TGCT cases in Germany which were diagnosed between 2003 and 2014 were provided by the Robert-Koch-Institute, Berlin. For statistical analysis, cluster and spatial scan tests according to Kulldorff were used for cases with seminoma and non-seminoma. Results are presented in administrative districts and graphically illustrated. We performed a trend-analysis in order to evaluate age-adjusted incidence trends in Germany. Tests were two-sided with a level of significance of α=0.05.

Results: In total we included 35,066 patients. Overall, 22,634 cases had newly diagnosed seminoma and 12,432 were diagnosed as non-seminoma. Maximum incidence of seminoma and non-seminoma was observed for age-group 38-40 years and 26-28 years, respectively. No second peak for the incidences of seminoma and non-seminoma with respect to age were observed. Cluster analysis revealed areas with high and low incidence rates as well as slightly different spatial distribution in Germany between seminoma and nonseminoma. Furthermore, there was no significant increase in age-adjusted incidence rates over the reviewed time period in both cohorts.

Discussion: In this study differences in reginal tumor incidence rates for seminoma and non-seminoma are reported with both tumor entities revealing distinct clusters. Furthermore, tumor incidence trends for seminoma and nonseminoma between 2003 and 2014 were stable which might indicate the beginning of a plateau phase for TGCT incidence rates in Germany.

Conclusion: In this analysis we were able to identify regions with significantly higher tumor incidence rates for both seminoma and non-seminoma which were specific for these two subtypes. Furthermore, trend analysis revealed a steady incidence rate for testicular cancer in Germany.
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July 2019

Development of symptomatic lymphoceles after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection is independent of surgical approach: a single-center analysis.

Int Urol Nephrol 2019 Apr 22;51(4):633-640. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Mainz University Medicine, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Purpose: Lymphocele (LC) is the most common adverse sequela of pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND) during radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Current evidence on comparison between robotic (RARP) and open retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in terms of the development of symptomatic LCs (SLCs) is conflicting. Moreover, no single-center assessment has illuminated the impact of the anterior vs. posterior approach of RARP on the rate of SLCs yet. We aimed to compare RRP and transperitoneal RARP for the SLC development and associated clinical risk factors.

Methods: Patients treated with RRP or transperitoneal RARP (both with standard PLND) were included. Univariate comparisons and multivariate logistic regression analysis were utilized to compare the cohorts and define independent predictive variables for the development of SLCs.

Results: Five hundred and ninety-five consecutive PCa patients underwent RRP and 277 ones RARP (76 anterior and 201 posterior approaches). The incidence of SLCs did not differ between both cohorts. Age and lymph node yield were independent predictors for the development of SLCs after RRP. There was a trend for a longer median time to development of SLCs after RARP as compared to RRP. Median duration of percutaneous drainage tended to be higher after RRP then after RARP. Failure rate of lymphocele drainage was comparable between both techniques.

Conclusions: RRP and RARP are associated with the same risk for the development of a SLC. Posterior approach does not reduce the SLC formation compared to the anterior technique. Patients' age and LN yield are predictive for the SLC occurrence in patients treated with RRP.
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April 2019

CT-guided nephrostomy-An expedient tool for complex clinical scenarios.

Eur J Radiol 2019 Jan 23;110:142-147. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Mainz University Medical Center, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Introduction & Objectives: Percutaneous nephrostomy [1] has emerged as a pivotal approach in the therapeutic management of the obstructed urinary tract. A consecutive incorporation of ultrasonic and radiographic guidance, the approach experienced an almost ubiquitious distribution while most centers currently applying either one or both of these tools jointly. However, success of ultrasound-guidance is limited in obese patients and non-dilated uropathy. In turn, fluoroscopy usually requires an opacification of the urinary collecting system by intravenous or antegrade contrast media injection, which might be harmful for already impaired renal function, raise intrapelvic pressure and augment the risk of sepsis and hemorrhage. CT-guided PCN aids in overcoming these limitations. In the current study, we present the experience of a tertiary referral center with this technique.

Materials & Methods: Epidemiological and clinical data of all patients treated with a CT-guided PCN of native kidneys at the University Hospital Frankfurt between October 2003 and October 2013 were retrospectively collected from the patient charts. Procedural parameters including radiological aspects, technical and therapeutic success, complication and mortality rate have been analyzed statistically.

Results: In total, 140 PCN procedures have been performed in 77 patients with a median age of 69 (± 13). The median body mass index was 27 with 66.6% of patients being overweight or obese. Charlson comorbidity index was 7 ranging 0-16. Indications for PCNs were obstructive uropathy (62.9), urine extravasation (22.9%), urinary tract fistulas (11.4%) and technical reasons (2.8%). In 68.8% of patients, initial diagnosis was malignancy. 56.4% of kidneys were non-dilated before puncture. In 78.4% prone position, otherwise supine oblique position (17.3%) or supine position (4.3%) was used. 71.4% of PCNs were carried out solely under local anesthesia. Technical success has been achieved in 90% with a complication rate of 3.6% (all grade minor B) and was not significantly different between dilated and non-dilated kidneys. 42.9% of fistulas and 64.3% of urinary tract leakages, healed after PCN placement. 30 days mortality rate was 5.2% without being directly associated with the PCN procedure itself.

Conclusion: CT-guided PCN is a feasible approach associated with low morbidity. It is particularly useful in complex clinical scenarios e.g. critically ill, newly operated or obese patients as well as non-dilated kidneys. Moreover, it represents a minimally-invasive option for treating leakages and fistulas of the urinary tract.
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January 2019

Docetaxel-rechallenge in castration-resistant prostate cancer: defining clinical factors for successful treatment response and improvement in overall survival.

Int Urol Nephrol 2018 Oct 17;50(10):1821-1827. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Urology, University of Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define clinical factors for successful treatment response and re-exposure to docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

Methods: An mCRPC database of patients receiving first-line docetaxel and rechallenge courses was established. Several clinical factors were evaluated for prediction of treatment response. Multivariate cox-regression analysis was used to define pre-treatment and treatment factors for survival.

Results: Between 2005 and 2013, 94 patients with mCRPC were treated with docetaxel. Full data set and follow-up were available for 62 patients. Median follow-up was 84 m [interquartile range (IQR) 64-104 m]. Median biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) and overall survival under docetaxel were 9 m (IQR 5-16 m) and 20 m (IQR 16-26 m), respectively. Partial PSA-response at first docetaxel-sequence (n = 62), rechallenge (n = 32), and third-sequence (n = 22) docetaxel was 48.4%, 31.6%, and 34.8%, respectively. Time from start of primary androgen deprivation to CRPC > 47 m was the only independent pre-treatment parameter to predict improved overall survival (Hazard Ratio 0.48, p = 0.015). Interestingly, there was a strong trend for improved overall survival in patients with high Gleason Score (Hazard Ratio 0.58; p = 0.08). Partial PSA-response at docetaxel-rechallenge (Hazard Ratio 0.31; p = 0.008) and treatment-free interval > 3 m (Hazard Ratio 3.49; p = 0.014) were the only independent predictive factors under taxane treatment for overall survival.

Conclusion: Despite novel hormonal drugs, docetaxel still plays an important role in the treatment of mCRPC. Patients with partial-PSA-response at rechallenge or a treatment-free interval > 3 m benefit most from docetaxel re-exposure.
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October 2018

Immune check point inhibitors for metastatic urothelial carcinoma: current evidence-based approach for urology daily practice.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2019 Jun 18;71(3):205-216. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Introduction: Treatment strategy for inoperable and metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) has been revolutionized by the introduction of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death protein ligand (PD-L1) antibodies. During the last 3 decades treatment options were limited to chemotherapy, making further treatment of patients whose disease progressed under ongoing therapy or who were ineligible to receive cytotoxic therapy in the first place, nearly impossible.

Evidence Acquisition: Five antibodies including pembrolizumab (PD-L1 antibody), atezolizumab (PD-1 antibody), nivolumab (PD-1 antibody), avelumab and durvalumab (PD-L1 antibodies) have been approved in the treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma in first- and second-line treatment setting. The objective of this review was to examine and compare the different cohorts and to discuss the quality of the respective studies in order to set up selection criteria for clinical decision making.

Evidence Synthesis: So far pembrolizumab and atezolizumab have demonstrated overall survival (OS) benefit in phase II studies and have shown superiority over standard chemotherapy in phase III studies which has granted them approval in first and second-line treatment setting. Improved OS and durable responses were also seen in phase Ib/II non-randomized, single-arm trials conducted with nivolumab, avelumab and durvalumab and granting accelerated approval for second-line treatment. The huge advantage of immunotherapy and one of the reasons for its overall recognition is its good tolerability profile especially in comparison to chemotherapy.

Conclusions: Pembrolizumab has to be recommended in second-line therapy due to reporting in a phase III trial and OS survival benefit compared to chemotherapy control group. In cisplatin-eligible and treatment-naïve patients with visceral or liver metastases data also slightly favors pembrolizumab rather than atezolizumab.
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June 2019